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The real threats to national security and constitutional rights: the Philippines after September 11, 2001

Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Conference item Formato: 175873 bytes; 353 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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State terror in Asia has long been used to fight what governments have unilaterally declared as terror. Wars and counterinsurgency have long been pursued as a strategy against terrorism in Asia, and the war against terrorism has always been made an excuse by states to promote militarist and authoritarian dictatorships supporting Western expansionist, strategic and economic objectives. Today, the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and the subsequent declaration by the United States of a global war on terrorism has created a pretext for governments to extend and justify the use of draconian national security laws and measures to suppress movements for democracy and human rights. The common features of such laws and actionspast and present-- include: · arbitrary detention without charge or trial; · the criminalization of communities, organizations and individuals by labeling them as terrorist; · the undermining of due process; · the reinforcement of repressive practices, including torture, by state authorities; · restrictions on freedom of movement and return to asylum; · the intensification of all forms of racism and discrimination--including those based on gender...

National security, terrorism, and human rights in Indonesia

Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Conference item Formato: 190906 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Conference on Constitution and Human Rights last year in the same place highlighted the importance of national security laws in certain countries in Asia. Although for Indonesia this law was not the issue discussed in last years conference, development in international politics since 11 September 2001 brought about deeper discourse on this type of law in the country. Terrorist attack on the United States (US) has started war against terrorism. Though not admitted, this war has been broadened to a war against Islamic community across the globe. This issue is important for Asia, as many of the Asian countries are the population. Many measures have been taken to deal with war against terrorism in the international level. One important measure is the imposition to initiate a set of legal instruments to smoothen legal procedures against international terrorist organisations through, among others, the establishment of new national security laws related to international terrorist and multilateral and bilateral agreement on the investigation of international terrorist organisations. Indonesia is not an exception in this development, especially because it is a country with the biggest Moslem population in the world and the socio-political instability across the country. The US stated its allegation of the existence of Al Qaeda-related terrorist organisation in Indonesia. An Indonesian citizen was also investigated by the US for the allegation of being a member of Al Qaeda. The draft law on Anti-Terrorism is discussed in Indonesia at this moment and shortly will be presented before the Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR...

Japanese technology and U.S. national security

Dukat, Robert Joseph
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.; The United States relationship with Japan has evolved considerably since World War II. Japan, once defeated and occupied by the United States, now assails U.S. global economic and technological leadership. This thesis examines the effect Japanese technology has upon U.S. national security. Japanese technology has become a critical element of many U.S. defense weapons systems. A supply disruption could harm military readiness. Moreover, a decline in U.S. technological innovation, production, and sales, could severely harm U.S. global commitments and foreign policy. This rivalry is placing strains upon U.S.- Japanese relations. Debate has arisen in the United States about how these perceived problems should be handled. Some advocate letting the free market solve the problem while others propose managed trade solutions. The United States also needs to reevaluate its entire policy with Japan and the Asia- Pacific region, in light of a changing world environment and increasing U.S. financial difficulties.

Human trafficking in Southeast Asia and U.S. national security

Snoke, Joshua H.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The United States government finds human trafficking to be an important subject and is placing increasing focus on the issue. The Southeast Asian portion of the Western Pacific encompasses a substantial portion of global trafficking, much of which has a final destination in the United States. This thesis asks the following question: How does trafficking in persons (TIP) affect U.S. national security interests and regional stability in Southeast Asia? To answer this question, this thesis examines how trafficking affects U.S. national security; the importance of combatting human trafficking in Southeast Asia to regional stability and to U.S. national security; levels of involvement the United States might seek to address the problem of human trafficking in Southeast Asia; and the possibility of an increase in maritime security efforts and interagency coordination in Southeast Asia to effectively combat human trafficking. U.S. national security is tied to regional stability through effects on economic interdependence and state partnerships. TIP threatens both, through its influence in transnational organized crime and the misuse of humans as an illegal resource. The thesis concludes by considering possible solutions to the problem that could be adopted by the United States military.

China's great game in Central Asia implications to U.S. policy in the region

Peterson, Michael A.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 83 p. : col. maps ;
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y the United States is spearheading a war on terrorism, focusing on countries close to Central Asia such as Afghanistan and Iraq. If the United States plans on staying in the region, it must take into account the forces shaping Chinese foreign policy in Central Asia. Possibilities exist for cooperation, but if the situation is misinterpreted or handled incorrectly, there is also a possibility for conflict. This thesis examines Chinese interests in Central Asia, comparing and contrasting them with U.S. interests in the region. It then recommends policy options the United States could implement to enable the United States and China to move towards common goals in the region.

Chinese security interests and US ballistic missile defenses

Jacobson, Ronald G.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiii, 95 p.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The People's Republic of China (PRC) has undertaken extensive military modernization efforts in the post-Cold War period. Many of these efforts are directed at curbing what the Chinese consider unchecked US influence in the Asia-Pacific region. Continuing efforts by the United States to develop and deploy ballistic missile defenses (BMD) threaten to undermine the PRC's sole overseas power projection instrument, ballistic missiles, leaving Beijing with a seriously weakened repertoire for coercion and undermining Beijing's long-term goal of acquiring the ability to counter US influence. This thesis examines China's national security interests in the near future and the ballistic missile defense capabilities being pursued by the United States. It then analyzes the implications of the potential competition between US BMD and Chinese ballistic missiles for Sino-American security relations.; http://www.archive.org/details/chinesesecurityi00jaco; Lieutenant, United States Navy

From alliance to acquaintance: Australia's security relationship with the United States

Taylor, Mark J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis explores the development of Australian concepts of national security, in the context of traditional and continuing psychological dependency upon its links of alliance to the West. The Government claims that Australia's policy of defence self-reliance within an alliance framework is a 'conceptual watershed' that has 'librated' Austrailan foreign policy; but it is an old theme in defence policy. Australia still awaits a real revolution in its security concepts and sense of regional and world identity. ANZUS, symbol of Australia's ties to the western community, and the false impressions and expectations it creates, now acts more to inhibit than to assist Australia's future growth as a nation.; http://archive.org/details/fromalliancetoac00tayl; Commander, Royal Australian Navy

Missile defense for Taiwan : implications for U.S. security interests in East Asia; United States security interests in East Asia

Rice, Darren E.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 97 p. ;
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Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; The potential provision of ballistic missile defense (BMD) capabilities to the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan carries an array of implications for U.S. interests and purposes in East Asia. Although missile defense would assist Taiwan in defending itself from Chinese ballistic missiles, it could generate adverse repercussions that impede Washington's ability to meet its strategic and foreign policy goals. This thesis addresses how the delivery of BMD to Taiwan might affect U.S. security interests in East Asia. Beijing's long-held fears of U.S. "hegemony" and containment may incite China to undertake political, strategic, or armed courses of action contrary to U.S. interests. Closer defense ties between Taipei and Washington might also jeopardize the ambiguity of the U.S.-China-Japan strategic triangular relationship, thereby weakening regional stability. Additionally, Japan may encounter difficulties in reconciling its role in a possible crisis in the Taiwan Strait, producing complications for the U.S.-Japan security alliance. Lastly, BMD in Taiwan could have unfavorable consequences for Washington's national security strategy, particularly its desires to stem the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and to foster cooperative relationships with other nations.; Lieutenant...

Future of the U.S.-Japan security alliance [electronic resource] : foundation for a multilateral security regime in Asia?; Future of the United States-Japan security alliance

Allen, Keith W.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 122 p. ;
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The U.S.-Japan Security Alliance was the foundation of the United States' bilateral alliance system during the Cold War. The alliance suffered severe strains in the immediate aftermath of the Cold War primarily due to the loss of its primary mission, containment of Soviet expansion. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 breathed new life into the alliance. Japan quickly joined in the anti-terrorism coalition, providing logistical support to U.S. forces involved in the War on Terrorism. North Korea's October 2002 admission of a covert nuclear weapons program also changed the strategic dynamic for Japan, pushing it towards "normal" nation status. Multilateralism in Asia developed a life of its own during the 1990's. Numerous multilateral organizations were created to help resolve regional security issues. China is attempting to use multilateral security forums as a means to balance against U.S. regional power. Japan also proposed developing a new multilateral security regime in the Asia-Pacific. This thesis examines issues related to the future of the U.S.-Japan Security Alliance and the possible emergence of a new multilateral security regime in the Asia-Pacific. The United States should enhance the U.S.- Japan Security and lead the way on developing a new multilateral security regime for the Asia-Pacific.; US Navy (USN) author.

U.S. national security strategy in Southeast Asia: a reappraisal

Freeseman, Douglas D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 124 p.
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The United States found itself at the end of the Cold War with a predominately military national security strategy that has been less relevant in coping with the residue of the bi-polar world. Furthermore, the general diffusion of power in the international system from military capability towards economic might highlights the need for a general reappraisal of U.S. interests, objectives, and strategy. This thesis begins with a definition of global U.S. national interests and then defines the specific objectives of the national strategy as applied to the Asia-Pacific region and Southeast Asia. In following chapters, it analyzes the security environment of Southeast Asia, the enduring and developing conflicts within the region and with external powers, as well as mechanisms for conflict resolution. Finally, it asks whether official U.S. strategy adequately promotes and protects the national interests of the United States. It concludes that the current U.S. national security strategy of 'engagement and enlargement' is flawed and must not confuse the national interests, such as the survival of the United States and its prosperity, or put international relationships at risk for the sake of national values, such as the promotion of democracy and human rights abroad.; U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author.

The new fight on the periphery: Pakistan's Military relationship with the United States

Middleton, Samuel L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 91 p.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis explains the military relationship between the United States and Pakistan in the context of their divergent national security interests. During the Cold War, U.S. concerns focused on the global contest between democracy and communism. In this competition, Pakistan was seen as an important ally. However, Pakistan viewed India as its primary threat and considered global ideological concerns as secondary in importance. At times, each country benefited from the other, but neither ever fully met the other's most important needs. The United States did not support Pakistan in its wars with India and Pakistan did not confront communism except to help oust Afghani governments non-compliant with Pakistan's interests. Pakistan's military held power for more than half of Pakistan's existence and became the U.S.' key ally in South Asia. Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear weapons distanced U.S. relations in the post-Cold War environment. The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 catapulted Pakistan's importance as an ally but at the cost of supporting a military regime and the erosion of a democratic government in Pakistan. This thesis argues that Pakistan's military now shares a relationship with the United States that builds regional stability but which may also hold political consequences in the United States.; Major...

Conflicts of National Security Interests in East Asia and the Pacific: At the Turn of the Twenty-First Century

Buss, Claude Albert; Student-Officers in National Security Affairs
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; We in the East Asian Area Studies division of the Department of National Security Affairs at the U.S. Naval Post-Graduate School, Monterey, California (NPS) are constantly challenged to put on record the results of our research on conflicts of national interests in the vast region of East Asia and the Pacific (EA/P). Our faculty consists of experienced academicians or government servants and our student body is made up of active duy, mid-level officers of the navy, marines, army, air force or civilian agencies beginning the transition from successful careers in their particular communities to the broader world of political-military relations. On the average they have spent eight to ten years in the service of their country. Upon completion of their Master's degree, they will hopefully be assigned to stations where their knowledge can be put into practice. Officers from friendly countries frequently participate in our program, but our primary concerns are the security interests, objectives and strategies of the United States.; With Korea, Vietnam and the Gulf War as bloody memories of the past, East Asia and the Pacific enters a new era of international relations with the turn to the 21st Century. The entire region...

The United States and environmental security: deforestation and conflict in Southeast Asia.

Greenwald, Peter T.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 157 p.;28 cm.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; In the post Cold War ear, the East-West conflict may be succeeded by a new confrontation which pits an industrialized North against a developing South. In June 1992, world attention was fixed on the Earth Summit in Rio de Janiero. This event marked a milestone in global environmental awareness; but just as the end of the Cold War has provided new opportuities for the US, the world is now faced with new sources of conflict which have advanced to the forefront of the national security debate. Among the new sources of conflict, environmental problems are rapidly becoming preeminent. Within national security debates, those environmental problems which respect no international boundary are of particular concern. Worldwide deforestation, and the related issues of global warming and the loss of biodiversity, represent a clear threat to national security. Two percent of the Earth's rainforests are lost each year; one 'football field' is lost each second. Deforestation has already led to conflict and instability within several regions of the world including Southeast Asia. The United States must recognize the character and dynamics of these new sources of conflict in order to successfully realize its policy aims in national security. The US should preempt xonflict through cooperation and develop a shared concern for the environment throughout the world. The US military may play a key role in this effort.; http://archive.org/details/unitedstatesenvi00gree; Lieutenant...

Sino-Soviet detente: new challenge to American interests in Asia

Winterford, David
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 40 p.
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This report was prepared in conjunction with research conducted under the Naval Postgraduate School Research Council.; This report analyzes the intensifying challenges that Sino-Soviet detente poses for American interests and policies in the Asia-Pacific. It addresses and evaluates Soviet President Gorbachev's successful efforts at making China the centerpiece of his Asian strategy. Although both Beijing and Moscow disingenuously argue that Sino-Soviet detente will not affect their relations with the U.S. this report indicates that substantial harm has already occurred to U.S. interests in Asia as a result of Soviet and Chinese rapprochement. The report examines the widening and deepening range of Sino- Soviet political and economic ties, and states that prospective cooperative military exchanges between the two Asian communist states must now be considered likely. This assessment of Sino-Soviet detente given in this report indicates that the balance of power may be shifting in Asia in ways unfavorable to the U. S. Finally, the report calls for a recognition by U.S. decision-makers that the apparent anti-Soviet coalition forged by the U.S. in Asia, consisting of the U. S....

Southeast Asian perceptions of U.S. security policy in the post-Cold War era

Chiaravallotti, Joseph R.
Fonte: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 179 p. ;|c28 cm.
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The end of the Cold War has changed the political environment in Southeast Asia and the parameters in which United States policy makers previously worked within are no longer the same. The United States' strategies are based on assumptions of how the rest of the world perceives it, but the views of other nations may not concur with the United States policy maker's assumptions. This thesis is concerned with the United States policy in Southeast Asia and brings to light the Southeast Asians' perceptions of the issues in which the United States is formulating its national security policies; how the negative perceptions differ from American assumptions: and offer suggestions on how to deal with the differences. The aim of this thesis is to provide security policy makers with information that could be used in exercising judgment to find solutions to current, and prospective. policy problems in Southeast Asia. It produces policy-relevant information that may be used to resolve specific policy problem, and pursue preferable courses of action in the region. Ibis thesis shows a single policy towards Southeast Asia is misguided. Each state in the region has its own interests, and American policies must be formulated with each individual state...

NATO-Russian relation status and prospectives

AKTI, Serkan
Fonte: Monterey, California; Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California; Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 79 p.
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Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; Since the end of the Cold War, NATO has attributed great importance to the development of cooperation with Russia. This thesis, first, evaluates the main developments in NATO - Russian relations since 1991. Although Moscow and the Alliance established a NATO - Russia Council (NRC) and asserted the initiation of a qualitatively new relationship, Russia still needs to fulfill some requirements for catching up the Western standards. Russia's external relations and political, economic and security factors internal to Russia will determine the future of the relationship. This thesis examines Russia's political development and transformation of its economic system, and establishes the problems in its political and economic systems. It also examines Russia's problematic external relations in the region, and their impact on the NATO - Russian relationship. It looks into Russia's National Security Concept, explores regional conflicts such as Chechnya and Georgia, and the U.S. - NATO presence in Central Asia. Then, it examines the oil and natural gas transportation problems created by the Russian monopoly, and evaluates Russian technology transfers to Iran, particularly in the nuclear sector. Consequently...

The domestic, regional and global security stakes in Kazakhstan

Mukhamedov, Igor
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 71 p. : col. ill.
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; The evolution of Kazakhstan's security policies since independence, and particularly after September 11, 2001, indicates that the country has chosen to play an active role in regional and international security as a means to security its own national interests. It has opened to the West, and played an active role in the War on Terrorism. It has also worked to maintain Central Asia's regional security architecture. These policies have had some demonstrable affect on national, regional and international security, but as a young state in a troubled region Kazakhstan will require increased Western assistance if it is to become the force for stability that it seeks to be. Kazakhstan has a very important geopolitical location, and can play a role of a regional leader in Central Asia, but it is still a very young state and needs a strong support. "Perhaps nowhere was the granting of independence more bittersweet and the challenges of sustaining it more complex than in the case of Kazakhstan." (Mathews, Jessica T. Foreword in "Kazakhstan: Unfulfilled Promise" by Olcott, Martha Brill, Washington D.C. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2002); Colonel, Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Constructing a regional order Northeast Asia and the systemic constraints on Korean unification

Vance, Terence J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 89 p. ;
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Nowhere has the mid-20th century polarization of Northeast Asia been more evident than on the Korean Peninsula. Over the past six decades, efforts toward Korean unification have spanned the range of total warfare, covert attacks, propagandist affronts, and formal diplomacy to no avail. Amidst the talk of unification however, it seens a better understanding about the evolving nature of Korea's division is needed. Using a truly unique International Relations approach, this thesis explores the utility of Alexander Wendt's Social Theory of International Politics to address the evolving structure of Northeast Asia and its implications for Korean unification. The results of this analysis contrast with those of predominant IR theories such as Neorealism and suggest that unification is becoming less likely under structural trends. Additionally, the constructivist methodology employed here shows that while the United States will continue to play an important role in regional security, it must begin to diverge from its anachronistic Cold War defense posture to ensure future stability. By providing a deeper understanding about the macro-level structure of Northeast Asia, this these will contribute to the development of policies which will both enhance regional stability and aid in the eventual unification of the two Koreas.

Time for change? Post-Cold War U.S. grand strategy in Northeast Asia

Rodeman, Christopher A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 136 p.;28 cm.
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Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.; Despite dramatic changes in the Northeast Asian security environment, America's regiona lgrand strategy has continued to be guided by inertia. This thesis contends that a multipolar, balance of a power system is emerging in Northeast Asia, and that the appropriate U.S. response is to adopt a grand strategy of "selective engagement." While the first half of this thesis focuses on U.S. security interests, the Northeast Asian threat environment, and the shortcomings of post-Cold War U.S. policies, the second half describes the diplomatic, military and economic attributes of a selective engagement grand strategy, Recognizing that the age of geo-politics has not yet ended in Northeast Asia, U.S. diplomacy would endeavor to maintain equilibrium and preven the rise of a regional hegemon by castin the United States in the role of balancer, grand facilitator, and hones broker. Militarily, a selective engagement approach would capitalize on the strengths of a maritime grand strategy to provide more flexibility at a lower cost. Finally, a grand strategy of a selective engagement would acknowledge the centrality of economics to national security by linking economic policies directly to political and military strategy; http://archive.org/details/timeforchangepos00rode; Lieutenant...

The perspectives of the United States, Japan and Australian regarding Taiwan, and the implications for Asia Pacific security

Tassotti, Joya
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
The Asia Pacific region has its share of security concerns. The Taiwan issue is one dimension of Asia Pacific security which has often been defined by and referred to with 'ambiguous' policies, making the potential for actual conflict harder to ascertain. The perspectives of the United States (US), and its closest Asia-Pacific allies - Australia and Japan - will have a great effect on how future policies are developed regarding Taiwan, particularly in light of recent developments which have taken place over the last decade or so. The Bush administration has defined the terms of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA) according to its defensive nature, providing the small island with guarantees of defence in the event of an attack, 'whilst simultaneously discouraging moves for independence. The US perspective is increasingly important because of this, and because of the developing hegemonic rivalry with China. Questions about the potential for conflict have been raised, as tensions increase over the undetermined sovereignty of Taiwan. The US is perceived as an imposing power, with motives to contain' China in what China perceives are its own, internal affairs. Although conflict is not likely for the near future, moves which exacerbate cross-strait tensions should be averted at all costs in order to maintain Asia-Pacific stability. This will require China and the US to acknowledge each others superiority as part of the current world order...