Página 1 dos resultados de 84 itens digitais encontrados em 0.001 segundos

Defaunation in the Anthropocene

Dirzo, Rodolfo; Young, Hillary S.; Galetti, Mauro; Ceballos, Gerardo; Isaac, Nick J. B.; Collen, Ben
Fonte: Amer Assoc Advancement Science Publicador: Amer Assoc Advancement Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 401-406
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.25%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); We live amid a global wave of anthropogenically driven biodiversity loss: species and population extirpations and, critically, declines in local species abundance. Particularly, human impacts on animal biodiversity are an under-recognized form of global environmental change. Among terrestrial vertebrates, 322 species have become extinct since 1500, and populations of the remaining species show 25% average decline in abundance. Invertebrate patterns are equally dire: 67% of monitored populations show 45% mean abundance decline. Such animal declines will cascade onto ecosystem functioning and human well-being. Much remains unknown about this “Anthropocene defaunation”; these knowledge gaps hinder our capacity to predict and limit defaunation impacts. Clearly, however, defaunation is both a pervasive component of the planet’s sixth mass extinction and also a major driver of global ecological change.

Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.

Meybeck, Michel
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/12/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.25%
Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming...

The Quadruple Squeeze: Defining the safe operating space for freshwater use to achieve a triply green revolution in the Anthropocene

Rockström, Johan; Karlberg, Louise
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.25%
Humanity has entered a new phase of sustainability challenges, the Anthropocene, in which human development has reached a scale where it affects vital planetary processes. Under the pressure from a quadruple squeeze—from population and development pressures, the anthropogenic climate crisis, the anthropogenic ecosystem crisis, and the risk of deleterious tipping points in the Earth system—the degrees of freedom for sustainable human exploitation of planet Earth are severely restrained. It is in this reality that a new green revolution in world food production needs to occur, to attain food security and human development over the coming decades. Global freshwater resources are, and will increasingly be, a fundamental limiting factor in feeding the world. Current water vulnerabilities in the regions in most need of large agricultural productivity improvements are projected to increase under the pressure from global environmental change. The sustainability challenge for world agriculture has to be set within the new global sustainability context. We present new proposed sustainability criteria for world agriculture, where world food production systems are transformed in order to allow humanity to stay within the safe operating space of planetary boundaries. In order to secure global resilience and thereby raise the chances of planet Earth to remain in the current desired state...

The Anthropocene: From Global Change to Planetary Stewardship

Steffen, Will; Persson, Åsa; Deutsch, Lisa; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Williams, Mark; Richardson, Katherine; Crumley, Carole; Crutzen, Paul; Folke, Carl; Gordon, Line; Molina, Mario; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Rockström, Johan; Scheffer, Marten; Schellnhuber, Ha
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.57%
Over the past century, the total material wealth of humanity has been enhanced. However, in the twenty-first century, we face scarcity in critical resources, the degradation of ecosystem services, and the erosion of the planet’s capability to absorb our wastes. Equity issues remain stubbornly difficult to solve. This situation is novel in its speed, its global scale and its threat to the resilience of the Earth System. The advent of the Anthropence, the time interval in which human activities now rival global geophysical processes, suggests that we need to fundamentally alter our relationship with the planet we inhabit. Many approaches could be adopted, ranging from geo-engineering solutions that purposefully manipulate parts of the Earth System to becoming active stewards of our own life support system. The Anthropocene is a reminder that the Holocene, during which complex human societies have developed, has been a stable, accommodating environment and is the only state of the Earth System that we know for sure can support contemporary society. The need to achieve effective planetary stewardship is urgent. As we go further into the Anthropocene, we risk driving the Earth System onto a trajectory toward more hostile states from which we cannot easily return.

Field Evidence of Colonisation by Holm Oak, at the Northern Margin of Its Distribution Range, during the Anthropocene Period

Delzon, Sylvain; Urli, Morgane; Samalens, Jean-Charles; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Lischke, Heike; Sin, Fabrice; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Porté, Annabel J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.25%
A major unknown in the context of current climate change is the extent to which populations of slowly migrating species, such as trees, will track shifting climates. Niche modelling generally predicts substantial northward shifts of suitable habitats. There is therefore an urgent need for field-based forest observations to corroborate these extensive model simulations. We used forest inventory data providing presence/absence information from just over a century (1880–2010) for a Mediterranean species (Quercus ilex) in forests located at the northern edge of its distribution. The main goals of the study were (i) to investigate whether this species has actually spread into new areas during the Anthropocene period and (ii) to provide a direct estimation of tree migration rate. We show that Q. ilex has colonised substantial new areas over the last century. However, the maximum rate of colonisation by this species (22 to 57 m/year) was much slower than predicted by the models and necessary to follow changes in habitat suitability since 1880. Our results suggest that the rates of tree dispersion and establishment may also be too low to track shifts in bioclimatic envelopes in the future. The inclusion of contemporary, rather than historical...

Human and non-human agencies in the Anthropocene; Agencialidades humanas y no-humanas en el Antropoceno

Dürbeck, Gabriele; Schaumann, Caroline; Sullivan, Heather I.
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.77%
La era del impacto humano en la biosfera de la Tierra desde la Revolución Industrial y que ha sido recientemente nombrada Antropoceno plantea mucho retos a las humanidades, especialmente en términos de agencia humana y no-humana. Usando varios ejemplos de la literatura, reflexiones de viajes y ciencia que documentan una gran variedad de agencias más allá de la humana incluyendo el paisaje, el hielo, el clima, la energía volcánica o los gasterópodos e insectos, este ensayo busca formular un sentido más amplio de agencia. Todos nuestros ejemplos investigan nuevos tipos de relaciones entre ser humano y naturaleza. Al configurar una interconexión e interdependencia cercanas entre estas entidades, el discurso del Antropoceno define tales relaciones de forma diferente. Por un lado, nuestros ejemplos destacan los efectos negativos del control antropocéntrico y de la supremacía sobre la naturaleza; pero, por otro lado, representan posiciones ambivalentes que van desde la rendición y el éxtasis a la amenaza y la desaparición que van codo con codo con el reconocimiento de las agencias no-humanas.; The era of human impact throughout the Earth’s biosphere since the Industrial Revolution that has recently been named the Anthropocene poses many challenges to the humanities...

Unravelling the maze of multilateral environmental agreements: a macroscopic analysis of international environmental law and governance for the anthropocene

Rak Hyun, Kim
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.77%
Earth has entered a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, where humans have become a major driver of global environmental change. Many believe, however, that current international environmental law is a maze of international agreements, and it is unsuitable for navigating the Anthropocene. It is generally agreed that, for global sustainability, this institutional maze needs to be modelled in ways more appropriately aligned with the functioning of the Earth system itself. For the purpose of improving the alignment, this PhD thesis explores the structural and functional dynamics of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) as a systemic whole in relation to Earth system dynamics. The thesis begins with a preliminary review of international environmental law through the lens of a specific systems theory called complex adaptive systems. It then provides two parallel empirical studies on the macroscopic structure and function of the MEA system. In terms of the structure, I quantitatively analysed and characterized the topological properties of the dynamic web of 747 MEAs as approximated by 1,001 cross-references found in their texts. This network analysis provided novel insights into how MEAs have self-organized into an interlocking network with complex topology and what the emergent order looks like. In terms of the function...

When did the Anthropocene begin? a mid-twentieth century boundary level is stratigraphically optimal

Zalasiewicz, Jan; Waters, Colin N.; Williams, Mark; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Cearreta, Alejandro; Crutzen, Paul; Ellis, Erle; Ellis, Michael A.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Grinevald, Jacques; Haff, Peter K.; Hajdas, Irka; Leinfelder, Reinhold; McNeill, John; Odada,
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 8 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.9%
We evaluate the boundary of the Anthropocene geological time interval as an epoch, since it is useful to have a consistent temporal definition for this increasingly used unit, whether the presently informal term is eventually formalized or not. Of the three main levels suggested e an ‘early Anthropocene’ level some thousands of years ago; the beginning of the Industrial Revolution at ~1800 CE (Common Era); and the ‘Great Acceleration’ of the mid-twentieth century e current evidence suggests that the last of these has the most pronounced and globally synchronous signal. A boundary at this time need not have a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP or ‘golden spike’) but can be defined by a Global Standard Stratigraphic Age (GSSA), i.e. a point in time of the human calendar. We propose an appropriate boundary level here to be the time of the world's first nuclear bomb explosion, on July 16th 1945 at Alamogordo, New Mexico; additional bombs were detonated at the average rate of one every 9.6 days until 1988 with attendant worldwide fallout easily identifiable in the chemostratigraphic record. Hence, Anthropocene deposits would be those that may include the globally distributed primary artificial radionuclide signal...

Global Assemblages, Resilience, and Earth Stewardship in the Anthropocene

Ogden, Laura; Heynen, Nik; Oslender, Ulruch; West, Paige; Kassam, Karim-Aly; Robbins, Paul
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.25%
In this paper, we argue that the Anthropocene is an epoch characterized not only by the anthropogenic dominance of the Earth's ecosystems but also by new forms of environmental governance and institutions. Echoing the literature in political ecology, we call these new forms of environmental governance “global assemblages”. Socioecological changes associated with global assemblages disproportionately impact poorer nations and communities along the development continuum, or the “Global South”, and others who depend on natural resources for subsistence. Although global assemblages are powerful mechanisms of socioecological change, we show how transnational networks of grassroots organizations are able to resist their negative social and environmental impacts, and thus foster socioecological resilience.

All Is Not Loss: Plant Biodiversity in the Anthropocene

Ellis, Erle C.; Antill, Erica C.; Kreft, Holger
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.57%
Anthropogenic global changes in biodiversity are generally portrayed in terms of massive native species losses or invasions caused by recent human disturbance. Yet these biodiversity changes and others caused directly by human populations and their use of land tend to co-occur as long-term biodiversity change processes in the Anthropocene. Here we explore contemporary anthropogenic global patterns in vascular plant species richness at regional landscape scales by combining spatially explicit models and estimates for native species loss together with gains in exotics caused by species invasions and the introduction of agricultural domesticates and ornamental exotic plants. The patterns thus derived confirm that while native losses are likely significant across at least half of Earth's ice-free land, model predictions indicate that plant species richness has increased overall in most regional landscapes, mostly because species invasions tend to exceed native losses. While global observing systems and models that integrate anthropogenic species loss, introduction and invasion at regional landscape scales remain at an early stage of development, integrating predictions from existing models within a single assessment confirms their vast global extent and significance while revealing novel patterns and their potential drivers. Effective global stewardship of plant biodiversity in the Anthropocene will require integrated frameworks for observing...

Spheroidal carbonaceous particles are a defining stratigraphic marker for the Anthropocene

Swindles, Graeme T.; Watson, Elizabeth; Turner, T. Edward; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Hadlari, Thomas; Wheeler, Jane; Bacon, Karen L.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.57%
There has been recent debate over stratigraphic markers used to demarcate the Anthropocene from the Holocene Epoch. However, many of the proposed markers are found only in limited areas of the world or do not reflect human impacts on the environment. Here we show that spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), a distinct form of black carbon produced from burning fossil fuels in energy production and heavy industry, provide unambiguous stratigraphic markers of the human activities that have rapidly changed planet Earth over the last century. SCPs are found in terrestrial and marine sediments or ice cores in every continent, including remote areas such as the high Arctic and Antarctica. The rapid increase in SCPs mostly occurs in the mid-twentieth century and is contemporaneous with the ‘Great Acceleration’. It therefore reflects the intensification of fossil fuel usage and can be traced across the globe. We integrate global records of SCPs and propose that the global rapid increase in SCPs in sedimentary records can be used to inform a Global Standard Stratigraphic Age for the Anthropocene. A high-resolution SCP sequence from a lake or peatland may provide the much-needed ‘Golden Spike’ (Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point).

The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature?

Steffen, Will; Crutzen, Paul J; McNeill, John R
Fonte: MediaPrint Publicador: MediaPrint
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.57%
We explore the development of the Anthropocene, the current epoch in which humans and our societies have become a global geophysical force. The Anthropocene began around 1800 with the onset of industrialization, the central feature of which was the enormo

When did the Anthropocene begin? A mid-twentieth century boundary level is stratigraphically optimal

Zalasiewicz, J; Waters, Colin; Williams, Mark; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Cearreta, Alejandro; Crutzen, Paul J; Ellis, Erle; Ellis, Michael A; Fairchild, I.J.; McNeill, John R; Steffen, Will
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.25%
We evaluate the boundary of the Anthropocene geological time interval as an epoch, since it is useful to have a consistent temporal definition for this increasingly used unit, whether the presently informal term is eventually formalized or not. Of the thr

Histories for Changing Times: Entering the Anthropocene?

Robin, Elizabeth (Libby)
Fonte: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.57%
In 2000, Paul Crutzen proposed that the Earth had entered a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, where humanity is changing planetary systems. Since this time, the Anthropocene has figured prominently (and controversially) in global change science, and

What future for the Anthropocene? A biophysical perspective

Bardi, Ugo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.77%
The Anthropocene is a proposed time subdivision of the earth's history correlated to the strong human perturbation of the ecosystem. Much debate is ongoing about what date should be considered as the start of the Anthropocene, but much less on how it can evolve in the future and what are its ultimate limits. It is argued here that the phenomena currently defining the Anthropocene will rapidly decline and disappear in times of the order of one century as a result of the irreversible dispersal of the thermodynamic potentials associated to fossil carbon. However, it is possible that, in the future, the human economic system may catalyze the dissipation of solar energy in forms other than photosynthesis, e.g. using solid state photovoltaic devices. In this case, a strong human influence on the ecosystem may persists for much longer times, but in forms very different than the present ones.

Engineering an Anthropocene Citizenship Framework

Beigi, Shima
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/07/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.57%
This article presents an Anthropocene citizen-cantered framework by incorporating the neuroscience of sustainability related stressors, the biology of collaboration in multi-agent ecosystems such as urban systems, and by emphasising on the importance of harnessing the collective intelligence of the crowd in addressing wicked challenges of sustainable development. The Anthropocene citizenship framework aims to transcend the cognitive model of global citizenship and sustainability to a dynamic, resilient and thriving mental model of collective cooperation.; Comment: 8 pages, Conference

Para distinguir amigos e inimigos no tempo do Antropoceno; Telling friends from foes at the time of the Anthropocene

Latour, Bruno
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/11/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.57%
In spite of its pitfalls, the concept of Anthropocene offers a powerful way, if used wisely, to avoid the danger of naturalization while ensuring that the former domain of the social, or that of the “human”, is reconfigured as being the land of the Earthlings or of the Earthbound. Like Aesop’s tongue, it might deliver the worst – or worse still, much of the same; that is, the back and forth movement between, on the one hand, the “social construction of nature” and, on the other, the reductionist view of humans made of carbon and water, geological forces among other geological forces, or rather mud and dust above mud and dust. But it might also direct our attention toward the end of what Whitehead called “the Bifurcation of nature,” or the final rejection of the separation between Nature and Human that has paralyzed science and politics since the dawn of modernism.; Apesar de suas ciladas, o conceito de Antropoceno oferece uma via poderosa, se usado de maneira sensata, de evitar o perigo de naturalização ao mesmo tempo em que assegura que o antigo domínio do social – o domínio do “humano” – seja reconfigurado como sendo a terra dos Terráqueos ou dos Terranos. Como a língua de Esopo, ele pode transmitir o pior – ou o que ainda é pior...

The Anthropocene and the Technogene: stratigraphic temporal implications of the geological action of humankind

Oliveira, Antonio Manoel dos Santos; Universidade Guarulhos; Peloggia, Alex Ubiratan Goossens; Centro Universitário SENAC Faculdade SENAI de Tecnologia Ambiental FIG-UNIMESP
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/10/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.57%
During the last years some original ideas concerning the geochronologic implications of human geological activities have been proposed, such as the Technogene and Anthropocene concepts as new geological periods. The essential aspects of the issue are the magnitude and frequency of these activities, the extent and significance of their correlative geological records and, of course, the nature of the stratigraphic time-related classification itself. In this paper we propose an alternative solution, which takes into account diachronic units (namely geotechnogenic events and phases) as appropriated for classifying the products of geological human action during the Quaternary

Interview with Professor Oran R. Young: “Dealing with the challenges of the Anthropocene will require substantial changes in the existing world order”; Interview with Professor Oran R. Young:“Dealing with the challenges of the Anthropocene will require substantial changes in the existing world order”

Drummond, José Augusto; Universidade de Brasília; Litre, Gabriela; Universidade de Brasília
Fonte: Editora de Livros IABS Publicador: Editora de Livros IABS
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 29/01/2013 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.77%
For the last 40 years, Professor Oran R. Young, a leading authority on global environmental governance, has been doing cutting-edge research focusing on collective choice and social institutions. He has also conducted applied research dealing with issues pertaining to international environmental governance and to the Arctic as an international region. Working on issues of Arctic governance allowed him to participate in the policy world, while still maintaining his role as a scientist. This contributed to overcoming what he considers a major obstacle to progress: the gap that frequently separates members of the policy community and members of the scientific community. Young believes that navigating the Anthropocene – and unprecedented era with regard to the impact of human actions on the Earth’s biophysical systems - requires governance systems that are effective and resilient in turbulent times. In this interview, conducted by e-mail, Young revisits some of the key concepts of governance, admits that the concept of governance itself may have become to some extent “fuzzy”, and explains why there is still no general theory about environmental governance. Regarding what is called the “death of real environmentalism”, Young points out that most members of the public do not take the issue of climate change seriously...

Issues and Challenges of Mangrove conservation in the Anthropocene

Lugo,Ariel E.; Medina,Ernesto; McGinley,Kathleen
Fonte: Instituto de Ecología A.C. Publicador: Instituto de Ecología A.C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28%
This essay addresses the conservation issues facing mangroves in the Anthropocene, defined as the era of human domination over the world. We review the laws, policies, international agreements, and local actions that address the conservation of mangrove forests in the Neotropics and relate them to the Anthropocene. Collaboration between governments, non-governmental organizations, and communities that depend on mangroves for their livelihood will be critical in the Anthropocene. The essay also reviews recent developments in mangrove ecology and ecophysiology that enlighten how mangroves might respond to changes in temperature and rainfall, sea level rise, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Mangroves in the Anthropocene will also face changes in their species composition given the current movement of mangroves species across continental barriers as a result of human activity. These trends will lead to novel mangrove forests and in some cases expand the range of mangroves worldwide. The solution to mangrove persistence in the Anthropocene is not to isolate mangroves from people, but to regulate interactions between mangroves and humans through effective management. We will also have to expand the scope of the ecological analysis of mangrove ecosystems to include the social forces converging on the mangroves through an analytical approach that has been termed Social Ecology.