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Chemical characterization of Ginkgo biloba L. and antioxidant properties of its extracts and dietary supplements

Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Ginkgo biloba L. is the most commercialized medicinal plant worldwide, being its consumption related to prevention, and even decrease of the progression of degenerative neurological diseases. Considering the correlation between oxidative stress and the mentioned diseases, the antioxidant activity of different dietary supplements (syrup and several pills) was evaluated and compared to the leaves infusion, aqueous and methanolic extracts. Furthermore, G. biloba was chemically characterized in nutritional and bioactive components namely, fatty acids, sugars, organic acids, tocopherols, phenolics and flavonoids. Palmitic, α-linolenic and oleic acids were the main fatty acids found; fructose was the most abundant sugar; quinic acid was the most abundant organic acid and α-tocopherol was, by far, the most abundant vitamer. Dietary supplements showed higher antioxidant activity than G. biloba infusion and extracts due to their higher phenolics and flavonoids concentration. The pills with the highest concentration of plant extract (100 mg) allow the intake of the highest antioxidants concentration.

Atividade inseticida e modo de ação de extratos de meliáceas sobre Bemisia tabaci (Genn., 1889) Biótipo B.; Insecticidal activity and action way of extracts from meliaceae plants on silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (genn., 1889) Biotype B.

Souza, Antonio Pancracio de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/03/2004 PT
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55.91%
Foram conduzidos experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a bioatividade e o modo de ação de extratos aquosos e orgânicos de ramos de Trichilia pallida Swartz e extratos aquosos de sementes de nim, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, em relação a ninfas e ovos da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biótipo B. Inicialmente, verificou-se que o extrato aquoso de sementes de nim apresenta ação inseticida sobre ninfas de mosca-branca pelas vias translaminar, sistêmica e de contato, nas concentrações de 1; 0,5 e 0,3% (p/v), respectivamente. Em seguida, na comparação entre os extratos metanólico, etanólico, clorofórmico e hexânico de ramos de T. pallida, na concentração de 5% (p/v), foi selecionado o extrato clorofórmico como mais eficiente sobre ninfas de mosca-branca. Esse extrato foi comparado com os extratos aquosos de sementes de nim e de ramos de T. pallida sobre as ninfas quanto aos três tipos de ação nas respectivas concentrações determinadas no experimento. Apenas o extrato de nim provocou mortalidade ninfal pelas três vias testadas. Em relação à fase de ovo, constatou-se que a sua idade não afeta a ação ovicida do extrato aquoso de sementes de nim. Na comparação da ação translaminar e sistêmica dos extratos aquoso e clorofórmico de ramos de T. pallida e aquoso de sementes de nim...

Efeito anti-helmíntico dos extratos etanólicos das folhas de diferentes espécies de árvores frutíferas sobre Strongyloides venezuelensis in vitro; Anthelmintic of etanolic extracts from the leaves of different fruit trees species against Strongyloides venezuelensis in vitro

Letícia Aparecida Duart Bastos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/08/2011 PT
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O Strongyloides stercoralis é uma das principais espécies de nematódeos com alta prevalência entre os humanos, com uma estimativa de 100 milhões de pessoas infectadas em todo mundo. Atualmente os fármacos de escolha para o tratamento desta doença são o tiabendazol, albendazol e ivermectina, porém comumente associados a casos de recidivas, baixa eficácia e a ocorrência de resistência e tolerância a fármacos. Diante da necessidade de medicamentos mais eficazes, menos tóxicos, as plantas medicinais são uma alternativa. Neste trabalho foi avaliado o efeito anti-helmíntico dos extratos etanólicos das folhas de 25 espécies de árvores frutíferas sobre fêmeas adultas parasitas de Strongyloides venezuelensis in vitro. As observações foram feitas em 3 concentrações diferentes por um período de 72 horas. A atividade anti-helmíntica foi observada em 68% dos extratos testados em pelo menos uma das concentrações testadas durante o período de observação, com exceção dos extratos etanólicos de Litchi chinensis, Aceima smeithii, Eugenia involucrata e Butia capitata, a fração orgânica de Pouteria caimito que não apresentaram atividade contra o parasita. Os extratos etanólicos que apresentaram maior eficácia foram Spondias lutea (Cajá) e Pouteria caimito (Caimito)...

Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian plant extracts - Clusiaceae

Suffredini,Ivana B; Paciencia,Mateus LB; Nepomuceno,Daniela C; Younes,Riad N; Varella,Antonio D
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2006 EN
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Twelve extracts obtained from nine plants belonging to six different genera of Clusiaceae were analyzed against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria using the microdilution broth assay. Tovomita aff. longifolia, T. brasiliensis, Clusia columnaris, Garcinia madruno, Haploclathra paniculata, and Caraipa grandifolia extracts showed significant results against the bacteria. The organic extract obtained from the leaves of T. aff. longifolia showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 70 µg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) = 90 µg/ml against E. faecalis and the organic extract made with the stem of C. columnaris showed MIC = 180 µg/ml and MBC = 270 µg/ml against P. aeruginosa. None of the antibacterial extracts showed lethal activity against brine shrimp nauplii. On the other hand, both aqueous and organic extracts obtained from the aerial organs of Vismia guianensis that were cytotoxic to brine shrimp nauplii did not show a significant antibacterial activity in the assay.

Antibacterial activity of Apocynaceae extracts and MIC of Tabernaemontana angulata stem organic extract

Suffredini,Ivana Barbosa; Bacchi,Elfriede Marianne; Sakuda,Telma Mary Kaneko; Ohara,Mitsuko Taba; Younes,Riad Naim; Varella,Antonio Drauzio
Fonte: Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação do Conjunto das Químicas da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação do Conjunto das Químicas da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2002 EN
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55.76%
Thirty-eight aqueous and organic extracts obtained from 11 Amazonian Apocynaceae species were submitted to an antimicrobial dilution in broth media screening for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, performed on microtiter plates. The organic extract obtained from the stem of Tabernaemontana angulata presented activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the organic crude extract was 2.50-1.25 mg/mL. Cloramphenicol was used as standard. Alkaloids and triterpenes were found in the active organic extract.

Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens

Mahmoud,D.A; Hassanein,N.M; Youssef,K.A; Abou Zeid,M.A
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
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65.78%
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens.

Biological Activities of Aqueous and Organic Extracts from Tropical Marine Sponges

Sepčić, Kristina; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Turk, Tom
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/04/2010 EN
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We report on screening tests of 66 extracts obtained from 35 marine sponge species from the Caribbean Sea (Curaçao) and from eight species from the Great Barrier Reef (Lizard Island). Extracts were prepared in aqueous and organic solvents and were tested for hemolytic, hemagglutinating, antibacterial and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, as well as their ability to inhibit or activate cell protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The most interesting activities were obtained from extracts of Ircinia felix, Pandaros acanthifolium, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Verongula rigida and Neofibularia nolitangere. Aqueous and organic extracts of I. felix and V. rigida showed strong antibacterial activity. Topsentia aqueous and some organic extracts were strongly hemolytic, as were all organic extracts from I. felix. The strongest hemolytic activity was observed in aqueous extracts from P. acanthifolium. Organic extracts of N. nolitangere and I. felix inhibited PP1. The aqueous extract from Myrmekioderma styx possessed the strongest hemagglutinating activity, whilst AChE inhibiting activity was found only in a few sponges and was generally weak, except in the methanolic extract of T. ophiraphidites.

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Studies of Lantana indica Roxb

Venkataswamy, R.; Doss, A.; Sukumar, M.; Mubarack, H. M.
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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45.78%
The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial and preliminary phytochemical properties of Lantana indica Roxb. The aqueous and organic solvent (ethyl acetate and methanol) extracts from the leaves of Lantana indica (Verbenaceae) were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Steptococcus pyrogens, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans by agar well diffusion method. The results showed promising antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. Among these, methanol and aqueous extracts were found to possess a more potent inhibitory effect when compared to the ethyl acetate extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, tannins and flavonoidal glycosides. The result of this study validates the use of methanol and aqueous extract of this species in ethnomedicine, favouring the isolation of antibacterial agents from the leaf extract of Lantana indica.

Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/05/2011 EN
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45.94%
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens.

Detection and Extraction of Anti-Listerial Compounds from Calligonum Comosum, A Medicinal Plant from Arid Regions of Tunisia

Riadh, Hammami; Imen, Farhat; Abdelmajid, Zouhir; Sinda, Fedhila
Fonte: African Networks on Ethnomedicines Publicador: African Networks on Ethnomedicines
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/04/2011 EN
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Calligonum comosum, a Tunisian plant from arid regions, is traditionally used in folk medicine to treat rural population microbial infections. The plant was investigated in vitro for its ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria ivanovii. Various aqueous and organic extracts were prepared from different plant tissues. Results indicated that ethanolic, methanolic and acetonic extracts from whole plant tissues except seeds, exhibited significant antibacterial activity with growth inhibition zones (9 – 18mm) as shown by the agar-well diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 0.65mg/ml was obtained in acetonic extract generated from C. comosum roots. Preliminary phytochemical analysis based on heat and protease treatments showed that bioactive extracts were stable up to 10m in heating at 100°C and that they resist protease digestion. Based on these latter results, the activity of organic extracts may be related to the presence of sterols, terpenoids, and/or phenolics. Overall, these results indicate that C. comosum organic extracts are probably useful in the control of food contamination by listerial species.

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves Under In Vitro Conditions

Negi, Bhawna Sunil; Dave, Bharti P.; Agarwal, Y. K.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
This study was undertaken with an objective of testing the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Bauhinia purpurea leaves and identifying the bioactive compounds. The antimicrobial activity of leaf extract was determined in aqueous and organic extracts and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against six species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using the disk diffusion method. The chemical constituents of organic plant extract were separated by thin layer chromatography and purified by column chromatography and further identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. Significant inhibitory activity was observed with methanol extracts of plant against the test microorganisms while less antibacterial activity was observed in hexane, acetone and aqueous extracts. MIC of B. purpurea extract was ≤1,500 μg/ml against S. aureus and B. subtilis while this extract showed no inhibition against Gram-negative S. typhi, E. coli and P. aeruginosa or against fungus C. albicans. Eleven compounds were identified in B. purpurea leaf extract by GC–MS analysis. The composition of B. purpurea revealed the presence of lupeol...

In vitro evaluation of Datura innoxia (thorn-apple) for potential antibacterial activity

Kaushik, P.; Goyal, Pankaj
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Various parts of Datura innoxia were examined for potential antibacterial activity by preparing their crude aqueous and organic extracts against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus). The results of agar well diffusion assay indicated that the pattern of inhibition depends largely upon the plant part, solvent used for extraction and the organism tested. Extracts prepared from leaves were shown to have better efficacy than stem and root extracts. Organic extracts provided potent antibacterial activity as compared to aqueous extracts. Among all the extracts, methanolic extract was found most active against almost all the bacterial species tested. Gram-positive bacteria were found most sensitive as compared to Gram-negative bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus was signifi cantly inhibited by almost all the extracts even at very low MIC followed by other Gram-positives. For Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium), the end point was not reached for ethyl acetate extract while it was very high for other extracts. The study promises an interesting future for designing a potentially active antibacterial agent from Datura innoxia.

Antifungal Hydroxy Fatty Acids Produced during Sourdough Fermentation: Microbial and Enzymatic Pathways, and Antifungal Activity in Bread

Black, Brenna A.; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Gänzle, Michael G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2013 EN
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55.55%
Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter−1. Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter−1. L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter−1 (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days...

Cyanobacteria from Terrestrial and Marine Sources Contain Apoptogens Able to Overcome Chemoresistance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

Liu, Liwei; Herfindal, Lars; Jokela, Jouni; Shishido, Tania Keiko; Wahlsten, Matti; Døskeland, Stein Ove; Sivonen, Kaarina
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/04/2014 EN
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In this study, we investigated forty cyanobacterial isolates from biofilms, gastropods, brackish water and symbiotic lichen habitats. Their aqueous and organic extracts were used to screen for apoptosis-inducing activity against acute myeloid leukemia cells. A total of 28 extracts showed cytotoxicity against rat acute myeloid leukemia (IPC-81) cells. The design of the screen made it possible to eliminate known toxins, such as microcystins and nodularin, or known metabolites with anti-leukemic activity, such as adenosine and its analogs. A cytotoxicity test on human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) fibroblasts indicated that 21 of the 28 extracts containing anti-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) activity showed selectivity in favor of leukemia cells. Extracts L26-O and L30-O were able to partly overcome the chemotherapy resistance induced by the oncogenic protein Bcl-2, whereas extract L1-O overcame protection from the deletion of the tumor suppressor protein p53. In conclusion, cyanobacteria are a prolific resource for anti-leukemia compounds that have potential for pharmaceutical applications. Based on the variety of cellular responses, we also conclude that the different anti-leukemic compounds in the cyanobacterial extracts target different elements of the death machinery of mammalian cells.

As plantas bioativas como estrat??gia ?? transi????o agroecol??gica na agricultura familiar: an??lise sobre a utiliza????o emp??rica e experimental de extratos bot??nicos no manejo de af??deos em hortali??as; Plants as bioactive strategy to agroecological transition on family farms: analysis of the empirical and experimental use of botanical extracts in the management of aphids in vegetables

LOVATTO, Patr??cia Braga
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agricultura familiar; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Sistemas de Produ????o Agr??cola Familiar; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agricultura familiar; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Sistemas de Produ????o Agr??cola Familiar; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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45.82%
Knowledge about the use of bioactive plants for insect management has assisted in developing methods less harmful to the environment and human health, becoming a viable and environmentally sound strategy to be incorporated into agricultural production systems family that aims to sustainability. Thus, the active principles of plants can act in crop protection by acting as repellents, attractive and / or insecticides, representing a low-cost technology and reduced environmental impact, made from the recovery and maintenance of popular knowledge. Given these assumptions the research presented here was to order, identify, classify and contextualize the use of bioactive plants, used for the management of agroecossitemas by farmers in ecological basis of the Territory South Zone of RS, combining elements of research in ethnobotany research data experimental to legitimize the use of botanicals in the management of aphids on vegetable crops. Serving up the research participant and the phenomenological approach as qualitative tools for ethnobotanical research conducted with 33 farmers in ecological basis linked to the Cooperative Ecological and ARPA South-South, it was possible to infer the empirical use of 24 different plant species for management bioactive agroecosystems. Thus...

Evaluation of the cytotoxic and cytostatic activities of medicinal plants used by Peruvian healers against cancer-related symptoms

Garcia Espinoza, Maria Cecilia
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Twelve plants used medicinally in Callejon de Huaylas, Department of Ancash, northeastern Peru were selected and screened in vitro for cytotoxic and cytostatic activities. Traditional preparations, aqueous extracts and organic extracts (methanol:dimethyl chloride) were tested against murine leukemia P388 cells using flow cytometry. Seventy-five percent or more of the traditional and aqueous extracts were cytostatic at concentrations of 1mg/ml. For organic extracts, cytostatic activity ranged from 8.3% (at 6.25 μg/ml) to 58.3% (at 100 μg/ml). Quinchamalium procumbens, Ophryosporus chilca and Baccharis genistelloides showed strong activity. Extracts of Brachyotum rostratum, Monnina salicifolia, and Orthrosanthus chimboracensis were particularly interesting, since they were cytostatic but not cytotoxic at concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml. These Andean plants merit further analysis. The high percentage of activity found among the traditional preparations suggests that the traditional medical knowledge of Callejon de Huaylas healers deserves respect and merits further research. ^

Efeito de extratos de Trichilia pallida Swartz e Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) sobre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) e seu parasitóide Trichogramma pretiosum Riley.; Effect of extracts of Trichilia pallida swartz and Azadirachta indica (meliaceae) ON Tuta absoluta (meyrick) and its parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum riley.

Gervásio, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues Gonçalves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2003 PT
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Esse trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de verificar a bioatividade de extratos aquosos e orgânicos de folhas de Trichilia pallida e do extrato aquoso de sementes de Azadirachta indica (nim) sobre Tuta absoluta e seu parasitóide Trichogramma pretiosum. Procurou-se determinar os efeitos sistêmico, translaminar e de contato dos extratos sobre a praga, além do efeito sobre a biologia e comportamento do parasitóide. Primeiramente, foram realizados experimentos visando à determinação das concentrações dos extratos mais adequadas para utilização nos testes de bioatividade. Nesta etapa preliminar, foram utilizados apenas extratos aquosos de sementes de nim em concentrações variáveis de 0,5 a 10%. Esses extratos foram aplicados no solo, na superfície adaxial de folíolos de tomateiro e diretamente sobre o inseto para a determinação dos efeitos sistêmico, translaminar e de contato, respectivamente, sendo selecionadas as concentrações de 0,5; 1 e 5% para os respectivos testes. Após a escolha das concentrações, foi selecionado, dentre quatro extratos orgânicos de folhas de T. pallida (hexânico, metanólico, etanólico e clorofórmico) o extrato clorofórmico como o mais eficiente sobre a praga. Determinadas as concentrações e o extrato orgânico de T. pallida mais eficiente...

Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of a Saudi medicinal plant: Rumex nervosus

Al-Asmari, Abdul Rahman K.; Siddiqui, Yunus M.; Athar, Md. Tanwir; Al-Buraidi, Ahmed; Al-Eid, A. S.; Horaib, Ghalib B.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Text
Publicado em //2015 EN
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55.55%

Antibacterial activity of Apocynaceae extracts and MIC of Tabernaemontana angulata stem organic extract; Atividade antibacteriana de extratos deApocynaceae e CIM de extrato orgânico de caule de Tabernaemontana angulata

Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa; Bacchi, Elfriede Marianne; Sakuda, Telma Mary Kaneko; Ohara, Mitsuko Taba; Younes, Riad Naim; Varella, Antonio Drauzio
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2002 ENG
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Trinta e oito extratos orgânicos e aquosos obtidos de 11 espécies de Apocynaceae foram submetidos a triagem utilizando o método da microdiluição em caldo contra Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans. O extrato orgânico obtido do caule de Tabernaemontana angulata apresentou atividade contra a bactéria Gram positiva S. aureus. A concentração inibitória mínima verificada para esse extrato variou de 2,50 a 1,25 mg/mL. Cloranfenicol foi utilizado como antimicrobiano padrão. A análise fitoquímica indicou a presença de triterpenos e alcalóides no extrato ativo.; Thirty-eight aqueous and organic extracts obtained from 11 Amazonian Apocynaceae species were submitted to an antimicrobial dilution in broth media screening for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, performed on microtiter plates. The organic extract obtained from the stem of Tabernaemontana angulata presented activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the organic crude extract was 2.50-1.25 mg/mL. Cloramphenicol was used as standard. Alkaloids and triterpenes were found in the active organic extract.

Stability of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes during thermal processing

Jacob,K; García-Alonso,F.J; Ros,G; Periago,M.J
Fonte: Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición Publicador: Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 EN
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55.55%
In the present investigation we ascertained the stability of lycopene, ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, polyphenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity (AC) during the process of concentrating tomatoes into two tomato pastes (10 and 15ºBrix). Thermal processing increased the content of lycopene, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and the individual phenolic compounds quercetin, rutin, chlorogenic and cafeic acids, whereas it decreased the other analysed compounds. However, lycopene in the 15ºBrix-tomato paste decreased due to the extension of thermal processing, which led to degradation. The AC of aqueous and organic extracts was measured and different AC values were observed depending on the antioxidant profile of the extract and assay used (TEAC and FRAP). AC expressed in dry matter decreased as result of ascorbic acid losses. Overall, thermal processing enhanced the nutritional value of tomatoes, mainly by increasing the lycopene and phenolic antioxidants, but the extension of treatment must be controlled to prevent lycopene degradation.