Tournaments are used in a variety of contexts for ranking competitors on an ordinal scale according to their relative achievements. From competitive sports to manager compensation, they provide a mechanism for incentivizing and selecting contestants in a world of incomplete information. This thesis focuses on the selection aspect, and shows how external (institutional and market) conditions affect selection efficiency in the context of heterogeneous competitors, when the winning prize is determined endogenously by a post-tournament auction.
The introduction of a post-tournament auction to endogenize contestants’ expected payoffs allows for a scenario where the tournament winner benefits less from the winning prize itself than more from the positive signal that his victory conveys to the outside world. In the case of a sports tournament, for example, the winner is likely to earn more from resulting endorsement contracts than from the actual prize money. Similarly, in project finance, contestants are more interested in the actual financing of their projects than in what is usually a comparatively small winner’s prize.
In addition to an extensive review of the literature on tournaments, this thesis therefore provides a detailed discussion of a common value auction with asymmetric information...
This thesis contributes to the research in highly skilled migration and takes special interest in questions and concerns of the European Union. The research will look at the causes of migration and what factors cause the selection of migrants. In particular, it will present three empirical studies. The first analyzes the role of foreign education in the migration and subsequent integration processes. It investigates if the place of education has a uniform effect on migrants or whether there are selectivity differentials by place of education. The second studies the impact of selective migration policies and their ability to effectively over-ride existing migration patterns. As it becomes clear that there are persistent factors that reinforce migration patterns that have evolved over the past decades, the third study analyzes network effects and presents evidence of a multiplier effect that is new to the migration literature.
It is evident that these questions are particularly relevant to the European Union (EU), which is a major player in international migration. The EU receives relatively low skilled immigrants compared to other major migrant destinations like the US, Canada and Australia, and migrant networks have reinforced these patterns due to strong historical linkages with many sending regions. At the same time...
Evolution is the ultimate reason why planet earth is full of complex living systems. Evolutionary theory is thus at the heart of biology and necessary to understand our world.
A complete picture of evolutionary processes must incorporate multiple levels of organisations and timescales. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is a suitable model organism that allows such interdisciplinary studies with the long-term goal of reconstructing the evolutionary history of the species. In my work, I focused on two aspects of P. pacificus evolution: organismal interactions and genome evolution.
Selection pressures in nature often derive from interactions between organisms. P. pacificus lives in a necromenic association with scarab beetles. We extracted nematodes from 114 Geotrupes beetles and found diverse communities. The only life stage of P. pacificus present was the Dauer stage. Beetle-associated bacteria are a source of food as well as a potential pathogen to P. pacificus. We isolated 23 bacterial strains from beetle-associated nematodes and studied their interaction in laboratory assays. Bacterial pathogenicity is species-specific and nematodes are able to sense and avoid harmful bacterial strains.
Genome evolution is shaped both by natural selection and a multitude of stochastic processes. First...
Scientific progress in astrophysics is strongly supported by observations in
the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength regime of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Insight into unique features of astrophysical objects is only possible in the
UV. At the Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Tübingen (IAAT),
novel solar blind and photon counting micro channel plate (MCP) UV
detectors are developed to improve scientific work in the UV significantly.
For the application of the detectors in satellite observatories, enhanced
sensitivity, longer lifetime and low power dissipation are crucial properties.
These are at the focus of the work at IAAT.
In this thesis, a novel concept of low power readout electronics for
the MCP detectors has been investigated and realized. The concept furthermore
allows for an enhanced lifetime of the detectors. The Beetle
pre-amplifier chip which was developed at Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear
Physics in Heidelberg for LHCb at CERN is the key component
to realize the concept. To control and readout the Beetle chip and further
electronic components, a corresponding unit was implemented in a
field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Control and analysis software
was furthermore implemented. For tests of the readout electronics...
Kurz vor Ende des 2. Weltkriegs entstand im SS-Hauptamt eine Zusammenstellung von Wörterbuch-Artikeln, die im Rahmen eines bisher völlig unbekannten Weltanschauungs-Wörterbuch-Unternehmens. Es wurde nie veröffentlicht. Mutmaßlicher Verfasser ist Ernst Metelmann, Schriftleiter der vom 'Literaturpapst' des 3. Reichs Will Vesper herausgegebenen antisemitischen Zeitschrift >Neue Literatur<, Verfasser der ersten Bibliographie der Publikationen Adolf Hitlers, Altparteigenosse, SA- und SS-Angehöriger, später im Metzler Verlag tätig, Träger des Bundesverdienstkreuzes 1. Klasse. Das Dokument wird in einer umfangreichen Einleitung eingebettet in die Geschichte der Erforschung der NS-Sprache und ergänzt durch Auszüge aus den wichtigsten Weltanschauungswörterbüchern dieser Zeit.