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Desenvolvimento, maturação e armazenamento de pedúnculos de cajueiro anão precoce CCP-76 sob influência do cálcio; Developing, maturation and storage cashew apples of the clone CCP-76 under the influence of calcium

Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/03/2000 PT
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27.69%
Três experimentos foram desenvolvidos em duas etapas, utilizando-se as dependências e instalações da Embrapa - Agroindústria Tropical, em Fortaleza, CE, com os seguintes objetivos: avaliar quanto aos aspectos físicos, físico-químicos, químicos e bioquímicos de pedúnculos de cajueiro anão precoce CCP-76 durante o desenvolvimento e maturação; caracterizar quantitativa e qualitativamente as alterações nos constituintes da parede celular do pedúnculo associadas aos processos de desenvolvimento e maturação, e verificar o efeito da aplicação pós-colheita de cálcio, em diferentes concentrações, sobre as características físicas, físico-químicas, químicas e bioquímicas dos pedúnculos submetidos a armazenamento refrigerado sob atmosfera modificada. Os cajus utilizados neste trabalho, foram obtidos na área comercial de clones de cajueiro anão precoce instalada na Empresa Mossoró Agro-industrial S.A. O clone selecionado para este estudo foi o CCP-76 por ser o mais cultivado para produção de pedúnculos para comercialização in natura. As colheitas foram feitas em junho e agosto de 1997 para os experimentos 1 e 2 respectivamente, e em novembro de 1998 para o experimento 3. Os cajus, depois de colhidos, foram imediatamente transportados para o laboratório...

Alterações qualitativas na cutítula de maçãs e tangerinas em função do tratamento térmico e da escovação; Qualitative changes on the cuticle of apples and tangerines in response to heat treatments and brushing

Montero, Cândida Raquel Scherrer
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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27.43%
O tratamento térmico é um método antigo de desinfestação de frutos e vem sendo mais bem estudado com objetivo de utilizá-lo como método alternativo de controle de podridões em pós-colheita. O calor atua sobre a germinação e o crescimento de estruturas do patógeno e sobre o fruto, aumentando a resistência à infecção. Uma das formas de ação do calor sobre os frutos, proposta na literatura, ocorre sobre a cutícula, de modo a fundir as ceras presentes nesta camada e formar uma barreira física para evitar a entrada do patógeno durante a armazenagem. Neste trabalho, estudou-se o efeito do tratamento com água quente na cutícula de maçãs cv. Fuji e Gala e tangerinas cv. Montenegrina. O calor foi aplicado por imersão e aspersão aliado à escovação e, no caso da tangerina, também foram utilizados métodos de controle complementares e a aplicação de cera de carnaúba na superfície dos frutos. Os frutos do experimento com maçãs foram avaliados em mais de uma época de armazenagem e os de tangerina no final do experimento. Amostras foram retiradas, secas ao ar, montadas e visualizadas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As ceras cuticulares das maçãs e das tangerinas alteraram-se em função do tratamento com calor...

Perdas qualitativas de maçãs cv. Gala em armazenamento refrigerado; Postharvest quality lost in cv. Gala aplles during refrigerated air storage

Bender, Renar João; Lunardi, Rosangela
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
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27.49%
O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de dimensionar as perdas de qualidade de maçãs cv. Gala durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Para determinar estas perdas, foi feito um acompanhamento durante três anos consecutivos, com frutos de três tamanhos: calibre em torno de 100 frutos/caixa de 18kg, calibre 130 e calibre acima de 200. Quinzenalmente, durante os primeiros 90 dias de armazenagem no primeiro ano, 144 dias no segundo ano e 211 dias no terceiro ano, amostras de 20 a 30 maçãs foram avaliadas para perda de peso e parâmetros qualitativos como a firmeza de polpa, os sólidos solúveis totais (SST) e acidez titulável. As variáveis que apresentaram as melhores correlações com o período de armazenagem e, portanto, podem auxiliar na estimativa de possíveis perdas quantitativas durante o armazenamento em ar-refrigerado foram a firmeza de polpa e a acidez titulável. As maiores perdas de qualidade, com exceção da firmeza de polpa, foram observadas em frutos dos tamanhos menores.; The experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate quality lost of Gala apples during refrigerated air storage. Three sizes of apples: 100 apples/40Lbs box, 130 apples/box, and 200 apples/box were sampled every two weeks during 90 days of storage in the first year...

Efeito de fitorreguladores sobre a incidência de podridão carpelar em maçãs "Fuji"; Effects of growth regulators on the incidence of moldy core in “Fuji” apples

Kretzschmar, Aike Anneliese; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Duarte, Valmir; Sanhueza, Rosa Maria Valdebenito; Guerra, Denis Salvati
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.43%
Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o efeito dos fitorreguladores CPPU (N-2-cloro-4-piridil -N-feniluréia), Promalina (GA4+7 + BA), Benziladenina (BA) e Thidiazuron, aplicados no período entre a plena floração e a queda a de pétalas em macieiras cv. Fuji, sobre a incidência de podridão carpelar, na safra de 2001-2002 e 2002-2003. A área experimental constituiu-se de macieiras da cv Fuji/EM-9, plantio 1994 em Vacaria-RS. Foram avaliadas características de formato dos frutos e a incidência de sinais e sintomas da podridão carpelar. O Thidiazuron e a Promalina aumentaram a presença de sinais de fungos nas sementes no ciclo de 2001-2002. Houve influência de tratamentos com fitorreguladores sobre a expressão dos sintomas da podridão carpelar tanto nas maçãs caídas das plantas como naquelas avaliadas após três meses de frigoconservação nos dois ciclos vegetativos avaliados.; The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of CPPU (N-2-cloro-4-piridil)-N-phenylurea), Promalin (GA4+7 + BA), Benzyladenine (BA) and Thidiazuron, sprayed on “Fuji” apple trees at full bloom stage, on the incidence of moldy core, in the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 seasons. The experimental area was a Fuji/EM-9 apple orchard, established in 1994 in Vacaria / RS. The apples were evaluated for fruit shape and moldy core incidence. During 2001...

Patulin accumulation in apples during storage by Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum strains

Welke, Juliane Elisa; Hoeltz, Michele; Dottori, Horacio Alberto; Noll, Isa Beatriz
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.58%
A part of apples destined to juice production is generally of poor quality. Apples from cold storage or recently harvest (ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient conditions until they are processed. Since Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum are the principal fungal species isolated from stored apples in Brazil, the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of these strains to produce patulin in apples and report the consequences of this type of storage in loss of quality. The toxin was quantified using thin layer chromatography and charge-coupled device camera (TLC-CCD). The rate and quantities that P. expansum and P. griseofulvum can grow and produce patulin are highly dependent on the fungal strain and time. Lesion diameter resulted to be independent of the strain considered. The maximum period of time which apples were kept at cold storage (4 °C) without patulin accumulation was 27 days. When these apples were kept at 25 °C during 3 days, both factors lesion diameter and patulin production increased significantly. These results confirm that time in which apples are taken out from cold storage room before juice production is critical in order to prevent patulin accumulation.

Avaliação de maçã Royal Gala revestida com filme de quitosana durante o período de pós-colheita

Jorge, Paula Canonico Silva
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 158 f.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.49%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Alimentos e Nutrição - FCFAR; Os filmes e revestimentos biodegradáveis são usados para revestir os alimentos, agindo como barreira à umidade e a gases, reduzindo a respiração e as perdas de água por transpiração e desidratação, além do escurecimento enzimático, e mantendo as características do alimento, com aumento da vida de prateleira. Este trabalho teve como objetivos reunir informações sobre o uso da quitosana como revestimento de frutas e vegetais, visando dar suporte ao trabalho experimental; avaliar maçãs revestidas com quitosana comercial, durante o armazenamento à temperatura ambiente, simulando as condições de comercialização das frutas para o mercado interno; avaliar maçãs revestidas com quitosana comercial durante 6 meses de armazenamento sob atmosfera controlada e baixa temperatura, condições de estocagem das frutas para o mercado externo, seguido de armazenamento por 30 dias em atmosfera ambiente e baixa temperatura, visando simular o transporte das frutas para o mercado consumidor no exterior, e posteriormente estocadas à temperatura ambiente, simulando as condições de comercialização; e avaliar maçãs revestidas com quitosana modificada...

Estudo da influencia de tecnicas na minimização da incorporação de oleo durante o processo de fritura de maçã.; Study of the influence of techniques in the minimização of the oil incorporation during the process of fritura of apple.

Amanda Faria Querido
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/02/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
O processo de fritura de alimentos há muito tempo é empregado domesticamente e também vem sendo uma das maneiras de conservação de alimentos empregadas na indústria de alimentos. Este projeto, que visou estudar as melhores condições para a fritura da maçã, incluiu o estudo da desidratação osmótica e da secagem com ar quente como pré-tratamentos, o uso de coberturas comestíveis, a centrifugação do produto após a fritura, além de estudar a tecnologia de fritura sob vácuo. Os ensaios em pressão atmosférica foram conduzidos na fritadeira Croydon - F25. Na otimização dos parâmetros tempo e temperatura do processo de fritura em óleo de palma foi utilizada a metodologia de superfície de esposta, tendo por base um planejamento fatorial em dois níveis, visando a minimização da incorporação de óleo e da alteração da cor. Obtiveramse chips vindos da fritura de maçã parcialmente desidratada em estufa (umidade de 50%) e da maçã osmoticamente desidratada. Para a validação foram definidas as condições de fritura de 145oC/220 segundos e 155oC/180 segundos para a maçã parcialmente desidratada em estufa e osmoticamente desidratada, respectivamente. Ambos os chips obtidos apresentaram valores de Aa inferiores a 0...

Study of chemical and physical properties of apples dried in a convective drier.

Cruz, AC; Guiné, Raquel; Gonçalves, JC; Correia, AC
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The present study evaluates the effects of drying on apple slices from two varieties, Golden Delicious and Granny Smith, which were analyzed in terms of physical and chemical properties. The tests involved the determination of moisture, acidity, soluble solids, colour and texture. Trials were performed in a convective hot air dryer for different temperatures of 30, 40, 50 and 60 ° C. The results showed that the final moisture of the two varieties of apples was around 3 % (wet basis). With regards to acidity, the variety Granny Smith was found to be more acid than the Golden Delicious. The soluble solids are present, in general, in greater amounts in the variety Granny Smith. As to the colour, this varied very considerably from the fresh apples to the dried ones. Apples of the variety Golden Delicious presented a higher intensity of yellow (b* > 0) and red (a* > 0). However, in comparison to the variety Granny Smith the Golden Delicious presents, in general, smaller total colour differences. The textural attributes evaluated were hardness, adhesiveness, elasticity, cohesiveness and chewiness. However, the results for adhesiveness were very close to zero showing that these products do not have adhesiveness...

Estimate of respiration rate and physicochemical changes of fresh-cut apples stored under different temperatures

Fagundes,Cristiane; Carciofi,Bruno Augusto Mattar; Monteiro,Alcilene Rodrigues
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 EN
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37.08%
In this study, the influence of storage temperature and passive modified packaging (PMP) on the respiration rate and physicochemical properties of fresh-cut Gala apples (Malus domestica B.) was investigated. The samples were packed in flexible multilayer bags and stored at 2 °C, 5 °C, and 7 °C for eleven days. Respiration rate as a function of CO2 and O2 concentrations was determined using gas chromatography. The inhibition parameters were estimated using a mathematical model based on Michaelis-Menten equation. The following physicochemical properties were evaluated: total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and reducing sugars. At 2 °C, the maximum respiration rate was observed after 150 hours. At 5 °C and 7 °C the maximum respiration rates were observed after 100 and 50 hours of storage, respectively. The inhibition model results obtained showed a clear effect of CO2 on O2 consumption. The soluble solids decreased, although not significantly, during storage at the three temperatures studied. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity decreased during storage and the pH increased. These results indicate that the respiration rate influenced the physicochemical properties.

Citrininotoxinogenicity of Penicillium spp. isolated from decaying apples

Pepeljnjak,Stjepan; Šegvic,Maja; Ozegovic,Ladislav
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A study on the occurrence of citrinin and citrinin production ability of Penicillium spp. isolated from decaying apples collected from households in Croatia was carried out. Among 100 samples of apples, 37 strains of Penicillium spp. were found, including P. expansum, P. roqueforti, P. implicatum and P. purpurogenum. Citrinin production in liquid yeast medium by 11 strains of P. expansum varied in a range of 0.07 to 9.00 mg.kg-1. Citrinin was isolated from 19% of apple samples in range of 0.05 to 0.24 mg.kg-1. Antimicrobial activity of isolated citrinin, evaluated through tests on Bacillus subtilis, presented inhibitory zones varying from 5 mm to 1 cm. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 0.0072 µg.mL-1 for bacteriostatic effect, and 0.0144 µg.mL-1 for bactericidal effect.

Patulin accumulation in apples during storage by Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum strains

Welke,Juliane Elisa; Hoeltz,Michele; Dottori,Horacio Alberto; Noll,Isa Beatriz
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.58%
A part of apples destined to juice production is generally of poor quality. Apples from cold storage or recently harvest (ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient conditions until they are processed. Since Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum are the principal fungal species isolated from stored apples in Brazil, the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of these strains to produce patulin in apples and report the consequences of this type of storage in loss of quality. The toxin was quantified using thin layer chromatography and charge-coupled device camera (TLC-CCD). The rate and quantities that P. expansum and P. griseofulvum can grow and produce patulin are highly dependent on the fungal strain and time. Lesion diameter resulted to be independent of the strain considered. The maximum period of time which apples were kept at cold storage (4 ºC) without patulin accumulation was 27 days. When these apples were kept at 25 ºC during 3 days, both factors lesion diameter and patulin production increased significantly. These results confirm that time in which apples are taken out from cold storage room before juice production is critical in order to prevent patulin accumulation.

Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the Surfaces and Internal Structures of Apples as Detected by Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy

Burnett, Scott L.; Chen, Jinru; Beuchat, Larry R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) was used to demonstrate the attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 transformed with a plasmid encoding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the surface and within the internal structures of nonwaxed Red Delicious cv. apples. Apples at 2 or 25°C were inoculated with an E. coli O157:H7 cell suspension at 2 or 25°C. The effect of a negative temperature differential (cold inoculum, warm apple), a positive differential (warm inoculum, cold apple), and no differential (warm inoculum, warm apple), in combination with a pressure differential (atmospheric versus 10,130 Pa), on the attachment and infiltration of cells was determined. CSLM stereo images of external surfaces of apples subjected to all combinations of test parameters showed preferential cellular attachment to discontinuities in the waxy cuticle on the surface and to damaged tissue surrounding puncture wounds, where the pathogen was observed at depths up to 70 μm below the skin surface. Attachment to lenticels was sporadic but was occasionally observed at depths of up to 40 μm. Infiltration through the floral tube and attachment to seeds, cartilaginous pericarp, and internal trichomes were observed in all apples examined, regardless of temperature differential during inoculation. The pressure differential had no effect on infiltration or attachment of E. coli O157:H7. Image analysis to count cells at various depths within tissues was used to quantitatively compare the extent of infiltration into various apple structures as well as the effects of the temperature differential. Puncture wounds harbored greater numbers of the pathogen at greater depths than did other sites examined. Attachment or infiltration of cells was greater on the intact skin and in lenticels...

Patulin Accumulation In Apples During Storage by Penicillium Expansum and Penicillium Griseofulvum Strains

Welke, Juliane Elisa; Hoeltz, Michele; Dottori, Horacio Alberto; Noll, Isa Beatriz
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.58%
A part of apples destined to juice production is generally of poor quality. Apples from cold storage or recently harvest (ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient conditions until they are processed. Since Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum are the principal fungal species isolated from stored apples in Brazil, the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of these strains to produce patulin in apples and report the consequences of this type of storage in loss of quality. The toxin was quantified using thin layer chromatography and charge-coupled device camera (TLC-CCD). The rate and quantities that P. expansum and P. griseofulvum can grow and produce patulin are highly dependent on the fungal strain and time. Lesion diameter resulted to be independent of the strain considered. The maximum period of time which apples were kept at cold storage (4 °C) without patulin accumulation was 27 days. When these apples were kept at 25 °C during 3 days, both factors lesion diameter and patulin production increased significantly. These results confirm that time in which apples are taken out from cold storage room before juice production is critical in order to prevent patulin accumulation.

Gamma Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment for Apples Infested by Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

Burditt, A. K.; Hungate, F. P.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae reared on thinning apples were exposed to gamma radiation at incremental doses up to 138 Gy (gray). Adult emergence from pupae was reduced, and larval mortality increased as dose increased. At a dose of 39.2 Gy, emergence of normal adults from irradiated younger larvae (first through third instars) was reduced, and emergence of physically deformed adults increased. At higher doses, adult emergence was further reduced, the ratio of male to female emergence increased significantly, and overall survival of larvae declined. Similar results were obtained for older larvae (third through fifth instars) except that the doses required for comparable effects were 10-25% higher than those for younger larvae. These data suggest that doses of 372 Gy would prevent first through third instars from maturing and forming cocoons. However, probit analysis showed that a dose of 187 Gy or less gave quarantine security based on preventing adult emergence from fruit infested by larvae. When an estimated 79,540 nondiapausing immature larvae infesting thinning apples were exposed to approximately 153 Gy, only 15,501 formed cocoons; of these, only 256 pupated and none emerged as adults.

Improvement Quality and Shelf Life Assessment of Minimally Processed Apples by Use of Protein Coatings

Pizato, Sandriane; Cortez-Vega, William Renzo; Costa, Tailine Saturnino da; Oliveira, Lauren Menegon de; Prentice-Hernández, Carlos
Fonte: Canadian Center of Science and Education Publicador: Canadian Center of Science and Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.35%
Minimally processed fruits offer a convenient and practical product to the consumer, with quality and freshness similar to the in natura product. The aim of this study was to apply coatings of croaker protein isolate (Micropogonias furnieri) with organoclay (montmorillonite) on minimally processed apples during 12 days of storage at 5 ± 1 °C. The apples were washed, peeled and cut into cubes. Coatings were then applied where T1 (control sample), T2 (croaker protein isolate coating) and T3 (croaker protein isolate coating and montmorillonite (MMT). The pieces were allowed to drain into sieves and these were stored in polyethylene terephthalete (PET) packaging for a period of 12 days at 5 ± 1 °C. Analyses of weight loss, firmness, color (Lightness (L*), Chroma a* and b*), pH, and microbiological analyses (psychrotrophic, yeasts and molds, Salmonella and Escherichia coli) were carried out. The analyses were carried out in triplicate and evaluated at the times of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 days of storage. The use of croaker protein isolate coating and MMT proved promising in keeping weight loss, microbiological counts, enzymatic browning and firmness loss at minimum in minimally processed apples.

Expressão diferencial de cDNAs de maças cv. Fuji em resposta à inoculação com os fungos Botryosphaeria dothidea e Penicillium expansum e o tratamento térmico em pós-colheita; Differential display of cv. Fuji cDNA's of apples inoculated after harvest with Botryosphaeria dothidea and Penicillium expansum and heat treatment

Corrent, Adriana Regina
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.49%
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do tratamento térmico por aspersão de água a 58°C por 30 segundos no controle das podridões em pós-colheita causadas pelos fungos Botryosphaeria dothidea e Penicillium expansum e caracterizar, em nível molecular, interações entre o patógeno B. dothidea e maçãs cv. Fuji, a fim de identificar o efeito do tratamento térmico na indução de genes de resistência. O primeiro trabalho desenvolvido foi o estudo de diferentes métodos de extração de RNA total de maçãs, em três estádios de maturação e em diferentes partes do tecido dos frutos. Maçãs verdes apresentam maior rendimento de RNA quando comparadas com maçãs em senescência e maduras. Dentre os tecidos estudados, a epiderme apresentou maior quantidade de RNA total. Nos trabalhos de expressão gênica diferencial o perfil de expressão de maçãs inoculadas com B. dothidea e não inoculadas foi comparado, através da técnica de Differential Display RT-PCR. Quatrocentos fragmentos de cDNAs diferencialmente expressos foram isolados. Destes, trinta não apresentaram similaridade com nenhuma seqüência depositada no GenBank. Quatorze seqüências foram similares a metalotioninas (Mets) do tipo 2 de Malus domestica. Também foram isoladas uma profilina alergênica...

Phytic Acid Enhances Biocontrol Activity of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa against Penicillium expansum Contamination and Patulin Production in Apples

Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Hongyin; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Xiangfeng; Qian, Jingya
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/11/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.49%
The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (PA) on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. Results from this study show that different concentrations of PA were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that PA at concentration of 4 μmol/mL, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1 to 62.5%, and showed higher control efficacy compared to untreated, control fruit during storage at 20°C. However, R. mucilaginosa combined with PA (4 μmol/mL) showed better control efficacy of blue mold decay than R. mucilaginosa used as single treatment, the disease incidence was reduced to 62.5% and lesion diameter on apples was reduced to 16.59 cm. In in vitro experiments, the addition of PA enhanced the biocontrol effect of R. mucilaginosa against the growth of Penicillium expansum and reduced patulin level when compared with either R. mucilaginosa or PA used separately. R. mucilaginosa together with PA, improved the inhibition of patulin production in wounded apples, decreasing the content of patulin by 89.6% compared to the control, under experimental conditions. Both R. mucilaginosa and R. mucilaginosa in combination with PA degraded patulin in vitro. In conclusion...

How labeling changes consumers' taste perceptions: a field experiment on organic and local apples

Liu, Yinan
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Bernard, John C.; The markets for organic and local foods have grown rapidly over the past decade. Among the reasons for this impressive growth, taste has been considered one of the more important. Learning how taste and labeling may interact and alter consumer perceptions would also be of benefit to many in the food marketing system. The goals of this study were thus twofold. The first was to determine if labels play a role in consumers' perception of taste of organic and local apples. The second was to examine what contributes to the changes. To accomplish these goals, three sessions of field experiments were conducted in Delaware in late October and early November 2012 with a total of 106 participants. These sessions represented the student sample, the general public and consumers who likely purchased organic and local foods more, respectively. In an experiment, each person was first served five freshly cut slices of Gala apples labeled A, B, C, organic, and local, presented together on one plate. Unknown to them, the slices labeled A and organic came from the same apple, as did those slices labeled B and local. The apple labeled C was a conventional version. While tasting, each person was asked on a survey to rate and rank the taste of apple slices. Demographic information and opinion questions regarding local and organic foods were also asked for modeling purposes. The one-tail Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test was performed to test the mean of the ratings and rankings. Results from pooled data indicated that subjects' taste perception of organic and local apples changed significantly by the labeling information: the mean rating and ranking of labeled organic apples and labeled local apples were significantly higher than the corresponding unlabeled ones. However...

Characterization of volatile substances in apples from rosaceae family by headspace solid‐phase microextraction followed by GC‐qMS

Ferreira, Liseth; Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA Publicador: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 ENG
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The volatile composition of different apple varieties of Malus domestica Borkh. species from different geographic regions at Madeira Islands, namely Ponta do Pargo (PP), Porto Santo (PS), and Santo da Serra (SS) was established by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure followed by GC-MS (GC-qMS) analysis. Significant parameters affecting sorption process such as fiber coating, extraction temperature,extractiontime,sampleamount,dilutionfactor,ionicstrength,anddesorption time,wereoptimizedanddiscussed.TheSPMEfibercoatedwith50/30 lmdivinylbenzene/carboxen/PDMS (DVB/CAR/PDMS) afforded highest extraction efficiency of volatile compounds, providing the best sensitivity for the target volatiles, particularly whenthesampleswereextractedat508Cfor30 minwithconstantmagneticstirring. A qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis between the investigated apple species has been established. It was possible to identify about 100 of volatile compounds amongpulp(46,45,and39),peel(64,60,and64),andentirefruit(65,43,and50)inPP, PS,andSSapples,respectively.Ethylesters,terpenes,andhigheralcoholswerefound tobethemostrepresentativevolatiles. a-Farnesene,hexan-1-olandhexyl2-methylbutyratewerethecompoundsfoundinthevolatileprofileofstudiedappleswiththelargestGCarea...

Time-dependence of Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) index in Chilean apples and berries

Henríquez,Carolina; López-Alarcón,Camilo; Gómez,Maritza; Lutz,Mariane; Speisky,Hernán
Fonte: Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición Publicador: Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
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We hypothesize that the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay that follows the reaction of Fe3+-TPTZ at 593 nm underestimates the antioxidant capacity of fruits, since the standardized time of the reaction (4 min) is not enough to titrate all the reducing compounds available. We measured FRAP, total phenolics and anthocyanins content in a variety of Chilean berry fruits (blueberries, blackberries, raspberries and strawberries) and apples (cv. Fuji, Granny Smith, Pink Lady, Red Delicious and Royal Gala). Taking into account the dependence of FRAP on the time course of the reaction, we propose to measure FRAP indexes after 1 min (FRAP-1), 30 min (FRAP-30) and 120 min (FRAP-120) of incubation. Most fruit extracts showed significant correlations between the antioxidant capacity and the incubation time, although in some cases the FRAP indexes did not correlate with the total phenolics and/or anthocyanins content. In fact, in apples and berries the correlation between anthocyanins content and FRAP indexes decreased with the incubation time. It is concluded that the fruit extracts analyzed require an incubation period higher than the established in the original experimental protocol to reach the equilibrium, due to the presence of a complex mixture of antioxidant compounds. In addition...