Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are perhaps the most abundantly expressed set of proteins at the plant cell surface and play probable roles in cellular architecture and signaling. Although considerable progress has been made to understand the role of AGPs in plant growth and development, their exact functional roles and the molecular mechanisms underlying their interactions with either intra- or extra-cellular molecules are unknown. These unknown interactions were addressed in a recent research article in Plant Physiology. This study reported molecular interactions between AGPs and the cytoskeleton [microtubules, (MTs) and F-actin] in tobacco BY-2 cells. Here in this addendum, a summary of this recent publication and additional perspectives are presented. As reported, perturbation studies were conducted in tobacco BY-2 cells to analyze the effects of an AGP inhibitor (β-Yariv reagent) on the organization of microtubules [labeled by GFP-MBD (green fluorescent protein-microtubule binding domain)] and F-actin (labeled by rhodamine-phalloidin) and conversely to analyze the effects of a microtubule inhibitor (amiprophosmethyl) and an F-actin inhibitor (cytochalasin-D) on the localization of GPI-anchored GFP-LeAGP-1. These studies implicate a role for GPI-anchored LeAGP-1 in mediating a cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton connection.
This is an addendum to our recent paper published in The Plant Journal (52:352–61). The major findings were: (1) trichomes on the leaves of gl3-sst sim double mutants developed as large multi-cellular clusters whereas wild type trichomes are composed of single cells; (2) ectopic CYCD3;1 expression in gl3-sst trichomes also resulted in trichome cluster formation; and (3) that GL1 expression is prolonged in the gl3-sst sim trichome clusters. This addendum shows that ectopic CYCD3;1 expression in gl3-sst also enhanced GL1 expression. An analysis of the GL1 promoter found two overlapping potential E2F binding sites in a region of the promoter known to be essential for GL1 function. This finding indicates that GL1 may be directly regulated by the activity of a CYCD3/CDKA complex that phosphorylates E2F-RB bound to the GL1 promoter.
The lipids present in the nuclei play different roles in relation to their localization. They are composed by high levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin strongly linked with cholesterol. The nuclear lipid composition shows many modifications during cell life due to the presence and activity of some specific enzymes such as sphingomyelinase, sphingomyelin-synthase, reverse sphingomyelin-synthase and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C. These lipids are associated with a small amount of DNA, with the new-synthesized double-strand RNA, and with proteins to form an intranuclear complex that it is not possible to extract with the techniques used for nuclear membrane and chromatin purification. The intranuclear complex represents a section of inner nuclear membrane that binds to the active chromatin. In a recent paper, we have demonstrated that this complex actually constitutes the lipid microdomains present in the inner nuclear membrane and represents a platform for the transcription process. The possible model of action is reported in this Addendum article.
It has now been demonstrated that treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with glycine betaine (GB) improves tolerance to chilling stress by regulating gene expression. This finding provides the opportunity to identify new stress determinants using gene expression profiling with microarrays followed by functional confirmation of the involvement of candidate genes via mutant studies. The first gene identified by this approach was the gene for RabA4c GTPase (At5g47960), which is expressed in roots and is involved in vesicle trafficking from the Golgi Apparatus to the plasma membrane. Recently, we have identified the FRO2 ferric reductase (At1g01580) which is localized on the plasma membrane, as another component of the GB-regulated system and suggested that enhanced production of reductant in the cell wall also plays a role in chilling tolerance. This addendum article focuses on the concept that extracellular processes may play a pivotal role in stress tolerance. A candidate gene list is presented for GB-upregulated genes in Arabidopsis roots and a model is proposed incorporating candidate genes with potential roles in relation to reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling and chilling stress.
The modes of action of antibiotics are mainly characterized by their effects on their targets. Previously,1,2 and in a recent paper,3 we have reported our discovery of a new mechanism for the action of some antibiotics. Rather than directly interfering with a vital bacterial pathway, these antibiotics act by triggering the bacterial toxin-antitoxin chromosomal module mazEF, thereby causing the bacteria to commit suicide. We also showed that antibiotics that inhibit transcription and/or translation cause mazEF-mediated cell death by forming Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS).3 Moreover, we found that after treatment by such antibiotics, the mazEF system cannot be activated, and thus ROS cannot be formed, without the presence of communication signaling peptide called the Extracellular Death Factor (EDF). Our results challenge the classical division between bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics. Our study further provides evidence that mode of action of antibiotics may also be determined by the ability of the bacteria to communicate through the signaling peptide EDF. In this Addendum article we present a model of how the presence of some antibiotics may result in this novel downstream pathway.
Lipid rafts are small, heterogeneous and short-lived assemblies of cholesterol, sphingolipids and few proteins in biological membranes. They can be converted to larger and more permanent membrane domains by coalescence. Cells appear to be able to modulate the size and the longevity of lipid rafts and thus exploit the local enrichment of membrane components for processes ranging from signaling to intracellular sorting and transport. In a recent paper, we provided evidence for the internalization of MHC I and MHC II along two distinct endocytosis pathways in mouse B-lymphocytes. Both pathways were much more dependent on membrane cholesterol than the clathrin-mediated uptake of transferrin receptor, which implicated lipid rafts in the internalization of MHC molecules. Indeed, MHC I and MHC II prefer distinct raft-like membrane environments as revealed by a co-clustering analysis with the sphingolipids GM1 and GM2. Moreover, MHC I and MHC II distributed to different types of detergent resistant membranes (DRMs) prepared by a novel detergent extraction procedure. In this article addendum we discuss the relationship between DRMs, small lipid rafts and stabilized rafts/membrane domains and propose a role for membrane domains in the endocytosis of MHC proteins.
Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is ubiquitous in the majority of cells and is indispensable for proper development and function of most tissues. The loss of gap junction mediated cell to cell communication leads to compromised development in many tissues and organs, and also facilitates tumorigenesis and autonomous cell behavior in cancerous cells. Because cells embedded in an extracellular matrix constantly interact through gap junctions to coordinate normal tissue functions and homeostasis, our group hypothesized that increasing cell to cell communication, via genetically engineering cells to overexpress gap junction proteins, could improve cell signaling and increase differentiation in interior regions of engineered tissue equivalents. In a recent paper,1 we presented a platform to regenerate full 3D equivalents of engineered tissue, providing a strategy to overcome a barrier in regenerative medicine. These findings suggest that both targeted delivery and cell-based strategies can be used as treatments to enhance communication in 3D living tissue.2 In this addendum, we address the effects of extracellular calcium (Ca2+e) on intracellular calcium (Ca2+i), GJIC and osteogenic differentiation under conditions in which bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) also exhibit higher cell-to-cell communication. As a key secondary messenger in many biological processes...
The Vesicle Inducing Protein in Plastids 1 (Vipp1) was suggested to be involved in thylakoid membrane formation in both chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. The protein shows sequence homology to the Phage Shock Protein A (PspA) from bacteria, and both proteins have similar secondary structures. 2D-structures of PspA and of Vipp1 have been determined by electron microscopy in the recent years. Both PspA and Vipp1 form large homooligomeric rings with high molecular masses but their ring dimensions differ significantly. Furthermore, Vipp1 forms rings with different rotational symmetries whereas PspA appears to form rings with singular rotational symmetry. In this article addendum we compare the structures of PspA and Vipp1. Furthermore, we suggest a spatial structural model of the observed Vipp1 rings.
The tomato FW2.2 quantitative trait locus, which regulates tomato fruit size, was genetically and physically mapped around 15 years ago. Subsequently, the FW2.2 gene was cloned and shown to contain a PLAC8 domain, originally identified in mammalian placental proteins. Data suggest that FW2.2 likely controls tomato cell size, perhaps by direct interaction with casein kinase II. Several FW2.2-like (FWL) genes have now been identified from a variety of plant species, but until recently only the tomato FW2.2 gene had been the subject of detailed investigation. Recently, soybean and maize FWL genes were identified and shown to have a role in plant organogenesis. It is now apparent that the FWL genes in plants are a large gene family, which is even larger given inclusion of genes for the various eukaryotic PLAC8-domain proteins. Although overall the protein sequence identity/similarity among the family members is relatively low, there is strong conservation of key domains, suggesting a conservation of the core biochemical function of these proteins. In this Addendum Article, we highlight the similarities and differences exiting between plant FWL genes and enlarge this comparison to the mammalian PLAC8 genes. These comparisons suggest the possible conservation of biological function for FWL proteins.
The current global outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection exemplifies the major public health threat posed by clostridial glucosylating toxins. In the western world, C. difficile infection is one of the most prolific causes of bacterial-induced diarrhea and potentially fatal colitis. Two pathogenic enterotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, cause the disease. Vancomycin and metronidazole remain readily available treatment options for C. difficile infection, but neither is fully effective as is evident by high clinical relapse and fatality rates. Thus, there is an urgent need to find an alternative therapy that preferentially targets the toxins and not the drug-resistant pathogen. Recently, we addressed these critical issues in a Nature Medicine letter, describing a novel host defense mechanism for subverting toxin virulence that we translated into prototypic allosteric therapy for C. difficile infection. In this addendum article, we provide a continued perspective of this antitoxin mechanism and consider the broader implications of therapeutic allostery in combating gut microbial pathogenesis.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes, particularly E. coli O157:H7, possess a variety of fimbrial and afimbrial adhesins which have emerged as important contributors to intestinal colonization. E. coli O157:H7 possesses two chromosomal operons encoding long polar fimbriae (Lpf), which have been found to influence adherence in vitro and colonization in vivo. In a recent Infection and Immunity paper, we further explored the role of Lpf in E. coli O157:H7 intestinal colonization by using the infant rabbit model of STEC infection. We found that an E. coli O157:H7 Lpf-deficient mutant was outcompeted in the rabbit intestine by its parental strain, which may suggest that Lpf contributes to colonization. In contrast, the Lpf-deficient mutant showed an increased adherence to cultured intestinal epithelial cells, and we discovered that this strain overexpressed curli fibers. In this addendum article, we provide a continued perspective on the predicted roles of Lpf and curli, both in vivo and in vitro.
Autophagy is a mechanism used for the transport of macromolecules to the vacuole for degradation. It can be either non-selective or selective, resulting from the specific binding of target proteins to Atg8, an essential autophagy-related protein. Nine Atg8 homologs exist in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting possible different roles for different homologs. In a previous report published in the Plant Cell, our group identified two plant-specific proteins, termed ATI1 and ATI2, which bind Atg8f, as a representative of the nine Atg8 homologs. The proteins were shown to associate with novel starvation-induced bodies that move on the ER network and reach the lytic vacuole. Altered expression level of the proteins was also shown to affect the ability of seeds to germinate in the presence of the germination inhibiting hormone ABA. In the present addendum article, we demonstrate that, in addition to Atg8f, ATI1 binds Atg8h, an Atg8 homolog from a different sub-family, indicating that ATI1 is not a specific target of Atg8f.
The spread of natural or weaponized drug-resistant plague among humans is a credible high consequence threat to public health that demands the prompt introduction of alternatives to antibiotics such as bacteriophage. Early attempts to treat plague with phages in the 1920s–1930s were sometimes promising but mostly failed, purportedly due to insufficient knowledge of phage biology and poor experimental design. We recently reported the striking stability of plague diagnostic bacteriophages, their safety for animal use, propagation in vivo and partial protection of mice from deadly plague after a single injection of phage. In this addendum we reflect on that article, other recent publications and our unpublished data, and discuss the prospects of phage therapy against plague.
Recently, we reported microchimerism to be oppositely associated with maternal breast and colon cancer. In women with a blood test positive for male microchimerism the risk of breast cancer development was reduced to one third, whereas the risk of colon cancer was elevated 4-fold. In this article addendum, I report the survival of cases in the original study after being diagnosed with cancer. Despite small numbers, the analysis suggests that microchimerism may be positively associated with survival after breast and maybe colon cancer diagnosis. Despite the findings on colon cancer in our original report, I speculate whether microchimerism could have a general beneficial role in cancer, which in some sites may not be evident because an allogeneic maternal immune reaction hastens cancer development.
Operational tolerance in kidney transplantation tolerance is rare phenomenon. It concerns recipients who keep a good function of their graft without immunosuppressors for more than one year. A critical need in the field of transplantation tolerance is the identification of biomarkers able to detect precociously tolerance phenotype in stable recipient in order to adapt treatment and progressively stop immunosuppressive therapy. But many limitations in these studies slow the application in clinics of such tolerance signature. In this addendum article we talk about these limitations and potential new directions to improve our approach in the quest of tolerance biomarkers.
Specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment currently available for IgE-mediated allergy and preventive strategies are lacking altogether. We have recently reported that molecular chimerism induces durable tolerance in experimental models of allergy, thus potentially providing a new approach for the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases. Molecular chimerism is a gene-therapy approach for tolerance induction toward defined disease-causing antigens. In proof-of-concept studies, we introduced a clinically relevant grass pollen allergen into hematopoietic stem cells and transplanted those modified cells into preconditioned syngeneic mice. Long-lasting and robust tolerance toward the allergen was achieved. In our most recent studies published in Clinical and Experimental Allergy we demonstrated that milder, non-myeloablative conditioning is sufficient to induce tolerance. Our results revealed that, in contrast to other rodent models of chimerism, persistent microchimerism suffices to induce lasting tolerance at the T cell, B cell and effector cell levels in IgE-mediated allergy. This article addendum provides a summary of the recent paper and its implications.
The forum for injection techniques, India recommendation, the first ever in the country on insulin injcetion techniques, have covered the science and the art of insulin injection technique in an exhaustive manner. However, a few gaps were identified in the document, which are addressed in the current addendum. This article focuses on insulin injection technique in special clinical situations, including geriatric people, women in pregnancy and those with dermatological or surgical disease who live with diabetes. The addendum also covers salient features of administration of insulin using the insulin pump.
The second addendum to the Forum for Injection Techniques (FIT), India recommendations, first published in 2012 and followed by an addendum in 2013, covers various important issues. It describes how the impact of the so-called non-modifiable factors, which influence the injection technique, can be modulated; provides fresh information on timing of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist injections, methods of minimizing pain during injections, amyloidosis, and factors that impact adherence to insulin therapy. The addendum also lists semantic changes made to keep the FIT recommendations updated.
The main focus of our original article was to describe the anatomical delineations constituting the first version of the WHS Sprague Dawley atlas, apply the Waxholm Space coordinate system, and publish the associated MRI/DTI template and segmentation volume in their original format. To increase usability of the dataset, we have recently shared an updated version of the volumetric image material (v1.01). The aims of this addendum are to inform about the improvements in the updated dataset, in particular related to navigation in the WHS coordinate system, and provide guidance for transforming coordinates acquired in the first version of the atlas.
Many insects deposit marking pheromones following egg-laying that signal an occupied and thus sub-optimal resource. Herbivorous insects mark host fruit or other vegetative plant parts after depositing eggs, while insect parasitoids deposit such pheromones directly on the cuticle of a particular life stage of their prey. These oviposition marking pheromones (OMPs) are then recognized by conspecifics, which avoid subsequent egg-laying in the previously utilized and unsuitable host. Since many host resources are capable of supporting a limited number of offspring, these pheromones function to decrease competition among the brood, which increases survival rate of the subsequent generation. In rare instances, distinct species of phytophagous and parasitic insects will inspect the same substrate following egg-laying.1 Recently, Stelinski et al.1 have demonstrated that in such instances, the herbivore is able to learn to recognize its predator's OMP and utilize it to its advantage by avoiding oviposition into unsuitable host fruit. This recognition of a foreign marking pheromone occurs in a multitrophic context since both herbivore and parasitoid inspect, oviposit into, and mark the same substrate (i.e., fruit surface). In this Article Addendum...