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Ocular allergy in the Asia Pacific region

Katelaris, Constance H.
Fonte: Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology Publicador: Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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66.61%
Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) represents a spectrum of disorders, comprising seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Of these ocular allergy types, SAC and PAC are the most common.The most striking difference within this group of ocular diseases is that SAC and PAC remain self-limited without ocular surface damage, while AKC and VKC can compromise the cornea, causing ulcers and scarring and can ultimately lead to vision loss. Data on AC in the Asia Pacific is scarce however some understanding of prevalence of the condition has been obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) studies and more recently from the Allergies in Asia Pacific study as well as some information from individual country surveys. Unfortunately none of this data has been collected using validated survey instruments specifically designed for AC. Surveys such as ISAAC have been predominantly concerned with respiratory allergic symptoms with questions added that incorporate some ocular symptoms. These questionnaires do not detect individuals who may have AC in the absence of allergic rhinitis. Using hospital ophthalmology outpatient populations for prevalence studies of ocular allergy immediately introduces a bias towards the more severe...

Globalisation and deforestation in the Asia-Pacific

Dauvergne, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 142181 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Over the last thirty years, global environmental agreements and nongovernmental organisations have proliferated, and international organisations, states, societies, corporations, and communities have to some extent been influenced by environmental values. Yet the global spread of environmental ideas has been uneven, contributing to important changes in some areas and minimal changes in others. This paper examines the impact of the globalisation of environmentalism—including the globalisation of environmental ideas and attitudes, international agreements and institutions, international and local nongovernmental organisations, and environmental sections within states—on commercial tropical timber management in the Asia–Pacific. It argues that the environmental rhetoric surrounding forest management has shifted. This has contributed to some policy reforms. However, few concrete changes to logging practices have occurred in areas that still have large commercial forests, and loggers continue to trigger widespread deforestation. Global environmental norms and pressures for environmental reforms from nongovernmental organisations, state agencies, and communities have had little impact on three key factors that drive unsustainable tropical logging: multinational and domestic corporations...

Policy challenges for agricultural biotechnology in the Asia Pacific: developing framework for analysis

Parthasarathy, D
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 421367 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Introduction: The paper then seeks to go beyond rhetoric and emotive debates and develop a framework for facilitating effective technology development and transfer in different countries in the Asia-Pacific region. By focusing on issues related to agrarian structure, agricultural systems, and the nature of global and regional integration, a heterodox and heterogeneous approach to the analysis of technology uptake and impact assessment will be developed. It is argued that such an approach is essential for formulating effective policies for agricultural biotechnology.; no

Policy approaches to address the social and environmental determinants of health inequity in Asia-Pacific

Friel, Sharon; Loring, Belinda; Aungkasuvapala, Narongsakdi; Baum, Fran; Blaiklock, Alison; Chiang, Tung-liang; Cho, Youngtae; Dakulala, Paison; Guo, Yan; Hashimoto, Hideki; Horton, Kellie; Jayasinghe, Saroj; Matheson, Don; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Otto, Cale
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 19 pages
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Asia Pacific is home to over 60% of the world’s population and the fastest growing economies. Many of the leadership in the Asia Pacific region is becoming increasingly aware that improving the conditions for health would go a long way to sustaining economic prosperity in the region, as well as improving global and local health equity. There is no biological reason why males born in Cambodia can expect to live 23 years less than males born in Japan, or why females born in Tuvalu live 23 years shorter than females in New Zealand or why non-Indigenous Australian males live 12 years longer than Indigenous men. The nature and drivers of health inequities vary greatly among different social, cultural and geo-political contexts and effective solutions must take this into account. This paper utilizes the CSDH global recommendations as a basis for looking at the actions that are taking place to address the structural drivers and conditions of daily living that affect health inequities in the Asia Pacific context. While there are signs of action and hope, substantial challenges remain for health equity in Asia Pacific. The gains that have been made to date are not equally distributed and may be unsustainable as the world encounters new economic...

Freedom to lead a life we have reason to value? A spotlight on health inequity in the Asia Pacific region

Friel, Sharon; Chiang, Tung-liang; Hashimoto, Hideki; Jayasinghe, Saroj; Loring, Belinda; Matheson, Don; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Rao, Mala
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 19 pages
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The Asia Pacific region is home to more than 60% of the world’s population. Life expectancy at birth differs between countries by as much as 27 years. This article suggests that asymmetric economic growth, unplanned urbanization, marked environmental change, unequal improvements in daily living conditions, and the unequal distribution and access to quality health care have contributed to health inequities in the Asia Pacific region. Contextually specific evidence and action are needed. This requires ongoing monitoring of health inequities and systematic evaluation of societal changes and their impact on health inequities. It requires better understanding of how to translate theoretical and empirical demonstrations of the social and environmental impact on health inequities into evidence-informed policies and programs, in diverse geopolitical, socioeconomic, and sociocultural contexts across the Asia Pacific region and the range of associated complex policy processes. A spotlight is needed on health inequities and their causes else the status quo will persist.

An Overview of Free Trade Agreements in the Asia-Pacific Region with a Particular Focus on Intellectual Property

Antons, Christoph; Thampapillai, Dilan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Parte de Livro
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This chapter provides an overview of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) in the Asia-Pacific region. It examines the multiple interpretations of the ‘Asia-Pacific’ and asks about the usefulness of this concept as a focus of comparison. It explains the political and economic background of concluded agreements, the negotiations in progress and the formation of regional clusters of FTAs, and also shows the enormous differences in IP content in the various agreements. With the exception of Japan, Asia-Pacific countries appear as relatively reluctant converts to higher IP standards. Even the industrialized economies of the region that had to increase their IP standards after agreements with the US, EU or Japan do not necessarily impose the same standards on regional neighbours. Instead, ‘soft diplomacy’ in IP matters is important to countries in the region, as is new subject matter for intellectual property protection such as traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions.

Prospects for U.S-China cooperation in an APEC free trade area of the Asia Pacific

Normandeau, Lisa
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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66.58%
China’s economic emergence of the last decade has amazed and alarmed analysts all over the globe. No where is alarm more apparent than in the United States, where there is a distinct fear that industries and jobs will be overwhelmed by cheaper Chinese substitutes. This fear is manifesting itself in protectionist trade policies and bipartisan political criticism. The problems currently plaguing the two nations are not easily solved. A soaring trade imbalance and claims of currency manipulation by the Chinese, stand side by side with strategic concerns over Taiwan and accusations of serious human rights abuses. These issues require innovative, long term solutions. It is in searching for these solutions, that the role of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) needs to be considered. More importantly, the viability of the recently proposed Free Trade Area of the Asia- Pacific (FTAAP) working to facilitating solutions to the problems between the two nations needs to be duly considered. The collapse of the multilateral round of global trade liberalisation has given new impetus to those advocating an FTAAP. Regrettably, despite the well recorded benefits of free trade and the projected gains from an FTAAP...

The effect of modifiable risk factors on pancreatic cancer mortality in populations of the Asia-Pacific region

Ansary-Moghaddam, A.; Huxley, R.; Barzi, F.; Lawes, C.; Ohkubo, T.; Fang, X.; Jee, S.; Woodward, M.; Okayama, A.; Ueshima, H.; Maegawa, H.; Aoki, N.; Nakamura, M.; Kubo, N.; Yamada, T.; Wu, Z.; Yao, C.; Andrews, G.; Welborn, T.; Tang, Z.; et al.
Fonte: Amer Assoc Cancer Research Publicador: Amer Assoc Cancer Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
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66.62%
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer accounts for about 220,000 deaths each year. Known risk factors are smoking and type 2 diabetes. It remains to be seen whether these risk factors are equally important in Asia and whether other modifiable risk factors have important associations with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: An individual participant data analysis of 30 cohort studies was carried out, involving 420,310 Asian participants (33% female) and 99,333 from Australia/New Zealand (45% female). Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by study and sex and adjusted for age, were used to quantify risk factors for death from pancreatic cancer. RESULTS: During 3,558,733 person-years of follow-up, there were 324 deaths from pancreatic cancer (54% Asia and 33% female). Mortality rates (per 100,000 person-years) from pancreatic cancer were 10 for men and 8 for women. The following are age-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for death from pancreatic cancer: for current smoking, 1.61 (1.12-2.32); for diabetes, 1.76 (1.15-2.69); for a 2-cm increase in waist circumference, 1.08 (1.02-1.14). All three relationships remained significant (P < 0.05) after adjustment for other risk factors. There was no evidence of heterogeneity in the strength of these associations between either cohorts from Asia and Australia/New Zealand or between the sexes. In men...

Offshore oil and gas safety and security in the Asia Pacific: the need for regional approaches to managing risks

Cordner, L.
Fonte: S Rajaratnam School of International Studies; Singapore Publicador: S Rajaratnam School of International Studies; Singapore
Tipo: Livro
Publicado em //2013 EN
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This monograph explores the safety and security risks associated with the massive expansion of offshore oil and gas exploration and exploitation activity in the Asia-Pacific region. The pursuit of national and commercial objectives is generating the convergence of wider interests and uncertainties, and therefore significant and often shared risks. Risk mitigating options for action are presented that need to be urgently and collaboratively considered by all stakeholders.; http://www.rsis.edu.sg/publications/monographs.html#; Chapter 1. Offshore oil and gas exploration and exploitation in the Asia Pacific; Chapter 2. International offshore oil and gas safety and security incidents; Chapter 3. International risk management approaches; Chapter 4. Asia Pacific: Regional safety and security challenges; Chapter 5. Policy response practices and options; Chapter 6. Regional risk realities: Is a disaster inevitable?; Lee Cordner

A comparative analysis of risk factors and stroke risk for Asian and non-Asian men: The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration

Hyun, Karice K.; Huxley, Rachel R.; Arima, Hisatomi; Woo, Jean; Lam, Tai Hing; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Peters, Sanne A.; Jee, Sun Ha; Giles, Graham G.; Barzi, Federica; Woodward, Mark
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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66.56%
BACKGROUND The risk of stroke is high in men among both Asian and non-Asian populations, despite differences in risk factor profiles; whether risk factors act similarly in these populations is unknown. AIM To study the associations between five major risk factors and stroke risk, comparing Asian with non-Asian men. METHODS We obtained data from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration, a pooled analysis of individual participant data from 44 studies involving 386 411 men with 9•4 years follow-up. Using cohorts from Asia and Australia/New Zealand Cox models were fitted to estimate risk factor associations for ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke. RESULTS We identified significant, positive associations between all five risk factors and risk of ischemic stroke. The associations between body mass index, smoking, and diabetes with ischemic stroke were comparable for men from Asia and Australia/New Zealand. The association between systolic blood pressure and ischemic stroke was stronger for Asian than Australia/New Zealand cohorts, whereas the reverse was true for total cholesterol. For haemorrhagic stroke, only systolic blood pressure and smoking were associated with increased risk, although the relationship with systolic blood pressure was significantly stronger for men from Asia than Australia/New Zealand (P interaction = 0•03)...

Asia-Pacific security: Australia’s options for peace

Lawson, Jasper
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The purpose of this report is to analyse the current strategic tensions in the Asia-Pacific and evaluate Australia’s possible foreign policy options. The report stems from a real need for research into diplomatic and preventative actions that can be taken to foster peace and prevent conflict in the region. By interviewing key academics and practitioners, the report was able to evaluate key academic debates relating to the changes in power structures in the region. At the beginning of the research this analysis was to be left out to enable more analysis in later sections. However, through the interviews it became evident that the rise of China and the changing role of the United States (US) could affect all other relationships in the region such as those of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and even impact Australia. This report has principally consulted Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) and World Bank Data sets in order to compare the increasing military expenditure with Gross Domestic Product growth in the Asia-Pacific. This comparison is made to determine if rising military outlays are a response to the geopolitical tensions or simply economic growth. The clear correlation between the two data sets indicates that economic growth led to an increase in military expenditure. Although there are some nations within the Asia-Pacific which do not follow this relationship...

An Asia Pacific community: feasible or fanciful? An Australian policy perspective

Buttenshaw, Skye
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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On 4 June 2008 Prime Minister Kevin Rudd proposed the establistunent of an Asia Pacific Community in an address to the Asia Society Australasia Centre in Sydney. He deemed the 21st century the Asia Pacific Century and proposed the establistunent of an Asia Pacific Community as an ideal way for Australia to approach the changing times. The community Rudd described was to be inclusive of all states in the Asia Pacific region and to tackle all economic, political, and security matters the region faced. He described the community as a means by which Australia could maximise its opportunities and minimise its threats, given its unique geographical position. The announcement of such a significant organisation required examination. Before being able to judge whether or not the idea was feasible, reasons for the proposal had to be examined. As the proposal was such a recent revelation and the details of the community unknown even to Rudd himself, research had to be carried out in a number of ways, including interviewing people with varied expertise. Each interviewed person stressed the uncertain nature of the 21st centt1ry; the Asia Pacific Century, according to Rudd, or the Asian Century, according to most others. Since the end of the Cold War global interaction has been dominated by the Western liberal order as the United States has enjoyed supreme economic...

Toward regional stability in Asia Pacific

Kim, Jiyeon
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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66.75%
The Australian Parliament has been involved in an extensive range of capacity building activities to strengthen parliamentary democracy in the Asia Pacific region. There are many different actors involved in this are within the Australian Parliament, they all work with similar objectives for the Australian Parliament. By parliamentary democracy, they want the establishment of a better-functioning legislative sector, which can resolve immediate legislative issues. Also, they believe that the efficiency of the legislative process, transparency, and accountability of indigenous culture and existing rules are necessary to be achieved for a better-functioning legislative sector, or parliamentary democracy. The actors in the Australian Parliament are seeking for national benefits of Australia by being engaged in the activities for parliamentary democracy; regional stability and dialogues with other states in the region. Many different actors within the Australian Parliament are involved in activities to strengthen parliamentary democracy in Asia Pacific. When the Australian Parliament engages itself with the partner parliament directly, it organises study tour programs as its major method. They reflect the Australian Parliament's desire for parliamentary democracy in Asia Pacific...

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and Latin America: the importance and relevance of Mexico, Chile and Peru to APEC

Onus, Robert
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.69%
APEC was formed in 1989 in response to a call from the former Australian Prime Minister Mr. Bob Hawke for more effective economic cooperation across the Asia Pacific Region. The first informal meetings were attended by twelve member countries. Since then APEC has grown to include 21 members and has become the region's leading forum. Economic leaders meet annually to develop strategies for promoting growth and economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. There are currently three Latin American nations in APEC; Mexico, Chile and Peru. Mexico was the first Latin American nation to join APEC in 1993, followed a year later by Chile. Peru was given entry in to the group in 1998. The validity of the involvement of Latin American countries in APEC has been questioned by certain commentators. It is argued that APEC is a forum for the Asia-Pacific and that Latin America does not fit in this region. Statistics show that APEC is dominated by the economies from North East Asia and North America. These economies are responsible for the majority of APEC's exports and are the major destination for imports from other countries. This fact does not either support or refute the relevance of the Latin American economies to APEC. A closer analysis of the Latin American economies does however demonstrate that since joining APEC their trade with East Asia has not only increased...

The perspectives of the United States, Japan and Australian regarding Taiwan, and the implications for Asia Pacific security

Tassotti, Joya
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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66.72%
The Asia Pacific region has its share of security concerns. The Taiwan issue is one dimension of Asia Pacific security which has often been defined by and referred to with 'ambiguous' policies, making the potential for actual conflict harder to ascertain. The perspectives of the United States (US), and its closest Asia-Pacific allies - Australia and Japan - will have a great effect on how future policies are developed regarding Taiwan, particularly in light of recent developments which have taken place over the last decade or so. The Bush administration has defined the terms of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA) according to its defensive nature, providing the small island with guarantees of defence in the event of an attack, 'whilst simultaneously discouraging moves for independence. The US perspective is increasingly important because of this, and because of the developing hegemonic rivalry with China. Questions about the potential for conflict have been raised, as tensions increase over the undetermined sovereignty of Taiwan. The US is perceived as an imposing power, with motives to contain' China in what China perceives are its own, internal affairs. Although conflict is not likely for the near future, moves which exacerbate cross-strait tensions should be averted at all costs in order to maintain Asia-Pacific stability. This will require China and the US to acknowledge each others superiority as part of the current world order...

Is the use of economic diplomacy within the energy sector mitigating or causing conflict in the Asia-Pacific? How is Australia poised to deal with its consequences?

Norgrove, Sarah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.7%
The possibility of Asia-Pacific nations going to war within the current regional security environment is a distant one. Despite fiery territorial disputes, the exchange of sharp rhetoric and even gunfire across borders, the opportunity costs of war at this stage render stability a collective interest for regional prosperity. Bilateral and multilateral relationships and institutions have been established in political, economic and social spheres of engagement and help to stabilise a region witnessing a turbulent restructuring of its power order. The Asia-Pacific is nonetheless host to a diverse collection of conflict. Development on a grand scale has pushed states like China and India into the limelight of the international political economy, and has delivered domestic legitimacy and political clout to their governments. The pressure on China to fuel growth of this kind, while maintaining their hold on a population of some 1.37 billion, has directed attention to its energy supply in the interests of national security. China's energy security policies have real economic and diplomatic resonance in the security framework of the Asia-Pacific. While the argument that increased reliance on trade relationships is acting as a successful proxy for diplomacy...

Japan's approach to Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation

Drysdale, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 106878 bytes; 352 bytes; 352 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Since emerging as a leading industrial economy, Japan has played an important role in promoting Asia Pacific economic cooperation. Japan has been instrumental in every major initiative in economic cooperation in the region over the past three decades, including the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum launched in 1989. Japan’s commitment to free trade, reinforced by its own experience of discriminatory trade policies in the immediate postwar period, has made it a strong advocate of the principle of ‘open regionalism’ on which APEC is founded. Commitment to this principle has provided the basis for a process of unilateral liberalisation of trade, including agreed time frames, which allows the developing economies of the Asia Pacific region to progress towards free trade in a flexible manner and provides some protection against ‘free riders’. The strength of this commitment will assist member economies to counter pressure for preferential trading arrangements and facilitate the extension of free trade to sectors which involve cooperation with economies outside the Asia Pacific region.; no

Constitutions & human rights in a global age: an Asia-Pacific perspective. Conference papers.

Morris-Suzuki (Ed.), Tessa
Fonte: Division of Pacific and Asia History, RSPAS, The Australian National University Publicador: Division of Pacific and Asia History, RSPAS, The Australian National University
Tipo: Conference paper
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66.59%
In the modern world, the constitutions of nation states have come to be seen as the key guarantors of human rights. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries the national constitution became the basis of the political order in most countries around the world. The extent to which the constitution provides effective protection for the rights of citizens has thus become a major determinant of the political life of nations, including the nations of the Asia-Pacific region. (First paragraph of introduction).; This conference was supported by the generosity of the Japan Foundation Asia Centre, AusAID, the Daiwa Foundation for Asia and Oceania, the Myer Foundation and The Australian National University's National Institute for Asia and the Pacific and the Humanities Research Centre.

Elevated total cholesterol: its prevalence and population attributable fraction for mortality from coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke in the Asia-Pacific region

Woodward, M.; Martiniuk, A.; Lee, C.; Lam, T.; Vander Hoorn, S.; Ueshima, H.; Fang, X.; Kim, H.; Rodgers, A.; Patel, A.; Jamrozik, K.; Huxley, R.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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66.58%
BACKGROUND: About half of the world's cases of cardiovascular disease occur in the Asia-Pacific region. The contribution of serum total cholesterol (TC) to this burden is poorly quantified. DESIGN: The most recent nationally representative data on TC distributions for countries in the region were sought. Individual participant data from 380,483 adults in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration were used to estimate associations between TC and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: High TC was defined as > or =6.2 mmol/l, and nonoptimal TC as > or =3.8 mmol/l. Hazard ratios for fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischaemic stroke (IS) were found from Cox models. Sex-specific population attributable fractions for high TC and nonoptimal TC were estimated for each country. The former used conventional methods, based on single measures of TC and a fixed dichotomy of risk strata; the latter took account of the continuous positive association between TC and both CHD and IS and regression dilution. RESULTS: Data were available from 16 countries. Where reported, the prevalence of high TC ranged from 4 to 27%. The fraction of fatal CHD and IS attributable to high TC ranged from 0 to 14% and 0 to 15%, respectively. Although leaving the relative ranking of countries much the same...

The Asia-Pacific rims transport and telecommunications systems: spatial structure and corporate control since the mid-1980s

Rimmer, Peter
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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66.63%
There is a need to move from discussing the Asia-Pacific Rim's leading port cities as shipping centres measured by container throughput. This shift in focus involves examining how different transport and telecommunications systems are interacting with each other at an international scale under the power and control of major world operators. Using a three-level network framework an attempt is made to illustrate and explain the formation of multilayered trade/communications corridors and hubs/headquarters in the Asia-Pacific Rim since the mid-1980s and to identify the factors affecting them. From this examination of spatial structure and corporate control three levels of cities in the Asia-Pacific Rim are recognised: first level cities with strong corporate representation in container shipping, air cargo, air passenger and telecommunications; second level cities with marked corporate representation in one but not all four modes; and third level cities with no marked corporate representation in any mode but with strong throughput. The third level includes the Asia-Pacific Rim's 'true' port cities. Perhaps the ambiguous category 'port city' should be reserved for them.