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O processamento visual das emoções: o efeito do arousal na atenção

Manso, Mariana Carvalheira
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 14/03/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Mestrado em Psicologia Social e das Organizações; No nosso quotidiano estamos expostos a uma variedade de estimulos visuais, aos quais o nosso sistema perceptivo e atencional tem que responder eficazmente, seleccionando os estimulos que devem ser processados para orientar a acção. Os estímulos emocionais salientes captam a atenção o suficiente para induzir “attentional blink”, i.e., enviesamento na visualização de um alvo quando este é precedido por um distractor visual novo ou semelhante. Este enviesamento depende do arousal da distractor. O objectivo do presente estudo é o de, numa tarefa do tipo RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation), combinar duas dimensões de avaliação das emoções (arousal e valência), utilizando um programa especificamente desenvolvido para recolher os dados no momento em que são visualizados os estímulos-alvo. A tarefa do participante consistiu em procurar um alvo irrelevante no menor tempo possível, e cometendo o menor número de erros. Foram utilizados, como distractores críticos, estímulos emocionais do tipo erótico e mutilações (agradável e desagradável), e expressões faciais (simpática e ameaçadora). Os resultados obtidos no presente estudo são concordantes com a literatura...

Relative contribution of expectancy and immediate arousal to the facilitatory effect of an auditory accessory stimulus

Del-Fava,F.; Ribeiro-do-Valle,L.E.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
An auditory stimulus speeds up a digital response to a subsequent visual stimulus. This facilitatory effect has been related to the expectancy and the immediate arousal that would be caused by the accessory stimulus. The present study examined the relative contribution of these two influences. In a first and a third experiment a simple reaction time task was used. In a second and fourth experiment a go/no-go reaction time task was used. In each of these experiments, the accessory stimulus preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms for one group of male and female volunteers (G Fix). For another group of similar volunteers (G Var) the accessory stimulus preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms in 25% of the trials, by 1000 ms in 25% of the trials and was not followed by the target stimulus in 50% of the trials (Experiments 1a and 1b) or preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms in 6% of the trials and by 1000 ms in 94% of the trials (Experiments 2a and 2b). There was a facilitatory effect of the accessory stimulus for G Fix in the four experiments. There was also a facilitatory effect of the accessory stimulus at the 200-ms stimulus onset asynchrony for G Var in Experiments 1a and 1b but not in Experiments 2a and 2b. The facilitatory effects observed were larger in the go/no-go task than in the simple task. Taken together...

The Role of Arousal Related Brainstem Reflexes in Causing Recovery from Upper Airway Occlusion in Infants

Wulbrand, Henning; McNamara, Frances; Thach, Bradley T.
Fonte: Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC Publicador: Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
During obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults upper airway reopening coincides with a sudden burst in activity of pharyngeal dilating muscles. This has been attributed to arousal from sleep as indicated by increased EEG activity. Recovery from OSA in infants often occurs in the absence of cortical arousal. To investigate mechanisms involved in recovery, we performed experimental airway occlusions in sleeping infants. Based on past work, our hypothesis was that a sleep startle combined with an augmented breath and heart rate acceleration would occur during the occlusion, and that such brainstem mediated reflexes might provide an explanation for recovery from OSA in the absence of cortical arousal. However, this is contrary to expectations, since lung inflation is believed to be necessary for occurrence of an augmented breath.

Physiological Arousal, Distress Tolerance, and Social Problem-solving Deficits Among Adolescent Self-injurers

Nock, Matthew; Mendes, Wendy
Fonte: American Psychological Association Publicador: American Psychological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However, objective physiological and behavioral data supporting this model are lacking. The authors compared adolescent self-injurers (n = 62) with noninjurers (n = 30) and found that self-injurers showed higher physiological reactivity (skin conductance) during a distressing task, a poorer ability to tolerate this distress, and deficits in several social problem-solving abilities. These findings highlight the importance of attending to increased arousal, distress tolerance, and problem-solving skills in the assessment and treatment of NSSI.; Psychology

Turning a Negative into a Positive: Ascending GABAergic Control of Cortical Activation and Arousal

Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Recent technological advances have illuminated the role of GABAergic neurons in control of cortical arousal and sleep. Sleep-promoting GABAergic neurons in the preoptic hypothalamus are well-known. Less well-appreciated are GABAergic projection neurons in the brainstem, midbrain, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, which paradoxically promote arousal and fast electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. Thus, GABA is not purely a sleep-promoting neurotransmitter. GABAergic projection neurons in the brainstem nucleus incertus and ventral tegmental nucleus of Gudden promote theta (4–8 Hz) rhythms. Ventral tegmental area GABAergic neurons, neighboring midbrain dopamine neurons, project to the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. They discharge faster during cortical arousal and regulate reward. Thalamic reticular nucleus GABAergic neurons initiate sleep spindles in non-REM sleep. In addition, however, during wakefulness, they tonically regulate the activity of thalamocortical neurons. Other GABAergic inputs to the thalamus arising in the globus pallidus pars interna, substantia nigra pars reticulata, zona incerta, and basal forebrain regulate motor activity...

Investigating the effects of arousal state on cognitive performance in individuals with and without mild head injury

St. Cyr-Baker, Julie.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
We examined the cognitive and emotional sequelae following mild head injury (MHI; e.g., concussion) in high-functioning individuals and whether persons with MHI pre~ent, both physiologically and via self-report, in a manner different from (i.e., underaroused) that of persons who have no history of head injury. We also investigated the effect arousal state ~as on the cognitive performance of this population. Using a quasiexperimental research design (N = 91), we examined changes in attention, working memory, and cognitive flexibility (subtests ofthe WAIS-III, 1997,WMS-III, 1997, & DKEFS, 2002) as a function of manipulated arousal (i.e., induced psychosocial stress/activation; reduced activation/relaxation). In addition to self-reported arousal and state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Speilberger, 1983a) measures, physiological indices of arousal state (i.e., electrodermal responsivity, heart rate, and respiration activity) were recorded (via Polygraph Professional Suite, 2008) across a 2.5 hour interval while completing various cognitive tasks. Students also completed the Post-concussive Symptom Checklist (Gouvier et aI., 1992). The results demonstrate that university students who report a history ofMHI (i.e....

Social competence following mild head injury and moderate traumatic brain injury: Investigating the neuropsychological relationships between arousal, social decision-making and depression

Robb, Sean
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Client-directed long-term rehabilitative goals and life satisfaction following head injury emphasize the importance of social inclusion, rather than cognitive or physical, outcomes. However, very little research has explored the socio-emotional factors that pose as barriers to social reintegration following injury. This study investigates social barriers following head injury (i.e., decision-making - Iowa Gambling Task [IGT] and mood – depression) and possible amelioration of those challenges (through treatment) in both highly functioning university students with and without mild head injury (MHI) and in individuals with moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). An arousal manipulation using emotionally evocative stimuli was introduced to manipulate the subject’s physiological arousal state. Seventy-five university students (37.6% reporting a MHI) and 11 patients with documented moderate TBI were recruited to participate in this quasi-experimental study. Those with head injury were found to be physiologically underaroused (on measures of electrodermal activation [EDA] and pulse) and were less sensitive to the negative effects of punishment (i.e., losses) in the gambling task than those without head injury, with greater impairment being observed for the moderate TBI group. The arousal manipulation...

The influence of gender and upper airway resistance on the ventilatory response to arousal in obstructive sleep apnoea in humans

Jordan, A.; McEvoy, R.; Edwards, J.; Schory, K.; Yang, C.K.; Catcheside, P.; Fogel, R.; Malhotra, A.; White, D.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
The termination of obstructive respiratory events is typically associated with arousal from sleep. The ventilatory response to arousal may be an important determinant of subsequent respiratory stability/instability and therefore may be involved in perpetuating obstructive respiratory events. In healthy subjects arousal is associated with brief hyperventilation followed by more prolonged hypoventilation on return to sleep. This study was designed to assess whether elevated sleeping upper airway resistance (R(UA)) alters the ventilatory response to arousal and subsequent breathing on return to sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Inspired minute ventilation (V(I)), R(UA) and end-tidal CO(2) pressure (P(ET,CO(2))) were measured in 22 patients (11 men, 11 women) with OSA (mean +/-s.e.m., apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) 48.9 +/- 5.9 events h(-1)) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with low R(UA) (2.8 +/- 0.3 cmH(2)O l(-1) s; optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) = 11.3 +/- 0.7 cmH(2)O) and with elevated R(UA) (17.6 +/- 2.8 cmH(2)O l(-1) s; sub-optimal CPAP = 8.4 +/- 0.8 cmH(2)O). A single observer, unaware of respiratory data, identified spontaneous and tone-induced arousals of 3-15 s duration preceded and followed by stable NREM sleep. V(I) was compared between CPAP levels before and after spontaneous arousal in 16 subjects with tone-induced arousals in both conditions. During stable NREM sleep at sub-optimal CPAP...

Hypoxia impairs the arousal response to external resistive loading and airway occlusion during sleep

Hlavac, M.; Catcheside, P.; McDonald, R.; Eckert, D.; Windler, S.; McEvoy, R.
Fonte: Amer Academy Sleep Medicine Publicador: Amer Academy Sleep Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sustained hypoxia is a neurocognitive depressant, which has been shown to impair respiratory load sensation. Hypoxia has also been shown to impair arousal in animal models, but the effects of sustained hypoxia on arousal in humans have not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of sustained hypoxia on arousal from sleep in normal subjects. DESIGN: Twelve normal male subjects (age, 24.3 +/- 1.2 years; body mass index, 24.8 +/- 1.4 kg/m2) were studied during stable stage 2 non-rapid eye movement sleep on 2 separate nights 1 week apart. SETTING: Sleep physiology laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Normal healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Arousal responses to external resistive loads (18 cm H2O x L(-1) x sec(-1)) and occlusions were compared during room-air breathing following sustained normoxia and isocapnic hypoxia (SaO2 approximately 85%). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Time to arousal and minimum esophageal pressure preceding arousal were measured. Time to arousal was significantly increased following hypoxia compared with normoxia for resistive loads (24.6 + 4.4 seconds vs. 12.6 +/- 1.9 seconds, p = .007) but not occlusions. Minimum esophageal pressure prior to arousal was more negative following hypoxia for both external loads (-16.8 +/- 1.2 vs. -13.5 +/- 1.3 cm H2O...

Mild hypoxia does not suppress auditory arousal from NREM sleep

Catcheside, P.; Orr, R.; Chiong, S.; Mercer, J.; Saunders, N.; McEvoy, R.
Fonte: Amer Academy Sleep Medicine Publicador: Amer Academy Sleep Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The depressive effects of hypoxia on the central nervous system are well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of mild overnight hypoxia on the ability of healthy individuals to arouse from non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep to auditory tones. DESIGN: Randomized cross-over. SETTING: Participants slept in a sound-insulated room with the physiologic recordings and experimental interventions controlled from a separate room. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven healthy men aged 18 to 24 years. INTERVENTIONS: On separate nights, participants were exposed to mild overnight hypoxia (SaO2 approximately 90%) or medical air in single-blind fashion. During established sleep, subjects were administered 1 of 10 auditory tones (500 Hz, 54-90 dB, 5 seconds duration) via earphones, or a sham tone (recording period with no tone). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The probability and intensity of arousal responses in the 30 seconds following tones or shams were compared between gas conditions and between stage 2 and slow-wave sleep. Arousal probability and intensity increased with tone intensity and were significantly lower during slow-wave compared with stage 2 sleep but were not different between hypoxia and normoxia nights. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that mild overnight hypoxia does not impair the neural mechanisms involved in arousal from sleep to auditory stimuli.

Arousal in obstructive sleep apnoea patients is associated with ECG RR and QT interval shortening and PR interval lengthening

Smith, J.; Baumert, M.; Nalivaiko, E.; McEvoy, R.; Catcheside, P.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Sudden cardiac death appears to be more prevalent during the normal sleeping hours in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients compared with the general population as well as to cardiovascular disease patients. The reasons for this remain unclear, but there are three likely main contributors to nocturnal death in OSA patients; cardiac arrhythmias, stroke/ruptured cerebral aneurism and myocardial infarction. Particularly marked cardiovascular system activation with arousal may play a role in initiating sudden adverse cardiovascular events in OSA. The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiac RR, QT and PR interval changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) associated with spontaneous and respiratory-related arousals in OSA patients. A detailed observational study of ECG records obtained during conventional diagnostic sleep study with no further interventions was carried out in 20 patients (12 males, age 42.8 ± 2.1 years, body mass index 35.1 ± 1.9 kg m)2, and respiratory disturbance index 51.8 ± 6.4 events/hour). RR and QT intervals showed significant shortening during arousals. RR interval shortening was found to be greater during respiratory arousals when compared to spontaneous arousals. PR interval showed a trend toward a greater prolongation during respiratory arousal. QT interval shortening was weakly correlated with arterial oxygen saturation levels preceding arousal. In conclusion...

The 2007 AASM recommendations for EEG electrode placement in polysomnography: impact on sleep and cortical arousal scoring

Ruehland, W.R.; O'Donoghue, F.J.; Pierce, R.J.; Thornton, A.T.; Singh, P.; Copland, J.M.; Stevens, B.; Rochford, P.D.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of using American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recommended EEG derivations (F4/M1, C4/M1, O2/M1) vs. a single derivation (C4/M1) in polysomnography (PSG) on the measurement of sleep and cortical arousals, including inter- and intra-observer variability. DESIGN: Prospective, non-blinded, randomized comparison. SETTING: Three Australian tertiary-care hospital clinical sleep laboratories. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS: 30 PSGs from consecutive patients investigated for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during December 2007 and January 2008. INTERVENTIONS: N/A. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: To examine the impact of EEG derivations on PSG summary statistics, 3 scorers from different Australian clinical sleep laboratories each scored separate sets of 10 PSGs twice, once using 3 EEG derivations and once using 1 EEG derivation. To examine the impact on inter- and intra-scorer reliability, all 3 scorers scored a subset of 10 PSGs 4 times, twice using each method. All PSGs were de-identified and scored in random order according to the 2007 AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events. Using 3 referential EEG derivations during PSG, as recommended in the AASM manual, instead of a single central EEG derivation...

Patterns among emotional experience, arousal, and expression in adolescence

LANTEIGNE, DIANNA MELANIE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
Adolescence is a developmental period marked by heightened emotional intensity, negative emotions, and self-consciousness. Problems with emotion regulation during adolescence have been linked to the development of internalizing and externalizing disorders (Hastings et al., 2009). Emotion regulation involves changes across several integrated emotion domains: (1) Experience, (2) Arousal, and (3) Expression (Ekman, 1992; Gross, 2007; Lang, 1994; Lazarus, 1991; Levenson, 1994). Emotion is not necessarily regulated equally across these three domains, in fact discordant responses are more common than concordant ones (Mauss & Robinson, 2009). Discordance represents how emotion is being regulated during a specific event, but it has not been directly linked with habitual emotion regulation strategies. Different patterns among these emotional domains have been linked to internalizing and externalizing problems and coping skills (Hastings et al., 2009; Mauss et al, 2005; Zalewski et al., 2009a, b). The current study expands on previous research by (1) simultaneously measuring and analyzing experience, arousal, and expression, and (2) understanding how patterns of concordance and discordance relate to individual difference factors such as gender...

Evaluating Gender-specificity of Sexual Arousal with Thermography in Women and Men

Huberman, JACKIE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
Men’s genital responses tend to be gender-specific, such that they show significantly greater arousal to their preferred gender compared to their nonpreferred gender, whereas the genital responses of androphilic women (i.e., sexually attracted to men) tend to be similar to stimuli depicting women or men (gender-nonspecific). Gender-specificity of arousal has been previously studied using short stimuli (approximately 90-second videos or audio-narratives) with genital responses assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) in women and penile plethysmography (PPG) in men. One limitation to using these measures of genital response is that they use different scales (mV change in VPP and mm change in PPG), making it difficult to draw direct gender comparisons. In the current thesis, I examined gender-specificity of sexual arousal in women and men by measuring genital responses using thermography, which assesses similar physiological processes (i.e., temperature change associated with genital vasocongestion) in women and men. Specifically, I evaluated whether the gender-specificity of men’s and women’s genital temperature was similar to that observed for genital responses concurrently assessed using VPP (women) or PPG (men). I presented gynephilic men (i.e....

LASER DOPPLER IMAGING: A NEW MEASURE OF GENITAL BLOOD FLOW IN FEMALE SEXUAL AROUSAL

WAXMAN, SAMANTHA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 9006246 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.33%
Female sexual arousal refers to one’s feelings of sexual excitement and pleasure and has both physiological (i.e., objective) and psychological (i.e., subjective) components. It is an important, yet difficult phenomenon to investigate. As a result, many instruments have been used in an attempt to accurately measure female arousal; however, there are problems associated with each. Furthermore, the relationship between the subjective and physiological indicators of sexual arousal appears to be influenced by the instrument used to measure physiological sexual arousal. Specifically, instruments measuring physiological arousal internally (i.e., vaginal photoplethysmography) typically yield lower correlations between measures of physiological and subjective sexual arousal than instruments examining the external genitals (i.e., labial thermistor, thermal imager), which indirectly measure blood flow. Alternatively, laser Doppler imaging (LDI) is a direct measure of external genital blood flow but has only been used in one previous study that did not assess the relationship between physiological and subjective sexual arousal. The aims of the current study were to investigate the usefulness of LDI for assessing genital blood flow in women in response to erotic visual stimuli...

CATEGORY-SPECIFICITY OF WOMEN’S SEXUAL AROUSAL ACROSS THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

BOSSIO, JENNIFER
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
Unlike men, women’s genital arousal is category-nonspecific with respect to sexual orientation, such that their genital responses do not differentiate stimuli by gender. A possible explanation for women’s nonspecific sexual response is the inclusion of women at different phases of the menstrual cycle or women using hormonal contraceptives in sexual psychophysiology research, which may be obscuring a specificity effect. The present study employs the ovulatory-shift hypothesis – used to explain a shift in women’s preferences for masculine traits during peak fertility – as an explanatory model for women’s nonspecific sexual arousal. Twenty-nine naturally-cycling women were tested at two points in their menstrual cycles (follicular and luteal) to determine the role of hormonal variation, as estimated by fertility status, on the specificity of genital (using vaginal photoplethysmograph) and subjective sexual arousal. Cycle phase at the time of first testing was counterbalanced; however, no effect of order was observed. Inconsistent with the ovulatory-shift model, the predicted mid-cycle shift in preferences for masculinity or sexual activity at peak fertility was not obtained. Category-specificity of genital arousal did not increase during the follicular phase. A statistical trend was observed for higher genital arousal to couple sex stimuli during the follicular phase compared to the luteal phase...

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PAIN SENSITIVITY AND VASOCONGESTION DUE TO SEXUAL AROUSAL IN WOMEN WITH PROVOKED VESTIBULODYNIA

Boyer, Stéphanie Camille
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 5900788 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
Women with chronic vulvar pain report reduced sexual function in comparison to non-affected women, including decreased sexual arousal. Experimentally induced sexual arousal has been examined in women with and without chronic vulvar pain, with contradictory results: some studies have found that only subjective arousal is affected in women with versus without vulvar pain, while other research has suggested that only genital responsiveness is affected in women with pain. As a result of these inconsistent findings, the role of arousal mechanisms in the causation and maintenance of provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) remains unclear. Thirty women with (n = 15) and without PVD (n = 15) were recruited to examine the relationship among physiological and subjective arousal, pain sensitivity and psychological/sexual function. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) directly measured blood flow to the external genitals in response to an erotic film, and pain sensitivity was assessed before and after imaging. The PVD group had significantly lower blood flow than the control group during the erotic film when baseline blood flow levels were controlled; there were, however, no group differences in ratings of subjective arousal during the erotic film. Vestibular pain thresholds were significantly lower in the PVD group before and after the erotic film compared to the control group. In contrast...

Alexitimia e avaliação da valência e arousal de expressões emocionais

Pedro, Tânia Margarida Jesus
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
A alexitimia foi inicialmente definida por Sifneos em 1975, na qual o indivíduo apresenta dificuldades na identificação e descrição de sentimentos, assim como um pensamento direcionado para o exterior (Sifneos, 1975, pg. 67, cit. por Grynberg et al., 2012). Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a influência de níveis de alexitimia na identificação e avaliação de expressões faciais de emoção. Deste modo foi utilizado um modelo categorial de emoções básicas (identificação de emoções) e um modelo dimensional – Modelo Circumplexo do Afeto (utilização das dimensões de valência e arousal). Neste estudo participaram 84 estudantes da Universidade de Aveiro, tendo sido utilizadas como medidas de autorrelato a TAS-20, a EARCDE e o QRE. Os resultados parecem indicar que indivíduos com características de alexitimia apresentam dificuldades na identificação de, nomeadamente, emoções de medo, surpresa, raiva e faces neutras e de raiva, parecendo também existir uma influência negativa quando os pensamentos são direcionados para o ambiente externo. Importa referir que foram visíveis diferenças significativas entre participantes com baixos e elevados níveis na TAS-20 na identificação incorreta de faces neutras e de raiva como sendo de medo. Quanto aos resultados obtidos com a EARCDE...

Effects of voice on emotional arousal

Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P.; Li, H. Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music.

Physical and Emotional Arousal and Their Effects on Retroactive Memory Enhancement: Gender Matters

Petras, Edgar
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Steven B. Most; There is evidence that emotional events hold a special place in memory and may affect consolidation of neutral events that surround it. This effect has shown to be both an inhibiting factor for neutral events that precede emotional ones, and, more recently, an enhancing factor for those events. This effect has been coined retroactive memory enhancement (RME). In addition, it has been shown that physical arousal also plays a similar part in memory. In order to try to mesh these findings, the current study examined the effect that physical arousal has on memories formed prior to exercise by having subjects associate names with shapes and undergo moderate exercise. Memory was assessed after a 24 hour delay. Though no main effects were seen, a significant correlation between change in heart rate during exercise and scores on the memory test arose. In a follow up experiment studying the effect of emotional stimuli on RME, the same gender differences arose, with females appearing to be more susceptible to the effects of emotional manipulation.; Psychology