Página 1 dos resultados de 1512 itens digitais encontrados em 0.004 segundos

Possible Host Adaptation as an Evolution Factor of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus Deduced by Coat Protein Gene Analysis

Nicolini, Cicero; Rabelo Filho, Francisco A. C.; Resende, Renato O.; Andrade, Genira. P.; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Pio-Ribeiro, Gilvan; Nagata, Tatsuya
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) causes major diseases in cowpea and passion flower plants in Brazil and also in other countries. CABMV has also been isolated from leguminous species including, Cassia hoffmannseggii, Canavalia rosea, Crotalaria juncea and Arachis hypogaea in Brazil. The virus seems to be adapted to two distinct families, the Passifloraceae and Fabaceae. Aiming to identify CABMV and elucidate a possible host adaptation of this virus species, isolates from cowpea, passion flower and C.hoffmannseggii collected in the states of Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte were analysed by sequencing the complete coat protein genes. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the obtained sequences and those available in public databases. Major Brazilian isolates from passion flower, independently of the geographical distances among them, were grouped in three different clusters. The possible host adaptation was also observed in fabaceous-infecting CABMV Brazilian isolates. These host adaptations possibly occurred independently within Brazil, so all these clusters belong to a bigger Brazilian cluster. Nevertheless, African passion flower or cowpea-infecting isolates formed totally different clusters. These results showed that host adaptation could be one factor for CABMV evolution...

Characterization of peroxidase changes in tolerant and susceptible soybeans challenged by soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Marchi-Werle, L.; Heng-Moss, T. M.; Hunt, T. E.; Baldin, Edson Luiz Lopes; Baird, L. M.
Fonte: Entomological Soc Amer Publicador: Entomological Soc Amer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1985-1991
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
Changes in protein content, peroxidase activity, and isozyme profiles in response to soybean aphid feeding were documented at V1 (fully developed leaves at unifoliate node, first trifoliate leaf unrolled) and V3 (fully developed leaf at second trifoliate node, third trifoliate leaf unrolled) stages of soybean aphid-tolerant (KS4202) and -susceptible (SD76R) soybeans. Protein content was similar between infested and control V1 and V3 stage plants for both KS4202 and SD76R at 6, 16, and 22 d after aphid introduction. Enzyme kinetics studies documented that control and aphid-infested KS4202 V1 stage and SD76R V1 and V3 stages had similar levels of peroxidase activity at the three time points evaluated. In contrast, KS4202 aphid-infested plants at the V3 stage had significantly higher peroxidase activity levels than control plants at 6 and 22 d after aphid introduction. The differences in peroxidase activity observed between infested and control V3 stage KS4202 plants at these two time points suggest that peroxidases may be playing multiple roles in the tolerant plant. Native gels stained for peroxidase were able to detect differences in the isozyme profiles of aphid-infested and control plants for both KS4202 and SD76R.

Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) and their associations related to biological control in Brazil

Starý,Petr; Sampaio,Marcus Vinicius; Bueno,Vanda Helena Paes
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
This study evaluated the parasitoid-aphid-plant associations in Brazil with the objective of developing a useful research database for further studies of aphid parasitoid ecology and aphid management. The original material was obtained from collections made in Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo states. The published information on the Aphidiinae in Brazil is revised. The general features of the target parasitoid fauna of Central and South America is summarized and promising biological control programs of some aphid species in Brazil is discussed.

Winter prevalence of obligate aphid pathogen Pandora neoaphidis mycosis in the host Myzus persicae populations in southern China: modeling description and biocontrol implication

Zhou,Xiang
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Pandora neoaphidis overwintering had been investigated by monitoring its prevalence in Myzus persicae populations in open fields. Cabbage plants in field plots were weekly taken after mycosis initiation, to count and examine the living and dead aphids infected by P. neoaphidis. Based on the field data, infection levels (I) varied with field temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and aphid count (numbers of living aphids per plant, N) over days (D), fitting well to the modified logistic equation I=0.91/[1+exp(8.5+(2.0H T H RH-20.2NI0)D)] (r²=0.897), where H T indicated daily hours of low temperature (<4°C), H RH daily hours of high air humidity (>90% RH) and I0 primary infection level. The model demonstrated the abiotic and biotic factors influencing P. neoaphidis mycosis development in winter, and also verifies the fungal overwintering by infecting available host aphids without a resting stage. Ultimately, P. neoaphidis mycosis reduced 81.4% of aphid populations, presenting great potential for biocontrol.

Feeding behavior of two exotic aphid species on their original hosts in a new invaded area

Lazzarotto,CM; Lazzari,SMN; Penteado,SRC
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Greenidea ficicola Takahashi and Greenidea psidii van der Goot (Aphididae: Greenideinae) are Asian aphid species newly introduced in Brazil associated with Moraceae and Myrtaceae. The feeding behavior of G. ficicola and G. psidii was investigated on their respective host plants, Ficus benjamina (Moraceae) and Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), using the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG). Fifteen females of each aphid species were monitored during 24h using a DC-EPG GIGA-4 monitor. The time spent in phloem phase (waveforms E1 and E2) was 13.6% of the total recording time for G. ficicola and 0.8% for G. psidii. The average time in the pathway phase (waveforms C and pd) represented 50% of the total time for both species. Aphids spent more time in non-penetration and stylet pathway activities than in the phloem phase or actual feeding. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the two species formed different groups in relation to EPG parameters, despite some overlapping. The probing patterns with multiple penetrations of short duration in the sieve elements for both species may indicate apparent unsuitability for sustained feeding on their respective host plants. These results suggest that these two exotic species are in the process of adaptation to their host plants in their new environment and/or the plants may present either chemical or physical barriers against these insects.

Components of Resistance in Three Bread Wheat Lines to Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in South Africa

Toit, Du F.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Studies were done to determine the level of antibiosis and tolerance in three resistant wheat, Triticum aestivum L., lines, PI 262660, PI 137739, and PI 294994, to Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), a serious pest of wheat in South Africa. Nymphal production was lowest on PI 262660, followed by PI 137739 and PI 294994. The mean production of nymphs per adult aphid over 21 d on PI 262660, PI 137739, and PI 294994 was, respectively, 40.0, 55.1, and 66.9% of that on the susceptible cv. Betta. In the tolerance test, the plant height and dry mass of PI 262660 were significantly less affected than the other entries. PI 137739 and PI 294994 were as severely affected as the susceptible entries.

Variations in Damage to Wheat Caused by Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Texas

Bush, Leanne; Slosser, J. E.; Worrall, W. D.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.34%
The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), was discovered in Texas on wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in 1986, and 17 collections from 11 Texas counties were made that same year. Two Russian wheat aphid collections, designated as the Randall 2290 colony and the Swisher colony, were tested on four wheat varieties with three infestation levels to differentiate susceptible and resistant plants. Two aphids per plant were the best initial infestation level because higher levels caused too much damage and masked differences between the wheat varieties. Plant height, expressed as a percentage of an uninfested check, was a nonsubjective measure of plant response to Russian wheat aphid. In a second test, all 17 collections were tested on TX78V2290-36-1(TXGH2290) and ‘TAM 107’ with an initial infestation level of two aphids per plant. The results from the second test indicated that there were significant variations in damage between aphid cultures, and differences between colonies occurred within counties and between counties. Reproductive capacity of Russian wheat aphid was affected by variety and was highest overall on TXGH2290. We suggest that TXGH2290 could be used as a susceptible standard in future host plant resistant studies...

Woolly apple aphid : interactions within an orchad system / by Frances Fitzgibbon.

Fitzgibbon, Frances, 1954-
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 345972 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
This thesis is concerned with the biology of Eriosoma lanigerum (WAA) and its parasitoid (Aphelinus mali), the impact of the pest on the crop and the effects of pesticides used routinely in South Australian orchards on both woolly apple aphid and the parasitic wasp. The study identifies current management practices of apple growers in South Australia. Aspects of the biology of WAA and A.mali are examined. Work is also done on the toxicity against WAA and A.mali of insecticides used in the control of codling moth and phytophagous mites. The effects of WAA infestation on the growth of young trees are investigated. The seasonal activity of WAA on mature trees is determined over a two season period.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Crop Protection, 1997; Errata and addenda attached.; Bibliography: leaves 195-211.; xviii, 211 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.; Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.

Improved techniques for measurement of nanolitre volumes of phloem exudate from aphid stylectomy

Palmer, L.; Palmer, L.; Pritchard, J.; Graham, R.; Stangoulis, J.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
Background: When conducting aphid stylectomy, measuring accurate rates of phloem exudation is difficult because the volumes collected are in the nanolitre (nl) range. In a new method, exudate volume was calculated from optical measurement of droplet diameter as it forms on the tip of a severed aphid stylet. Evaporation was shown to decrease the accuracy of the measurement but was countered with the addition of water-saturated mineral oil. Volume measurements by optical estimation of the volume of a sphere suspended in oil was affected by the curvature of the oil surface. In contrast, measuring the exudate volume from optical measurement of droplet-diameter as formed on the tip of a severed aphid stylet, removes any inaccuracies due to oil surface curvature. A modified technique is proposed for measuring exudate volumes without oil by estimating the flow rate from photo-sequences of the collection period; a correction for evaporation is applied later. Results: A change in oil volume of ±1.75% from an optimum volume of 285 μl had a statistically significant effect on droplet measurement, under or over-estimating droplet volume due to optical effects caused by the oil surface. Using microscope image capture and measurement software...

Diaeretus essigellae Starý and Zuparko (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiini), a biological control for Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig) (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Cinarini): host-specificity testing and historical context; Diaeretus essigellae Stary and Zuparko (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiini), a biological control for Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig) (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Cinarini): host-specificity testing and historical context

Kimber, W.; Glatz, R.; Caon, G.; Roocke, D.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.41%
The Monterey pine aphid (Essigella californica) was accidentally introduced into Australia from the northern hemisphere before being detected in Canberra in 1998. Feeding on some members of Pinaceae, including the commercially important Pinus radiata, the aphid has now spread to almost all pine-growing areas and is considered to be an important forestry pest. In 2005, a project was commissioned to import the pine aphid parasitoid, Diaeretus essigellae, into Australia and subject it to host-specificity testing with a view to releasing it as a biological control for E. californica. In 2007, the first wasp pupae arrived at Australian quarantine facilities and emergent adults were used to establish an ongoing Australian culture. Sequencing of 28S rDNA confirmed the identity of the parasitoid and showed that its closest known relative is Diaeretus leucopterus. No-choice and choice host-specificity testing was conducted using Monterey pine aphid and eight non-target aphid species as potential hosts for D. essigellae. Regardless of the testing procedure, E. californica was the only species that was successfully parasitised. This suggests that D. essigellae is highly specific (at genus or species level) and therefore, is a suitable candidate for release into pine plantations to provide control of Monterey pine aphid in Australia. Based on these data...

Estimating the development of the fennel aphid, Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphiididae), using non-linear models

Malaquias, Jose B.; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Lira, Aline C. S.; Oliveira, Flavia Q.; Fernandes, Francisco S.; Zanuncio, Jose C.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 744-751
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); BACKGROUNDNon-linear models making it possible to predict agricultural pest outbreaks and optimise control tactics are of primary importance for integrated pest management. The development period for immature stages of the fennel aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) at constant temperatures was modelled in order to determine mathematical functions for simulating the aphid's development. Non-linear models were used to describe the relationship between temperature and development rates of H. foeniculi subjected to constant temperatures.RESULTSThe models used were found to be good fits for estimating H. foeniculi development rates as a function of temperature, with the exception of the Davidson model. The development time of H. foeniculi nymphs ranged from 2.73days (first instar) to 6.18days (fourth instar) at 15 degrees C, from 2.57days (first instar) to 4.52days (fourth instar) at 20 degrees C and from 1.53days (first instar) to 2.05days (fourth instar) at 28 degrees C.CONCLUSIONThese models provide important tools for better elucidation of the relationship between temperature and development rates in H. foeniculi. The results could be used for predicting the occurrence of the various immature stages of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop in Brazil...

Antibiosis and antixenosis of six commonly produced potato cultivars to the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Mottaghinia,L; Razmjou,J; Nouri-Ganbalani,G; Rafiee-Dastjerdi,H
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
The antibiotic and antixenotic resistance of six commonly produced potato cultivars in Iran including Aozonia, Agria, Cosima, Cosmos, Kondor and Savalan to the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, were investigated under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 2ºC, 65 ± 5% RH and 16:8h (L:D) in 2009. Antibiosis experiments showed significant differences in the developmental time, nymphal survivorship, fecundity, adult longevity of the green peach aphid among the potato cultivars. Intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) for apterous aphids varied significantly with the potato cultivars on which the aphids were reared. This value ranged from 0.225 to 0.293 females/female/day, which was lowest on Cosmos and highest on Aozonia. Additionally, the estimated net reproductive rate (R0) and finite rate of increase (λ) for apterous aphids were the lowest on Cosmos. For the antixenosis experiment, no significant difference was found in aphid's preference to the potato cultivars. However, Aozonia was preferred more than the other five cultivars by the apterous aphids. Therefore, our results demonstrated that among the investigated cultivars the Cosmos cultivar is moderately resistant to the green peach aphid.

Comparison of Potato virus Y and Plum Pox Virus transmission by two aphid species in relation to their probing behaviour

Fernandez-Calvino, L.; López-Abella, Dionisio; López-Moya Gómez, Juan José; Fereres, Alberto
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 4085 bytes; image/gif
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Two different aphid species,Myzus persicae (Sulzer) andHyalopterus pruni (Geoffroy) (Homoptera: Aphididae), were used to analyze their ability to transmit two different potyviruses,Potato virus Y (PVY) andPlum pox virus (PPV), to pepper (Capsicum annuum) andNicotiana benthamiana plants, respectively. In parallel experiments,M. persicae consistently transmitted both viruses with high efficiency, whereasH. pruni always failed to transmit either virus. This is in contrast to previous reports describingH. pruni as a vector of these potyviruses. Different aphid probing behavior among individual aphids of each species was obtained in electrical penetration graph (EPG) experiments performed on pepper plants. This suggested thatH. pruni did not transmit these potyviruses due to behavioral differences during probing that impeded virus acquisition and/or inoculation. It was found thatM. persicae usually makes its first probe within the first 2 min, whereasH. pruni individuals remained for more than 10 min on the plant before starting to probe. Furthermore,M. persicae individuals displayed their first intracellular puncture during the first minute of probing whereasH. pruni needed ∼ 15 min to penetrate the cell plasmalemma with their stylets. In addition...

New correlations between aphid stylet paths and non-persistent virus transmission

Collar, J. L.; Avilla, C.; Fereres, Alberto
Fonte: Entomological Society of America Publicador: Entomological Society of America
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 6080 bytes; image/gif
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
The electrical penetration graph technique was used to study probing behavior of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) during the transmission of potato virus Y (PVY) to pepper plants. Single aphids allowed a 5-min access to infected plants achieved 51.3% transmission efficiency. Aphids acquiring the virus probed the plant more frequently, but these probes were shorter than the ones produced by the aphids that were unable to acquire PVY. Moreover, aphids that transmitted PVY produced more intracellular punctures (as measured by potential drops), but their mean duration did not differ significantly from that of the aphids unable to transmit the virus. The mean duration of none of the potential drop subphases could be associated with PVY transmission. Two of the 18 behavioral variables analyzed proved critical for virus acquisition according to a stepwise logistic regression model. The 1st variable was the total number (observed during the entire 5-min register) of typical pulses recorded during subphase II3 of the potential drops (positive correlation). Subphase II3 is the last true intracellular distinct phase of a potential drop. The 2nd variable was the time elapsed from the last potential drop to the end of the probe (negative correlation). The implication of these results on the transmission mechanisms of nonpersistently transmitted viruses is discussed.; Peer reviewed

Genetic variation in natural populations of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi as revealed by maternally inherited markers

Martinez-Torres, D.; Simón, J. C.; Fereres, Alberto; Moya, A.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Publicador: Blackwell Publishing
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 6080 bytes; image/gif
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
A survey on 148 clones of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi from 11 widespread localities has been carried out to study the genetic structure of populations of this species as revealed by mitochondrial DNA restriction site and length polymorphisms as well as by restriction site analysis of a maternally inherited plasmid carried by the aphid eubacterial endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola. Our results support the existence in the area under study of two main aphid maternal lineages strikingly coincidental with the two main reproductive categories displayed by this species. Those aphid clones possessing an incomplete life cycle that lacks the sexual phase (anholocyclic or androcyclic clones) show mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype I and plasmid haplotype I, whereas those clones displaying the complete life cycle (holocyclic clones) posses some other distinct mtDNA haplotypes closely related to each other and plasmid haplotype II. While restriction-site analysis of maternally inherited markers points to a relatively ancient origin of anholocycly/androcycly (between 460 000 and 1 400 000 years) followed by interrupted gene flow with respect to the ancestral holocyclic population, mtDNA size variation also suggests that historical stochastic processes have a different effect on the evolution of both main aphid lineages. Evidence of occasional nuclear gene flow between lineages and its consequences on the correspondence between maternally inherited haplotypes and life cycle are also presented and discussed.; null; Peer reviewed

The Role of Aphid Salivation in the Transmission of Plant Viruses

Fereres, Alberto
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 579917 bytes; image/jpeg
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Guest Editorial; The excellent book Aphids as Virus Vectors, edited by Harris and Maramorosch in 1977 (8), was lent to me in 1984 by my doctorate supervisor. This book started me on the path to learning about the fascinating world of aphid biology and behavior and the way that plant viruses are transmitted by aphids. It was a challenging starting point to my scienti c career because it addressed a series of open questions that remained unanswered at that time and proposed provocative hypotheses on the transmission mechanisms of plant viruses by their aphid vectors. The book included fascinating chapters reviewing most of the copious research conducted on this topic in the 1950s, `60s and `70s by leading scientists such as Bradley, Kennedy, Sylvester, Pirone, Harris and Rochow, among others. At that point I was mainly interested in the work done on circulative viruses because our laboratory at INIA, Madrid, was starting a joint project with the USDA and Purdue University on the epidemiology and control of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), which was an important disease both in the USA and Spain by that time.; Peer reviewed

Estimation of the Effective Number of Founders That Initiate an Infection after Aphid Transmission of a Multipartite Plant Virus

Betancourt, Mónica; Fereres, Alberto; Fraile, Aurora; García-Arenal, Fernando
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 82735 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
5 pages, and tables.; The fecundity of RNA viruses can be very high. Thus, it is often assumed that viruses have large populations, and RNA virus evolution has been mostly explained using purely deterministic models. However, population bottlenecks during the virus life cycle could result in effective population numbers being much smaller than reported censuses, and random genetic drift could be important in virus evolution. A step at which population bottlenecks may be severe is host-to-host transmission. We report here an estimate of the size of the population that starts a new infection when Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is transmitted by the aphid Aphis gossypii, based on the segregation of two CMV genotypes in plants infected by aphids that acquired the virus from plants infected by both genotypes. Results show very small effective numbers of founders, between one and two, both in experiments in which the three-partite genome of CMV was aphid transmitted and in experiments in which a fourth RNA, CMV satellite RNA, was also transmitted. These numbers are very similar to those published for Potato virus Y, which has a monopartite genome and is transmitted by aphids according to a different mechanism than CMV. Thus, the number of genomic segments seems not to be a major determinant of the effective number of founders. Also...

The fundamental and realized niche of the Monterey Pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig) (Hemiptera: Aphididae): implications for managing softwood plantations in Australia

Wharton, Trudi; Kriticos, Darren
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Essigella californica is a pine aphid native to western North America. In Australia, E. californica is considered an invasive pest that has the potential to cause severe economic loss to the Australian forestry industry. Two CLIMEX models were developed to predict the Australian and global distribution of E. californica under current climate conditions based upon the aphid's known North American distribution. The first model (model I) was fitted using the reasonably contiguous set of location records in North America that constituted the known range of E. californica, and excluded consideration of a single (reliable) location record of the aphid in southern Florida. The second model (model II) was fitted using all known records in North America. Model I indicated that the aphid would be climatically restricted to the temperate, Mediterranean and subtropical climatic regions of Australia. In northern Australia it would be limited by hot, wet conditions, while in more central areas of Australia it is limited by hot, dry conditions. Model II is more consistent with the current Australian distribution of E. californica. The contrast in geographical range and climatic conditions encompassed between the two models appears to represent the difference between the realized niche (model I) and fundamental niche (model II) of E. californica. The difference may represent the strength of biotic factors such as host limitation...

Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of Kashmir, India: a checklist

Ahmad,S. Tariq; Wani,Shabeer A.
Fonte: Instituto de Ecología A.C. Publicador: Instituto de Ecología A.C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
A checklist of aphidiine parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) associated with various aphid species occurring in Kashmir was compiled. The paper deals with 61 species belonging to 15 genera, occurring in diverse areas and localities of Kashmir valley. The database pertaining to aphidid-fauna has been updated not only in the light of recent systematic and nomenclatural changes but also host names, host plants etc. Aphid parasitoids are natural enemies of aphids and form one of the potential biological control measures. Systematic study on parasitoids will form a baseline data in devising management strategies for controlling aphids.

Pest status of bean stem maggot (Ophiomyia spp.) and black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) in Taita District, Kenya

Ochilo,Willis N.; Nyamasyo,Gideon H
Fonte: Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria Publicador: Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
On-station and on-farm studies were carried out in Taita district, Kenya, to assess the effect of various soil fertility regimens on bean stem maggot (BSM) (Ophiomyia spp.) and black bean aphid (BBA) (Aphis fabae) incidence. These studies aimed at gathering information useful in the development of an IPM programme for the project on conservation and sustainable management of below-ground biodiversity (CSM-BGBD). Field survey of bean stem maggot and black bean aphid was conducted in both the on-station and on-farm plots four weeks after bean emergence. From each plot forty bean plants were sampled. The parameter assessed included stems, leaves and flowers and the percent numbers of plants having bean stem maggot and black bean aphid were expressed as the percentage incidence for that particular plot. The incidence of bean stem maggot and black bean aphid were significantly higher in the on-farm plots than in the on-station plots. On the other hand, influences of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) interventions and location on bean stem maggot and black bean aphid incidence were minimal. These findings point to the fact that, soil fertility management interventions alone are not effective in mitigating the challenge of insect pest. Instead...