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Otimização de obtenção de um extrato aquoso de milho roxo (Zea mays L.) rico em antocianinas e perfil de degradação; Optimization of obtaining an aqueous extract of purple corn (Zea mays L.) rich in anthocyanins and degradation profile.

Stanquevis, Regina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/10/2013 PT
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46.5%
O milho roxo (Zea mays L.), cultura tradicional da região Andina, é conhecido por apresentar alto conteúdo de antocianinas. As antocianinas apresentam diversas propriedades biológicas demonstradas em estudos in vitro e in vivo; entre elas, alto poder antioxidante, atividade anti-inflamatória e quimiopreventiva; entretanto são compostos que se degradam facilmente. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi obter um extrato aquoso rico em antocianinas, a partir do milho roxo, e estudar a estabilidade química das antocianinas presentes frente ao pH e temperatura. Inicialmente o milho roxo comercial, utilizado como matéria prima, foi caracterizado por CLAE-DAD-ESI-MS/MS por apresentar cinco derivados de cianidina, três derivados de peonidina, três derivados de pelargonidina, dois derivados de quercetina e dois derivados de isoramnetina, com presença de acilação nas antocianinas. O teor de antocianinas totais foi de 4,61 mg/g, sendo 3,16 mg cianidina 3-glucosídeo eq./g, 0,63 mg pelargonidina/g e 0,81 mg peonidina/g, além de 1,19 mg quercetina/g e 1,06 mg ácido protocatecúico/g. Para a otimização da obtenção do extrato aquoso e estudo de degradação térmica das antocianinas, foi realizado o delineamento experimental para análise de superfície de resposta. Um delineamento fatorial 33 (15 ensaios com 3 repetições do ponto central) foi aplicado para avaliar o efeito de três fatores...

Improvement of biochemical parameters in type 1 diabetic rats after the roots aqueous extract of yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp.& Endl.)] treatment

Oliveira, Gilberto Ornelas; Braga, Camila Pereira; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 256-260
ENG
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) (Poepp.& Endl.) on clinical parameters under diabetic conditions. The aqueous extract of yacon tuberous roots (YRAE; 0.76gfructankg-1 body weight) was prepared at the moment of each administration. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8): control group (C); group that received YRAE (Y); untreated diabetic group (DM1); and diabetic group treated with YRAE (Y-DM1). The diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin (60mgkg-1 body weight). The animals from Y2 and Y-DM1 received YRAE by gavage, at 7-day intervals, for 30days. The aqueous extract of yacon roots decreased (p<0.05) the water and food intake in diabetic rats (Y-DM1). YRAE treatment reduced (p<0.05) glycaemia, total cholesterol, VLDL-c, LDL-c and triacylglycerol levels in diabetic rats (YRAE). HDL, urea and creatinine levels did not differ (p>0.05) between the Y and Y-DM1 groups. YRAE normalised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, when comparing DM1 and Y-DM1 rats, but had no effect on lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH). In conclusion, YRAE was sufficient for controlling water and food consumption, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia, and promote the reduction of the ALT...

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the activity of pineapple (Ananas comosus) on Haemonchus contortus in Santa Inês sheep

Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Feitosa, Karina Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; de Sena Oliveira, Márcia Cristina; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; Barioni Junior, Waldomiro; de Souza Chagas
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 263-270
ENG
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The development of resistance to anthelmintics has prompted research into alternative methods of controlling intestinal nematodes in ruminants. This study aimed to assess the activity of Ananas comosus on Haemonchus contortus in Santa Inês sheep. The aqueous extract of pineapple skin (AEPS), bromelain from pineapple stems (B4882) and residue from pineapple processing was evaluated in in vitro and in vivo tests. The enzymatic activity of substances was analyzed by the azocasein method. The egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) were performed using the Embrapa2010 isolate of H. contortus. In the in vivo test, 36 sheep artificially infected with H. contortus were divided into six groups: G1: 2g/kg BW of the aqueous extract administered for three days; G2: 2g/kg BW of the industrial pineapple residue for 60 days; G3: 180mg/animal of bromelain in a single dose; G4: negative control I; G5: positive control (levamisole phosphate); and G6: negative control II. The eggs per gram (EPG) in the feces were counted till 28 days after treatment. LC50 and LC90 were obtained by the probit procedure, while the in vivo test results were analyzed by GLM. The aqueous extract in the in vitro and in vivo test, the bromelain and industrial residue presented 0.102...

Allelopathic effects of Sonchus oleraceus L. on the germination and seedling growth of crop and weed species

Gomaa,Nasr Hassan; Hassan,Mahmoud Omar; Fahmy,Gamal Mohammad; González,Luís; Hammouda,Ola; Atteya,Atteya Mostafa
Fonte: Sociedade Botânica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Botânica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
We assessed the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of Sonchus oleraceus dry shoots on the germination and seedling growth of Trifolium alexandrinum, three weed species (Brassica nigra, Chenopodium murale and Melilotus indicus) and S. oleraceus itself. We assayed four different concentrations of the aqueous extract (w v-1): 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%. To determine whether the effects of the extract were attributable to the presence of allelopathic compounds, its osmotic potential or both, we prepared concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with osmotic potentials equivalent to those of the aqueous extract. All concentrations of the plant extract completely inhibited the germination and seedling growth of C. murale. The lowest concentration of the plant extract partially inhibited germination and seedling growth of B. nigra, M. indicus and S. oleraceus, whereas the higher concentrations inhibited those parameters completely. The germination of T. alexandrinum was not affected by the aqueous extract at 1% or 2%. In general, the aqueous extracts were more effective in inhibiting seed germination and seedling growth than were the PEG solutions. Phytochemical analyses revealed that phenols and alkaloids were the most abundant compounds in S. oleraceus dry matter. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract of S. oleraceus has an allelopathic effect on some weeds...

Wound healing potential of aqueous crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in mice

Das,Kuntal
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
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56.37%
The present study was carried out to evaluate the wound healing potential of crude aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, Asteraceae, in experimental animals. All experiments were conducted following standard procedures. The crude extract was administered topically in graded doses of 150, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. was used for evaluating the wound healing potential in excision wound model for fourteen days and orally in the incision wound model for ten days, respectively. Povidone iodine ointment was used as standard (5.0% w/w). Dose dependent activities resulted in both the wound models when compared to the standard (povidone iodine) and the control. Topical application of crude aqueous extract of S. rebaudiana (500 mg/kg b.w) in excision wound model decreased significantly the wound area by 15th day, i.e. 48.2±2.0 compared with control 94.1±1.2. Epithelization time was decreased from 17.3±0.21 to 12.0±0.10 and hydroxylproline content was increased from 32.2±0.11 to 67.6±0.10 when compared with control. In incision wound model breaking strength of wounds, wet and dry granulation of the tissue weight and hydroxyproline were increased significantly from control with AESR. In conclusion, AESR leaves accelerated wound healing activity in mice and thus supports its traditional use.

Effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) pedersen aqueous extract on healing acetic acid-induced ulcers

Freitas,Cristina Setim; Baggio,Cristiane Hatsuko; Araújo,Samanta Luiza; Marques,Maria Consuelo Andrade
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2008 EN
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The present study was carried out to evaluate the acute toxicity and the effect of the aqueous extract of the roots from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen (Amaranthaceae) (AEP) on the prevention of acetic acid-induced ulcer and on the healing process of previously induced ulcers. The acute toxicity was evaluated in Swiss mice after oral administration of a single dose and the chronic gastric ulcer was induced with local application of acetic acid. The results showed that the LD50 of the extract was 684.6 mg.kg-1 for the intraperitoneal administration and higher than 10 mg.kg-1by the oral route. The administration of the AEP did not prevent ulcers formation. However, the AEP increased of the healing process of previously induced ulcers. The results suggest that AEP chronically administered promote an increase of tissue healing, after the damage induced by acetic acid and the extract seemed to be destituted of toxic effects in the mice by the oral route.

Effect of an aqueous extract of annatto (Bixa orellana) seeds on lipid profile and biochemical markers of renal and hepatic function in hipercholesterolemic rats

Paula,Heberth de; Pedrosa,Maria Lúcia; Rossoni Júnior,Joamyr Victor; Haraguchi,Fabiano Kenji; Santos,Rinaldo Cardoso dos; Silva,Marcelo Eustáquio
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 EN
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Annatto extract is a natural food color obtained from the outer coatings of the seeds of the Annatto tree (Bixa orellana L.). This is the first report in the literature that shows the relationship between the aqueous annatto extract and its influence on lipid profile in animals. Male Fisher rats were divided into three groups (n=12): C group, fed standard diet and water; H group, fed high-lipid diet and water and; HU group, with high-lipid diet and aqueous annatto extract for 60 days. The treatment with annatto extract in animals fed with the high-lipid diet lowered the LDL- and total cholesterol and raised the HDL-cholesterol, suggesting a hypocholesterolemic effect. Neither high-fat diet nor aqueous annatto extract had any significant effect on serum levels of albumin or serum activities of transaminases which suggested that no liver injury was induced.

Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula Induces Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells Via a Mechanism Involving Mitochondria-mediated Pathways

Wang,Meiling; Yang,Limin; Ji,Musi; Zhao,Pengwei; Sun,Peng; Bai,Ruixia; Tian,Yunpeng; Su,Liping; Li,Cunbao
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 EN
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66.39%
The current study was designed to evaluate the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula activity, and the main pathway was detected on lung cancer by extracts of T. chebula. Aqueous extract of T. chebula was separated using a zeolite, and five fractions of T. chebula extract were obtained and analyzed by ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) methods against human lung cancer (A549) and mouse lung cancer cell line LLC. T. chebula acts by regulating the Bcl-2 family protein-mediated mitochondrial pathway detected by western blot. Fraction 4 of the T. chebula extract showed much function and was thus studied further. Fraction 4 increased the activation of caspase-3, induced PARP cleavage, and promoted cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm. These data suggest that T. chebula acts by regulating the Bcl-2 family protein-mediated mitochondrial pathway and provide evidence that T. chebula deserves further investigation as a natural agent for treating and preventing cancer.

Characteristics of hemolytic activity induced by the aqueous extract of the Mexican fire coral Millepora complanata

García-Arredondo,Alejandro; Murillo-Esquivel,Luis J; Rojas,Alejandra; Sanchez-Rodriguez,Judith
Fonte: Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP Publicador: Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
Background Millepora complanata is a plate-like fire coral common throughout the Caribbean. Contact with this species usually provokes burning pain, erythema and urticariform lesions. Our previous study suggested that the aqueous extract of M. complanata contains non-protein hemolysins that are soluble in water and ethanol. In general, the local damage induced by cnidarian venoms has been associated with hemolysins. The characterization of the effects of these components is important for the understanding of the defense mechanisms of fire corals. In addition, this information could lead to better care for victims of envenomation accidents. Methods An ethanolic extract from the lyophilized aqueous extract was prepared and its hemolytic activity was compared with the hemolysis induced by the denatured aqueous extract. Based on the finding that ethanol failed to induce nematocyst discharge, ethanolic extracts were prepared from artificially bleached and normal M. complanata fragments and their hemolytic activity was tested in order to obtain information about the source of the heat-stable hemolysins. Results Rodent erythrocytes were more susceptible to the aqueous extract than chicken and human erythrocytes. Hemolytic activity started at ten minutes of incubation and was relatively stable within the range of 28-50°C. When the aqueous extract was preincubated at temperatures over 60°C...

Antidepressant and skeletal muscle relaxant effects of the aqueous extract of the Prosopis cineraria

George,Mathew; Joseph,Lincy; Sharma,Abishika
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
The aqueous leaves extract of Prosopis cineraria (AEPC) is used traditionally for the treatment of various CNS disorder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extract for antidepressant and skeletal muscle relaxant activity. The antidepressant effect of the extract was evaluated using Forced swim test (FST). The immobility periods of control and treated mice were recorded. The antidepressant-like effect of tested compound was compared to that of imipramine (15 mg/kg. p.o). Muscle relaxant property was studied using rotarod apparatus and total fall off time for standard and control group was recorded. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and phenolic compounds. The leaf extract at doses of 200 mg/kg significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in FST. The efficacy of tested extract was found to be comparable to that of imipramine. Our results suggested that the aqueous extract of Prosopis cineraria leaves exerts antidepressant-like effect.

Antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of fruits of Momordica cymbalaria Hook f. in Wistar rats

Dhasan, P. Bharathi; Jegadeesan, M.; Kavimani, S.
Fonte: Medknow Publications Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Gastric ulcer is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders, which affects approximately 5%-10% of people during their life. The ulcer is an open sore that develops on the inside lining of the stomach (a gastric ulcer) or the small intestine (a duodenal ulcer). Both types of ulcers are also referred to as peptic ulcer disease. The present study was carried out to investigate antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of fruits of Momordica cymbalaria Hook f. Initially the aqueous extract of M. cymbalaria was subjected to acute oral toxicity study according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines, based on which, 500 mg/kg dose of aqueous extract was selected for the study. The animals were pretreated before inducing ulcer. For inducing ulcer in the rats, 80% ethanol was used. Various parameters such as area of gastric lesion, nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) concentration, gastric wall mucus concentration, total acidity and volume of gastric content; and histopathological parameters like hemorrhage, edema, erosion, ulceration were studied in the control group and pretreated groups with aqueous extract of fruits of Momordica cymbalaria (500 mg/kg) and standard drug lanzoprazole (30 mg/kg). Pretreatment with aqueous extract of M. cymbalaria fruits showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the total acidity and ulcer index. Improvements in all histopathological parameters were noticed in the M. cymbalaria-treated group. It also showed significant decrease in gastric lesion and NP-SH and gastric wall mucus concentrations in the M. cymbalaria-treated group. Overall the aqueous extract of M. cymbalaria fruits was shown to possess significant (P < 0.05) antiulcer property in rats. The polyphenols like quercetin reported from the plant may attribute to the antiulcer property of the extract.

Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa

Felicidade, I.; Lima, J. D.; Pesarini, J. R.; Monreal, A. C. D.; Mantovani, M. S.; Ribeiro, L. R.; Oliveira, R. J.
Fonte: Funpec-editora Publicador: Funpec-editora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 9986-9996
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic.

Effect of neem extract on the cotton aphid

Santos, Terezinha Monteiro dos; Costa, Nivânia Pereira; Torres, Adalci Leite; Boiça Júnior, Arlindo Leal
Fonte: Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1071-1076
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); O pulgão Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), praga prejudicial à cultura do algodoeiro, causa danos diretos, reduzindo o vigor da planta, e indiretos, ao secretar substância doce e transmitir viroses. em virtude da resistência desse afídeo aos inseticidas, técnicas alternativas ao controle químico, como o uso de inseticidas naturais, têm sido pesquisadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de extratos aquosos de pó de amêndoas de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) sobre o desenvolvimento, sobrevivência e fecundidade de A. gossypii. Os tratamentos consistiram de pó de amêndoas de nim nas concentrações de 23,8, 122,0, 410,0 e 1.410,0 mg/100 mL de água. Os porcentuais de mortalidade durante o período ninfal para os pulgões mantidos sobre discos foliares de algodoeiro imersos nas duas maiores concentrações, foram, respectivamente, 60,0% e 100,0%. Com exceção da maior concentração (1.410,0 mg/100 mL), as demais não prolongaram as fases de desenvolvimento dos pulgões. A taxa líquida de reprodução foi de 35,0 ninfas/fêmea na testemunha e de 0,0 ninfa/fêmea no grupo dos pulgões expostos à concentração de 1.400 mg/100 mL...

Preliminary phytochemical screening and molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extract of Bidens pilosa Linné (Asteraceae) in Subulina octona (Mollusca, Subulinidade)

SOUZA,BRUNA A.; SILVA,LIDIANE C. DA; CHICARINO,EVELYN D.; BESSA,ELISABETH C. A.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The aim of this study was to establish reference concentrations (LC50 e LC90) of aqueous extracts of Bidens pilosa on the land snail Subulina octona, in order to assess the changes caused by 24 and 48 h exposure to the sublethal concentration regarding species' fecundity, hatchability and in offspring produced after exposure to confirm the presence of tannins, saponins and flavonoids in this plant species. Eggs newly hatched and 30 day-old snails were exposed to sublethal concentration, calculated for adults. The phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of flavonoids, condensed tannins and saponins in the aqueous extract of B. pilosa. The LC50 and LC90 obtained were 51.4mg-mL and 74.1mg-mL respectively. The exposure to sublethal concentration reduced significantly the hatchability and the survival of the offspring hatched from exposed eggs and also caused a reduction on survival and growth in snails exposed for both time period. The exposure time also caused a reduction at the evaluated parameters.

Effect of neem extract on the cotton aphid

Santos,Terezinha Monteiro dos; Costa,Nivânia Pereira; Torres,Adalci Leite; Boiça Júnior,Arlindo Leal
Fonte: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira Publicador: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
The aphid Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a harmful pest on cotton, causes direct damage, reducing plant vigor, and indirect damage by honeydew secretion and transmission of several viruses. Due to the problem of pesticide resistance, alternative techniques for chemical control, such as the use of natural insecticides, have been object of research. The effects of aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed powder on the development, survival and fecundity of A. gossypii were evaluated. Treatments consisted of neem seed powder in the concentrations of 23.8, 122.0, 410.0 and 1,410.0 mg/100 mL of distilled water. Mortality rate during the nymphal development for aphids maintained on cotton leaf discs treated with the two highest concentrations were, respectively, 60.0% and 100.0%. With the exception of the highest concentration (1,410.0 mg/100 mL), neem concentrations did not extend the aphids' development period. The net reproductive rate (R0) was of 35.0 nymphs/female for control aphids and of 0.0 nymph/female when the group of females was exposed to neem seed powder at 1,410.0 mg/100 mL since birth. The aqueous extract of neem seeds is efficient against the aphid A. gossypii, causing nymph mortality and reducing their survival period and fecundity.

Effect of neem extract on the cotton aphid.

SANTOS, T.M. dos; COSTA, N.P.; TORRES, A.L.; BOIÇA JUNIOR, A.L.
Fonte: Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília, DF, v.39, n.11, p.1071-1076, novembro 2004. Publicador: Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília, DF, v.39, n.11, p.1071-1076, novembro 2004.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The aphid Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a harmful pest on cotton, causes direct damage, reducing plant vigor, and indirect damage by honeydew secretion and transmission of several viruses. Due to the problem of pesticide resistance, alternative techniques for chemical control, such as the use of natural insecticides, have been object of research. The effects of aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed powder on the development, survival and fecundity of A. gossypii were evaluated. Treatments consisted of neem seed powder in the concentrations of 23.8, 122.0, 410.0 and 1,410.0 mg/100 mL of distilled water. Mortality rate during the nymphal development for aphids maintained on cotton leaf discs treated with the two highest concentrations were, respectively, 60.0% and 100.0%. With the exception of the highest concentration (1,410.0 mg/100 mL), neem concentrations did not extend the aphids' development period. The net reproductive rate (R0) was of 35.0 nymphs/female for control aphids and of 0.0 nymph/female when the group of females was exposed to neem seed powder at 1,410.0 mg/100 mL since birth. The aqueous extract of neem seeds is efficient against the aphid A. gossypii, causing nymph mortality and reducing their survival period and fecundity.; 2004

In vivo and in vitro genotoxicity studies of aqueous extract of Xanthium spinosum

Güez,Camila Martins; Waczuk,Emily Pansera; Pereira,Karina Braccini; Querol,Marcus Vinícius Morini; Rocha,João Batista Teixeira da; Oliveira,Luís Flávio Souza de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
The use of plants as a source of palliative or cure for pathological conditions is quite common worldwide. Xanthium spinosum (Asteraceae), popularly known in Brazil as 'espinho de carneiro', is an annual weed from South America, which has been used by empiric medicine to treat neoplasias. Owing to the extensive use of the above-mentioned plant and to the lack of reports about the real effects of its infusion, current study evaluated the genotoxic potential of its aqueous extract at concentrations 0.02 g L-1, 0.1 g L-1 and 0.2 g L-1 by fish micronucleus test and by comet human leukocytes assay. The micronucleus test featured at least 50 cells with micronuclei to every 2,000 cells scored, as a mutagenic parameter. The comet assay was used as a parameter for assessing the level of cell damage and the damage index. Since no significant changes in strain cells exposed to the aqueous extract in the comet and micronucleus assays were reported, it seems that no genotoxicity evidence is extant at the concentrations and in the assays performed.

Effect of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) aqueous extract on antibody response to Bothrops asper venom and immune cell response

Chaves,Fernando; Chacón,Mauricio; Badilla,Beatriz; Arévalo,Carolina
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2007 EN
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The effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea roots on the murine antibody response to Bothrops asper snake venom in vivo was studied. Three groups were used. Group #1, baseline control, was treated with snake venom plus PBS. Group #2 was treated with snake venom plus sodium alginate as adjuvant (routine method used at Instituto Clodomiro Picado), and group #3 or experimental group, was treated with snake venom plus aqueous extract of E. purpurea root as adjuvant. In all groups, the first inoculation was done with Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA). By the time of the second bleeding, mice in group #3 showed a remarkable increment in the level of anti-venom antibodies compared with those in groups #1 or #2. In vitro immune cell proliferation as a response to aqueous extract of E. purpurea root was studied using human lymphocytes activated with different lectins (Con A, PHA and PWM). In all cases, increase in percentage of lymphoproliferation was greater when E. purpurea root extract was used in addition to individual lectins. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1): 113-119. Epub 2007 March. 31.

Effect of gelled inner aqueous phase rheology on the colour degradation of muitle aqueous extracts incorporated into water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions

Pavón-García,L. M. A.; Pérez-Alonso,C.; Rodríguez-Huezo,M.E.; Jiménez-Alvarado,R.; Alamilla-Beltrán,L.; Román-Guerrero,A.
Fonte: UAM, Unidad Iztapalapa, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería Publicador: UAM, Unidad Iztapalapa, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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The aim of this work was to study different W1/O/W2 double emulsions in preserving color muitle aqueous extract (MAE), for which the work was divided into two fold, formulation and analysis of primary emulsion W1/O and W1/O/W2 double emulsions. Sodium alginate (SA), xanthan gum, guar gum, locust bean gum were used as gelling agents of MAE, and it was found that SA produced inner aqueous phase with enhanced viscoelastic properties, resulting in a W1/O primary emulsion with more uniform mean droplet size and distribution than when using the other gelling agents or ungelled MAE. Subsequently W1/O/W2 double emulsions were produced containing MAE gelled with SA or ungelled in the inner aqueous phase stabilized using pure gum Arabic (GA) or a blend of GA-mesquite gum (MG) in a 70:30 ratio in the outer aqueous phase. The double emulsion formulated with gelled MAE and 70:30 GA-MG blend exhibited more uniform mean inner water and outer oil droplet sizes, and protected best the anthocy anins contained in MAE to preserve its color when exposed to 8 h sunlight, providing a half-time life (t1/2) of 55.23 h. The double emulsion formulated with ungelled MAE and stabilized with pure GA displayed a t1/2 of 7.40 h.

Corrosion Behaviour of Aluminium in the Presence of an Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis

Rajendran,S.; Jeyasundari,J.; Usha,P.; Selvi,J. A.; Narayanasamy,B.; Regis,A. P. P.; Rengan,P.
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
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56.24%
The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (white) in controlling corrosion of aluminium at pH 12 has been evaluated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of Zn2+. The formulation consisting of 8 mL flower extract (FE) and 50 ppm of Zn2+ had 98% inhibition efficiency. Polarization study revealed that this formulation functioned as cathodic inhibitor. AC impedance spectra revealed the presence of a protective film formed on the metal surface. FTIR spectra revealed that the protective film consisted of a complex formed between the active principle of the flower extract and Al3+.