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New effective assay to detect antimicrobial activity of filamentous fungi

Pereira, Eric Carvalho; Santos, A.; Reis, Francisca; Tavares, Rui Manuel; Baptista, Paula; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Almeida-Aguiar, Cristina
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The search for new antimicrobial compounds and the optimization of production methods turn the use of antimicrobial susceptibility tests a routine. The most frequently used methods are based on agar diffusion assays or on dilution in agar or broth. For filamentous fungi, the most common antimicrobial activity detection methods comprise the co-culture of two filamentous fungal strains or the use of fungal extracts to test against single-cell microorganisms. Here we report a rapid, effective and reproducible assay to detect fungal antimicrobial activity against single-cell microorganisms. This method allows an easy way of performing a fast antimicrobial screening of actively growing fungi directly against yeast. Because it makes use of an actively growing mycelium, this bioassay also provides a way for studying the production dynamics of antimicrobial compounds by filamentous fungi. The proposed assay is less time consuming and introduces the innovation of allowing the direct detection of fungal antimicrobial properties against single cell microorganisms without the prior isolation of the active substance(s). This is particularly useful when performing large screenings for fungal antimicrobial activity. With this bioassay...

Influência da mastite na ocorrência de resíduos de antimicrobianos no leite; Mastitis influence on the occurence of antimicrobial agents residues in milk

Raia Junior, Roberto Bellizia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2001 PT
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A presença de resíduos de antimicrobianos no leite representa um problema de saúde pública, podendo causar reações alérgicas e a seleção de bactérias resistentes aos antimicrobianos. É também um problema econômico interferindo nas culturas lácteas utilizadas na fabricação de derivados. A mastite é a causa mais freqüente para o tratamento de bovinos leiteiros com antimicrobianos. Foram objetivos deste trabalho estudar a influência do processo inflamatório no tempo de eliminação de diferentes antimicrobianos, administrados por via sistêmica ou intramamária em vacas em lactação e avaliar a presença de resíduos detectáveis em tanques resfriadores de propriedades leiteiras, correlacionando com os níveis de mastite nos rebanhos. Foi utilizado teste microbiológico comercial (Delvotest) para a avaliação da corrência de resíduos de antimicrobianos em 60 amostras de leite de tanques resfriadores de propriedades leiteiras e individualmente de 135 vacas em lactação com e sem processo inflamatório na glândula mamária. Foi verificada correlação entre a ocorrência de resíduo de antimicrobiano no tanque resfriador e o aumento da freqüência de mastite clínica (r= 1,0; teste de Spearman).O aumento do período de carência...

Síntese e determinação da atividade antimicrobiana de 2-[5-nitro-tiofen-2-il]-3-acetil-5-[4-fenil-substituído]-2,3-diidro-1,3,4-oxadiazol frente à cepa ATCC 25923 de Staphylococcus aureus; Synthesis and determination of antimicrobial activity of 2-[5-nitro-thiophen-2-yl]-3-acetyl-5-[4-substitued-phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazolines against ATCC 25923 Staphylococcus aureus strain

Almeida, Leonardo Viana de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/02/2009 PT
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A introdução de um grupo substituinte na molécula de um fármaco promove alterações químico-estruturais que, por sua vez, modificam suas propriedades físicoquímicas. O arranjo espacial de átomos ou grupos de átomos, em especial grupos funcionais, na molécula de um fármaco, expressos por meio de suas propriedades físico-químicas, influenciam direta ou indiretamente na interação fármaco-receptor. Esta, por sua vez, determina aspectos farmacológicos e farmacocinéticos que influem na eficácia terapêutica do medicamento. Assim, uma série de compostos 2-[5-nitro-tiofen-2-il]-3-acetil-5-[4-fenil-substituído]-2,3-diidro-1,3,4-oxadiazolínicos foi planejada e os análogos foram sintetizados, identificados estruturalmente e avaliados in vitro quanto a atividade antimicrobiana frente a Staphylococcus aureus (cepa ATCC 25923), expressa pela determinação da concentração inibitória mínima. Cepas desta bactéria são comuns em infecções hospitalares e frequentemente apresentam caráter de multi-resistência, portanto, alternativas aos fármacos comumente empregados na terapia antibacteriana, especialmente em infecções multi-resitentes, são alvo de estudos e desenvolvimento. Relações entre mudanças estruturais de 2-[5-nitro-tiofen-2-il]-3-acetil-5-[4- fenil-substituído]-2...

Atividade antimicrobiana das soluções de Barbatimão, Mamona e Clorexidina utilizadas na Endodontia. Avaliação comparativa in vitro; Antimicrobial activities of Stryphnodendron adstringens, Ricinus communis detergent and chlorhexidine solutions in Endodontics. In vitro comparative study.

Miranda, Mauricio Antonio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2010 PT
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36.62%
No presente trabalho foram avaliadas as atividades antimicrobianas do extrato hidroalcoólico do barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens), do detergente de mamona (Endoquil Poliquil®) e da solução de digluconato de clorexidina a 2% sobre microrganismos bucais potencialmente envolvidos em infecções endodônticas O barbatimão, como é popularmente conhecido, é muito utilizado na medicina popular para o tratamento de algumas enfermidades como a gonorréia, diarréia, úlceras, como antiinflamatório e cicatrizante. O detergente de mamona (Ricinus communis) possui atividade antimicrobiana similar ao do hipoclorito de sódio a 0,5% quando usado no tratamento de canais com polpa necrosada. A clorexidina é muito conhecida por sua atividade antimicrobiana e tem sido utilizada como medicação intracanal, apresentando efeito antimicrobiano residual, ou substantividade, além de baixa toxicidade. Este trabalho tem por objetivo comparar as atividades antimicrobianas destas substâncias pela técnica da difusão (técnica do cilindro) e pela determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) frente aos seguintes microrganismos: Prevotella nigrescens ATCC 33563, Actinomyces naeslundii (cepa de campo), Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 19039...

Atividade antimicrobiana de produtos naturais: erva-mate e resíduos agroindustriais; Antimicrobial activity of natural products: yerba mate e agroindustrial residues

Martin, José Guilherme Prado
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/06/2011 PT
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O estudo de compostos antimicrobianos em espécies vegetais tem gerado cada vez mais interesse na indústria de alimentos, devido ao aumento da demanda por alimentos livres de conservantes sintéticos por parte dos consumidores. Espécies vegetais são ricas em compostos bioativos com reconhecidas propriedades de interesse industrial, como farmacológicas, antioxidantes e antimicrobianas. Antibacterianos naturais podem ser encontrados não só em folhas, ramos, flores, tubérculos e raízes, mas também em subprodutos gerados pelo processamento de frutas, legumes e hortaliças. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de diversos resíduos agroindustriais e erva-mate para preparo de chimarrão (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) sobre micro-organismos patogênicos de importância em alimentos, tais como Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis e Escherichia coli. Foram realizados screening da atividade antimicrobiana pela técnica da difusão em ágar, determinação das Concentrações Inibitória (CIM) e Bactericida Mínimas (CBM), análise dos efeitos dos extratos sobre o crescimento microbiano através da construção de curvas de crescimento, determinação do teor de fenólicos totais e caracterização química dos materiais de maior atividade antibacteriana. Os resultados demonstraram o potencial antimicrobiano da ervamate e de vários resíduos agroindustriais. O extrato etanólico de erva-mate mostrou ser um potente antimicrobiano natural frente às bactérias S. aureus...

Prevalência e Susceptibilidade Antimicrobiana de Patógenos Causadores de Mastite em Rebanhos Leiteiros; Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens causing mastitis in dairy herds

Beuron, Daniele Cristine
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/10/2012 PT
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Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: a) avaliar a frequência de isolamentos de patógenos causadores de mastite em rebanhos leiteiros comerciais; b) determinar a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Staphylococcus spp. e Streptococcus spp. isolados de casos de mastite subclínica c) avaliar o perfil de multirresistência de Staphylococcus spp. e Streptococcus spp. d) Detectar o gene mecA em Staphylococcus spp. resistentes a oxacilina/meticilina; e) avaliar a associação entre as práticas de manejo e tratamento de mastite e a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de rebanhos leiteiros. Foram selecionados para o presente estudo 13 rebanhos leiteiros a partir de um total de 60 rebanhos vinculados a um laticínio da região de Pirassununga/SP. Questionários previamente formulados foram respondidos pelos responsáveis do rebanho para avaliar a associação entre as práticas de manejo e tratamento de mastite e a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de S. aureus. Após a seleção dos rebanhos e aplicação dos questionários, 1069 amostras de leite compostas foram coletadas durante 24 meses, em quatro períodos para realização de cultura e identificação dos patógenos, testes de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e detecção do gene mecA. Os testes de susceptibilidade foram realizados em todos os isolados de Staphylococcus spp. e em 50% de Streptococcus spp. selecionados aleatoriamente. Os antimicrobianos testados foram: ampicilina 10 mg; clindamicina 2 µg...

Screening for antimicrobial activity among bacteria isolated from the amazon basin

Motta, Amanda de Souza da; Olivera, Florencia Cladera; Brandelli, Adriano
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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Bacteria producing antimicrobial activity were identified among 86 isolates from aquatic environments of Brazilian Amazon Basin. Antimicrobial activity against at least one indicator strain was detected for 59 isolates (68.6%). Inhibitory activity was mostly against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. The antimicrobial substances produced by 19 strains that showed higher inhibitory activity were partially characterized. These antimicrobial substances showed thermal resistance for up to 100°C and partial resistance to proteolytic treatment. Some antimicrobials were partially resistant to pronase E at 2 mg ml-1 or to treatment with trichloroacetic acid. Detection of antimicrobial activity on polyacrylamide gels revealed that the molecular weight of the compounds was lower than 14 kDa. Several strains showed antibacterial activity, which in some cases appear to be related to antimicrobial peptides. The potential of these microorganisms to produce useful antimicrobial compounds is great and must be better explored.

Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella enteritidis isoladas de amostras clínicas e ambientais de frangos de corte e matrizes pesadas.; Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from clinical and environmental broiler chickens and breeders broiler

Ribeiro, A.R.; Kellermann, Aline; Santos, Luciana R.; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
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The antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from clinical and environmental poultry samples in the Southern Brazil during the years of 1999, 2000 and 2001 was evaluated. Among the 79 isolated samples, 64 (81%) were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobial agents tested, showing 22 different resistance patterns. Tetracycline showed the highest percentage (64,5%) of resistance among the antimicrobial agents used. Resistance to drugs at different levels was found as the following: ampicillin (1.2%), kanamycin (1.2%), ciprofloxacin (2.5%), enrofloxacin (8.8%), gentamicin (21.5%), streptomycin (20.2%), nitrofurantoin (26.6%), and nalidixic acid (30.4%). None of the S. Enteritidis strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, and polimycin B. Among the 64 S. Enteritidis strains that showed resistance, 43 (67.2%) were resistant to two or more antimicrobial agents. Twenty-one (32.8%) strains were resistant to only one of the antimicrobial agents, 14 to tetracycline, three to nalidixic acid, three to nitrofurantoin, and one to gentamycin. These antimicrobial resistance levels suggest a high occurrence of tetracycline resistant S. Enteritidis strains and resistance to two or more antimicrobial agents.

LDPE/EVA Composites for Antimicrobial Properties

de Olyveira, Gabriel Molina; Manzine Costa, Ligia Maria; Leao, Alcides Lopes; de Souza, Sivoney Ferreira; Cherian, Bibin Mathew; Felix de Carvalho, Antonio Jose; Pessan, Luiz Antonio; Narine, Suresh S.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 168-175
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Composites with antimicrobial activity are of great interest nowadays and the development of titanium dioxide with these functional properties presents interest in academic and industrial sectors.An approach to develop PE composite containing silver microparticles to have an antimicrobial effect is presented. To obtain such antimicrobial composites, LDPE/EVA were processed with Ag particles on TiO2 particles as inorganic carrier substance. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (P-25) were covered with silver particles using Turkevich Method or citrate reduction method. The Ag/TiO2 particles were dispersed at concentration of 0,8 wt% and 1% wt% in LDPE/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)-(50% w/w) at the melt state in a Haake torque Rheometer. Silver microparticles were characterized with UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The composites thus prepared were characterized through XRD, Ares Rheometer, Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) and JIS Z 2801 antimicrobial tests to study the effects of the addition of particles on rheological properties, morphological behavior and antimicrobial properties. The results showed that incorporation of silver/titanium dioxide particles on composites obtained systems with differents dispersions. The Ag/TiO2 particles showed uniform distribution of Ag on TiO2 particles as observed by SEM-EDX and antimicrobial tests according to JIS Z 2801 shows excellent antimicrobial properties.

Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos compostos isolados da propolis do tipo 6; Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of compound from propolis type 6

Myrella Lessio Castro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/02/2008 PT
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Própolis é um produto natural mundialmente reconhecido por suas propriedades biológicas, com atividades antimicrobiana e anticariogênica. A própolis brasileira do tipo 6 da região de mata atlântica (BA), Nordeste, apresenta na composição química uma grande quantidade de compostos apolares, na maioria não identificada, e ausência de flavonóides, aos quais são atribuídos a atividade biológica. Entretanto, esta própolis apresenta alta atividades antimicrobiana e anticariogênica in vitro e in vivo. Assim, os objetivos deste estudo foram: (a) avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e a composição química da própolis tipo 6, do seu extrato etanólico, frações e ácidos graxos encontrados em sua composição, identificando o(s) responsável(is) pela sua atividade biológica; e (b) isolar e identificar o(s) composto(s) bioativo(s) da própolis tipo 6, responsável pela atividade antimicrobiana. O extrato etanólico (EEP), as frações hexânica (H-Fr) e polar (P-Fr) obtidos pela técnica de fracionamento líquido-líquido foram analisados por Cromatografia Gasosa de Espectofometria de Massa (CG-EM), Cromatografia Gasosa de Ionização de Chama (CGFID), Cromatografia Liquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE) e foram testados contra Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt 1600 e Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 determinandose as Concentrações Inibitória (CIM) e Bactericida (CBM) Mínima. A H-Fr foi cromatografada em coluna LH-20...

Investigação genética e funcional da produção de compostos antimicrobianos por bactérias oriundas da Antártica = : Genetic and functional evaluation of production of antimicrobial compounds by bacteria from Antarctica; Genetic and functional evaluation of production of antimicrobial compounds by bacteria from Antarctica

Paula de França
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/2015 PT
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Os micro-organismos associados ao continente Antártico apresentam populações diversas e metabolicamente ativas, porém o potencial farmacológico dos compostos obtidos pelos micro-organismos é pouco conhecido. As bactérias são importante fonte de compostos utilizados atualmente como antimicrobianos, e as principais vias de biossíntese de muitos antibióticos são catalisadas pelos genes PKS (Polyketide Synthases) e NRPS (Non Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases). O presente estudo teve como objetivo a avaliação genética e funcional da produção de compostos antimicrobianos obtidos de bactérias isoladas na Baía do Almirantado, Antártica, a identificação taxonômica das bactérias que apresentaram tal potencial e a identificação do perfil químico dos compostos antimicrobianos. O total de 153 bactérias foi isolado do ambiente antártico, 127 isolados apresentaram pelo menos um dos genes PKSI, PKSII e NRPS. Estes foram identificados através do sequenciamento parcial do gene RNA ribossomal 16S e pertencem a 28 gêneros distintos, sendo representantes dos Filos Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria e Bacteroidetes. A avaliação funcional da produção de antimicrobianos foi realizada com o total de 76 isolados dos quais 30 isolados formaram halos de inibição frente a micro-organismos testes. Os extratos brutos obtidos foram avaliados quanto à concentração inibitória mínima (MIC) frente a oito micro-organismos não virulentos...

Farnesol antimicrobial role as biofilm cell detachment inducer in S. epidermidis biofilms

Cerca, Nuno; Gomes, F. I.; França, Ângela; Bento, Joana C.; Rolo, Joana; Miragaia, Maria; Teixeira, P.; Vilanova, Manuel; Oliveira, Rosário
Fonte: II International Conference on Antimicrobial Research - ICAR2012 Publicador: II International Conference on Antimicrobial Research - ICAR2012
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 ENG
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Objetives: Farnesol is a naturally-occurring sesquiterpene that was originally isolated from essential oils found in many plants has been described to have antimicrobial potential against several bacteria, including S. epidermidis. However, farnesol mechanism of action is not yet fully understood and some contradictory findings have been reported. We recently described that while farnesol was not efficient at killing biofilm bacteria, a strong reduction on biofilm biomass was detected, and we hypothesize that farnesol could be inducing biofilm detachment. Here, we address this hypothesis. Methods: To test our hypothesis we used 36 representative clinical strains of S. epidermidis from different parts of the world and characterized them in terms of genetic variability, biofilm formation and on the effect of farnesol on biofilm physiology and gene expression. Results: Farnesol had no bactericidal effect on stationary phase populations equal or above 108 CFU/mL. In exponential phase planktonic bacteria, farnesol showed a bacteriostatic effect after cell density reached 108 CFU/mL. In any of the growth phases studied, farnesol was effective in killing above 90% of bacteria in 4 h when cell density was 107 CFU/mL or below. Confocal microscopy and flow citometry analysis confirmed that in biofilms bacteria were not killed by farnesol but nevertheless cell wall integrity was affected. Gene expression studies revealed differential responses to farnesol...

Covalent and non-covalent strategies for surface modification of different textile materials with antimicrobial properties

Nogueira, Frederico; Pedrosa, Marta; Teixeira, P.; Piskin, Erhan; Gouveia, Isabel
Fonte: ICAR 2012 Publicador: ICAR 2012
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 ENG
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New advances have been released in textile industry. Contributions at the level of textile fiber chains engineering has allowed modification of their structure, production of smart polymers responding to changes in environment, and attachment or entrapment of cells and bioactive molecules. Likewise, our society high demand of hygienic patterns, has raised the intensive research and development of antimicrobial textiles. Applications are being extended to underwear, sportswear, home furnishing, protective clothes, wound-dressings and in areas with high risk of microbial infection, as hospitals, schools and hotels. Throughout last decades hospitals have faced tough challenges concerning microbial multi-resistance, especially in immunodepressed patients. The strongest cause for microbial resistance may be due to the abuse of antibiotics uptake, either by humans to treat something non appropriately, as by animals, to earn weight. The development of antimicrobial textiles arise as a promising solution that may significantly decrease the risk of nosocomial infections. Several antimicrobial agents have been applied in textiles, namely quaternary ammonium compounds, silver, polyhexamethylene biguanides and triclosan. However, they have shown a reduced spectrum of microbial inhibition which cause resistances...

Ability of Latin America laboratories to detect antimicrobial resistance patterns: experience of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1997-2000)

Mendes,Rodrigo E.; Reis,Adriana O.; Gales,Ana C.; Jones,Ronald N.; Sader,Hélio S.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2003 EN
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The accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility tests is a crucial step for the clinical management of patients with serious infections. They must be reliable and precise because they will guide antimicrobial therapy. Our main objective was to compare the results of susceptibility testing performed by the SENTRY coordinator laboratory with those reported by the participating Latin American medical centers. A total of 10,277 bacterial isolates were tested by the reference broth microdilution method at the coordinator laboratory in the United States. The tests were performed and interpreted following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommendations. Ten antimicrobial agent-organism combinations were analyzed. The susceptibility methods utilized in each of the medical centers were also evaluated. Total agreement of the results was obtained in nearly 88% of the antimicrobial agent-organism combinations. "Very major" (false-susceptible results) and "major errors" (false-resistant results) were observed in 12% and 6% of the cases, respectively. The highest disagreements were observed for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - oxacillin (20% - very major error) and Burkholderia cepacia - imipenem (21% - very major error). The susceptibility method with the highest agreement rate was Etest® (92%) > PASCO® (91%) > agar dilution (91%) > MicroScan® (90%) > Vitek® (87%). External quality assurance data obtained by surveillance programs such as the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program are not only helpful for detecting the emergence of patterns of antimicrobial resistance...

General Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy

Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L.; Edson, Randall S.
Fonte: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research Publicador: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2011 EN
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Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs: Appropriate Measures and Metrics to Study their Impact

Morris, Andrew M.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Antimicrobial stewardship is a new field that struggles to find the right balance between meaningful and useful metrics to study the impact of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). ASP metrics primarily measure antimicrobial use, although microbiological resistance and clinical outcomes are also important measures of the impact an ASP has on a hospital and its patient population. Antimicrobial measures looking at consumption are the most commonly used measures, and are focused on defined daily doses, days of therapy, and costs, usually standardized per 1,000 patient-days. Each measure provides slightly different information, with their own upsides and downfalls. Point prevalence measurement of antimicrobial use is an increasingly used approach to understanding consumption that does not entirely rely on sophisticated electronic information systems, and is also replicable. Appropriateness measures hold appeal and promise, but have not been developed to the degree that makes them useful and widely applicable. The primary reason why antimicrobial stewardship is necessary is the growth of antimicrobial resistance. Accordingly, antimicrobial resistance is an important metric of the impact of an ASP. The most common approach to measuring resistance for ASP purposes is to report rates of common or important community- or nosocomial-acquired antimicrobial-resistant organisms...

A descriptive analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis-causing bacteria isolated from samples submitted to commercial diagnostic laboratories in New Zealand (2003-2006)

Petrovski, K.; Laven, R.; Lopez-Villalobos, N.
Fonte: New Zealand Veterinary Assoc Inc Publicador: New Zealand Veterinary Assoc Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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AIM: To describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis-causing bacteria isolated from milk samples submitted to commercial laboratories over a period of 40 months. METHODS: The records of reported results of milk samples submitted by veterinary practitioners to five commercial veterinary laboratories in the North and South Islands of New Zealand, between August 2003 and December 2006 were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to analyse the effect of year, island, and the interaction of year and antimicrobial on the probability of antimicrobial susceptibility for each pathogen and antimicrobial combination, where the causative bacteria had >1,000 susceptibility tests in total and the antimicrobials was tested on >500 isolates. A total of 9,262 isolates were included in this study, with an average of nearly seven susceptibility tests per isolate, totalling 62,918 tests. RESULTS: Streptococcus uberis isolates demonstrated high overall susceptibility (>90.0%) to the majority of antimicrobial agents except ampicillin (81.7%), lincomycin (85.3%), trimethoprim/sulphonamide combination (88.6%), and, as expected, aminoglycosides (<4%). The susceptibility of Strep. dysgalactiae was similar to that of Strep. uberis, except for greater susceptibility to oxacillin (98.1%) and much lower susceptibility to tetracyclines (11.2%). The susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates was markedly different from that of Strep. uberis for the majority of antimicrobials tested. Susceptibility of Staph. aureus was lower than 90% to ampicillin (73.4%)...

Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe 2013: Annual Report of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net)

European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net)
Fonte: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) Publicador: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //2014 ENG
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46.67%
Portugal - EARS-Net Management Team & National representatives of EARS-Net (Manuela Caniça, José Artur Paiva, Vera Manageiro, Eugénia Ferreira); The results presented in this report are based on antimicrobial resistance data from invasive isolates reported to EARS-Net by 30 EU/EEA countries in 2014 (data referring to 2013), and on trend analyses of EARS-Net data reported by the participating countries during the period 2010 to 2013. The antimicrobial resistance situation in Europe displays large variations depending on bacteria, antimicrobial group and geographical region. For several antimicrobial group and bacterium combinations, a north-to-south and west-to-east gradient is evident in Europe. In general, lower resistance percentages are reported by countries in the north and higher percentages reported by countries in the south and east of Europe. Overall, the most concerning trends in Europe in 2013 were related to the occurrence of resistance in gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species). For E. coli and K. pneumoniae, a continuous increase in resistance to key antimicrobial groups was noted. A majority of the isolates reported to EARS-Net in 2013 was resistant to at least one of the antimicrobial groups under surveillance...

Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance: A Cloud Compatible Pipeline and Web Interface for Rapidly Detecting Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Directly from Sequence Data

Rowe, Will; Baker, Kate S.; Verner-Jeffreys, David; Baker-Austin, Craig; Ryan, Jim J.; Maskell, Duncan; Pearce, Gareth
Fonte: PLOS Publicador: PLOS
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
This is the final version. It was first published by PLOS at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0133492.; Background: Antimicrobial resistance remains a growing and significant concern in human and veterinary medicine. Current laboratory methods for the detection and surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are limited in their effectiveness and scope. With the rapidly developing field of whole genome sequencing beginning to be utilised in clinical practice, the ability to interrogate sequencing data quickly and easily for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes will become increasingly important and useful for informing clinical decisions. Additionally, use of such tools will provide insight into the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic samples such as those used in environmental monitoring. Results: Here we present the Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance (SEAR), a pipeline and web interface for detection of horizontally acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in raw sequencing data. The pipeline provides gene information, abundance estimation and the reconstructed sequence of antimicrobial resistance genes; it also provides web links to additional information on each gene. The pipeline utilises clustering and read mapping to annotate full-length genes relative to a user-defined database. It also uses local alignment of annotated genes to a range of online databases to provide additional information. We demonstrate SEAR?s application in the detection and abundance estimation of antimicrobial resistance genes in two novel environmental metagenomes...

Evaluation of natural plant powders with potential use in antimicrobial packaging applications

Cheng, Yujie
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
This study investigates the antimicrobial effects of vanillin, turmeric and curcumin in packaging coating application. Reagent alcohol and DMSO were introduced as two solutions for the three antimicrobial agents. The coating solutions involving these three antimicrobial agents are: vanillin/ Reagent alcohol (10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25% (w/w)), vanillin/DMSO (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.3125% (w/w)), turmeric/ Reagent alcohol (10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25% (w/w)), turmeric/DMSO (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.3125% (w/w)), curcumin/ Reagent alcohol (10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 (w/w)) and curcumin/DMSO (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.3125% (w/w)). The antimicrobial activity effects of the aforementioned coating solutions were investigated for five types of common pathogens and food spoilage bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes representing gram-positive bacteria; Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium as well as E.coli O157:H7 representing gram- negative bacteria. Significant antimicrobial effects for gram-positive bacteria were observed for curcumin and turmeric in their Reagent alcohol and DMSO solutions. It is also noticed that E.coli O157:H7 was more sensitive over vanillin/ Reagent alcohol solution, however, Listeria monocytogenes was more sensitive over vanillin/ DMSO solutions. The factors that influence the solution's antimicrobial activity were studied. Turmeric is chosen as the antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into polymers. In order to study the antimicrobial effect as packaging application...