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Effects of Positive End-expiratory Pressure Titration and Recruitment Maneuver on Lung Inflammation and Hyperinflation in Experimental Acid Aspiration-induced Lung Injury

Ambrosio, Aline M.; Luo, Rubin; Fantoni, Denise T.; Gutierres, Claudia; Lu, Qin; Gu, Wen-Jie; Otsuki, Denise A.; Malbouisson, Luiz M. S.; Auler, Jose O. C., Jr.; Rouby, Jean-Jacques
Fonte: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS; PHILADELPHIA Publicador: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS; PHILADELPHIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.92%
Background: In acute lung injury positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment maneuver are proposed to optimize arterial oxygenation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of such a strategy on lung histological inflammation and hyperinflation in pigs with acid aspiration-induced lung injury. Methods: Forty-seven pigs were randomly allocated in seven groups: (1) controls spontaneously breathing; (2) without lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (3) without lung injury, PEEP titration; (4) without lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver; (5) with lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (6) with lung injury, PEEP titration; and (7) with lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid. PEEP titration was performed by incremental and decremental PEEP from 5 to 20 cm H2O for optimizing arterial oxygenation. Three recruitment maneuvers (pressure of 40 cm H2O maintained for 20 s) were applied to the assigned groups at each PEEP level. Proportion of lung inflammation, hemorrhage, edema, and alveolar wall disruption were recorded on each histological field. Mean alveolar area was measured in the aerated lung regions. Results: Acid aspiration increased mean alveolar area and produced alveolar wall disruption...

Modeling and visualization of medical anesthesiology acts

Cardoso, Pedro Miguel Tenreiro
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Informática; In recent years, medical visualization has evolved from simple 2D images on a light board to 3D computarized images. This move enabled doctors to find better ways of planning surgery and to diagnose patients. Although there is a great variety of 3D medical imaging software, it falls short when dealing with anesthesiology acts. Very little anaesthesia related work has been done. As a consequence, doctors and medical students have had little support to study the subject of anesthesia in the human body. We all are aware of how costly can be setting medical experiments, covering not just medical aspects but ethical and financial ones as well. With this work we hope to contribute for having better medical visualization tools in the area of anesthesiology. Doctors and in particular medical students should study anesthesiology acts more efficiently. They should be able to identify better locations to administrate the anesthesia, to study how long does it take for the anesthesia to affect patients, to relate the effect on patients with quantity of anaesthesia provided, etc. In this work, we present a medical visualization prototype with three main functionalities: image pre-processing...

Anesthesiology Journal club assessment by means of semantic changes

Vieira,Joaquim Edson; Torres,Marcelo Luís Abramides; Pose,Regina Albanese; Auler Junior,José Otávio Costa
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: the interactive approach of a journal club has been described in the medical education literature. The aim of this investigation is to present an assessment of journal club as a tool to address the question whether residents read more and critically. METHODS: this study reports the performance of medical residents in anesthesiology from the Clinics Hospital - University of São Paulo Medical School. All medical residents were invited to answer five questions derived from discussed papers. The answer sheet consisted of an affirmative statement with a Likert type scale (totally disagree-disagree-not sure-agree-totally agree), each related to one of the chosen articles. The results were evaluated by means of item analysis - difficulty index and discrimination power. RESULTS: residents filled one hundred and seventy three evaluations in the months of December 2011 (n = 51), July 2012 (n = 66) and December 2012 (n = 56). The first exam presented all items with straight statement, second and third exams presented mixed items. Separating "totally agree" from "agree" increased the difficulty indices, but did not improve the discrimination power. CONCLUSIONS: the use of a journal club assessment with straight and inverted statements and by means of five points scale for agreement has been shown to increase its item difficulty and discrimination power. This may reflect involvement either with the reading or the discussion during the journal meeting.

Implementation of a residency program in anesthesiology in the Northeast of Brazil: impact on work processes and professional motivation

Fernandes,Cláudia Regina; Sousa,Rafael Queiroz de; Arcanjo,Francisco Sávio Alves; Menezes Neto,Gerardo Cristino de; Gomes,Josenília Maria Alves; Giaxa,Renata Rocha Barreto
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To understand, through the theory of social representations, the influence exerted by the establishment of a residency program in anesthesiology on anesthetic care and professional motivation in a tertiary teaching hospital in the Northeast of Brazil. METHOD: Qualitative methodology. The theoretical framework comprised the phenomenology and the social representation theory. Five multidisciplinary focus groups were formed with 17 health professionals (five surgeons, five anesthesiologists, two nurses, and five nursing technicians), who work in operating rooms and post-anesthesia care units, all with a prior and a posteriori experience to the establishment of residency. RESULTS: From the response content analysis, the following empirical categories emerged: motivation to upgrade, recycling of anesthesiologists and improving anesthetic practice, resident as an interdisciplinary link in perioperative care, improvements in the quality of perioperative care, and recognition of weaknesses in the perioperative process. It was evident from upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to prolonged intubation that the creation of a residency in anesthesiology brings advancements that are reflected in the motivation of anesthesiologists; the resident worked as an interdisciplinary link between the multidisciplinary team; there was recognition of weaknesses in the system...

Anesthesiology: Glucose Administration During Neurosurgical Procedures

Wiele, Barbara M. Van De
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.92%
The Scientific Board of the California Medical Association presents the following inventory of items of progress in anesthesiology. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and important clinical significance. The items are presented in simple epitome and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, research workers, or scholars to stay abreast of these items of progress in anesthesiology that have recently achieved a substantial degree of authoritative acceptance, whether in their own field of special interest or another.

Anesthesiology—Important Advances in Clinical Medicine: Outpatient Anesthesia Techniques: Continuous Intravenous Infusion of Anesthetic Agents

White, Paul F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1984 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.92%
The Scientific Board of the California Medical Association presents the following inventory of items of progress in anesthesiology. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and important clinical significance. The items are presented in simple epitome and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist practitioners, students, research workers or scholars to stay abreast of these items of progress in anesthesiology that have recently achieved a substantial degree of authoritative acceptance, whether in their own field of special interest or another.

Anesthesiology: Transesophageal Echocardiography

Feng, Timothy L.; Blanchard, Daniel G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.92%
The Council on Scientific Affairs of the California Medical Association presents the following inventory of items of progress in anesthesiology. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and important clinical significance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, and scholars to stay abreast of these items of progress in anesthesiology, that have recently achieved a substantial degree of authoritative acceptance, whether in their own field of special interest or another.

Anesthesiology: Regional Anesthesia in Children

Krane, Elliot J.; Tyler, Donald C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1988 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.92%
The Scientific Board of the California Medical Association presents the following inventory of items of progress in anesthesiology. Each item, in the judgement of a panel of knowledge physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and important clinical significance. The items are presented in simple epitome and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, research workers, or scholars to stay abreast of these items of progress in anesthesiology that have recently achieved a substantial degree of authoritative acceptance, whether in their own field of special interest or another.

A comparison of certain practice characteristics of dental anesthesiologists in Canada and the United States.

Suljak, J. P.; Haas, D. A.; Leake, J. L.
Fonte: American Dental Society of Anesthesiology Publicador: American Dental Society of Anesthesiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.06%
An existing database was used to compare aspects of dental anesthesiology practice of dental anesthesiologists in Canada (n = 32) and the United States (n = 123). Data focusing on percutaneous injuries were obtained through a mailed questionnaire that was returned anonymously. Respondents provided information on the treatment of patients under deep sedation or general anesthesia only. Eighty-one percent of Canadians and 61% of Americans returned the questionnaire. The vast majority (84%) of injuries reported were due to sharps associated with general dentistry compared with those associated with anesthesiology. Canadians were more likely to be operator-anesthetists (P < .01) and to experience a percutaneous injury (P < .01) than US practitioners. American practitioners were more likely to have a greater proportion of the caseload under the age of 20 (P < .02). No other significant differences were observed. These results illustrate a number of unique attributes of the practice of dental anesthesiology in these 2 countries.

Anecdotes from the history of anesthesia in dentistry.

Trieger, N.
Fonte: American Dental Society of Anesthesiology Publicador: American Dental Society of Anesthesiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.92%
I believe that dentists have made important contributions to anesthesiology and patient care. Medical anesthesiology is now being required to provide more same-day or ambulatory care. Where it was once good sport to criticize dentists providing brief anesthesia services for their patients, it has now become appropriate for physician anesthesiologists to use shorter-acting agents, improved physiologic monitoring, reversal agents, and early discharge as part of their care of patients. Anecdotes are informative and often provide us with nostalgic recognition and a smile. Ask yourself how you would have responded to the needs of your patients if you were practicing 40 or more yrs ago. We owe a major debt of gratitude to our gallant forebearers and an acknowledgement saying "Well done," and "God bless."

Evaluation of an anesthesiology department newsletter.

Johnstone, R. E.
Fonte: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Publicador: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.92%
The West Virginia University Department of Anesthesiology has distributed a weekly newsletter to department members for several years. A recent survey and discussion among members found the newsletter to be useful and important in shaping the culture of the department and marketing it. A weekly format of three to five pages was judged best. News about anesthesiology, department policies, and practice management information were most valued.

Patient Simulation: A Literary Synthesis of Assessment Tools in Anesthesiology

Edler, Alice A.; Fanning, Ruth G.; Chen, Michael. I.; Claure, Rebecca; Almazan, Dondee; Struyk, Brain; Seiden, Samuel C.
Fonte: National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board of the Republic of Korea Publicador: National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board of the Republic of Korea
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.06%
High-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) has been hypothesized as a modality for assessing competency of knowledge and skill in patient simulation, but uniform methods for HFPS performance assessment (PA) have not yet been completely achieved. Anesthesiology as a field founded the HFPS discipline and also leads in its PA. This project reviews the types, quality, and designated purpose of HFPS PA tools in anesthesiology. We used the systematic review method and systematically reviewed anesthesiology literature referenced in PubMed to assess the quality and reliability of available PA tools in HFPS. Of 412 articles identified, 50 met our inclusion criteria. Seventy seven percent of studies have been published since 2000; more recent studies demonstrated higher quality. Investigators reported a variety of test construction and validation methods. The most commonly reported test construction methods included "modified Delphi Techniques" for item selection, reliability measurement using inter-rater agreement, and intra-class correlations between test items or subtests. Modern test theory, in particular generalizability theory, was used in nine (18%) of studies. Test score validity has been addressed in multiple investigations and shown a significant improvement in reporting accuracy. However the assessment of predicative has been low across the majority of studies. Usability and practicality of testing occasions and tools was only anecdotally reported. To more completely comply with the gold standards for PA design...

Anesthesiology—The John Adriani Story

Thomas, Mack A.
Fonte: the Academic Division of Ochsner Clinic Foundation Publicador: the Academic Division of Ochsner Clinic Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.17%
Several authors have told the John Adriani story, but his proper recognition in developing the specialty of anesthesiology and his place as a pioneer have never been presented as such. The following article outlines his training and experiences in the early days of anesthesiology. The story of the many problems he encountered and how he developed teaching programs that remain in existence today is one to be admired and appreciated. Much of the information is from personal conversations with Dr Adriani. During his tenure as the Director of Anesthesia at Charity Hospital, I was a surgical house officer in the early 1960s and returned as an anesthesiology trainee in the late 1970s. We became close personal friends. He gave me hundreds of his slides, and we had many discussions about the past and current state of the specialty of anesthesiology.

Core Program Education: Tracking the Progression Toward Excellence in an Anesthesiology Residency Program Over 60 Years

Stedman, Robin B.
Fonte: the Academic Division of Ochsner Clinic Foundation Publicador: the Academic Division of Ochsner Clinic Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.17%
The Ochsner Clinic Foundation Anesthesiology Residency Program is the oldest continuously accredited anesthesiology residency program in the state of Louisiana. As the American College of Graduate Medical Education has developed residency training requirements, so has the Ochsner training program evolved from a structure- and process-based program to an outcomes-based program. The author, associated with the program since 1983, reviewed Program Information Forms from 1971 to the present to track the evolution of the anesthesiology residency training program. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education demanded allocation of resources to residency training and mandated the demonstration of outcomes of training. The Ochsner Clinic Foundation Anesthesiology Residency Program has kept pace with these demands. The trend for graduate performance on written examinations has been upward. Fifty years ago, graduates practiced locally, but graduates now practice throughout the United States. Many completed fellowship training at increasingly higher profile institutions.

Comparison of the Laryngeal View during Tracheal Intubation Using Airtraq and Macintosh Laryngoscopes by Unskillful Anesthesiology Residents: A Clinical Study

Ferrando, Carlos; Aguilar, Gerardo; Belda, F. Javier
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.06%
Background and Objective. The Airtraq laryngoscope (Prodol Meditec, Vizcaya, Spain) is a novel tracheal intubation device. Studies, performed until now, have compared the Airtraq with the Macintosh laryngoscope, concluding that it reduces the intubation times and increase the success rate at first intubation attempt, decreasing the Cormack-Lehane score. The aim of the study was to evaluate if, in unskillful anesthesiology residents during the laryngoscopy, the Airtraq compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope improves the laryngeal view, decreasing the Cormack-Lehane score. Methods. A prospective, randomized, crossed-over trial was carried out on 60 patients. Each one of the patients were intubated using both devices by unskillful (less than two hundred intubations with the Macintosh laryngoscope and 10 intubations using the Airtraq) anesthesiology residents. The Cormack-Lehane score, the success rate at first intubation attempt, and the laryngoscopy and intubation times were compared. Results. The Airtraq significantly decreased the Cormack-Lehane score (P = 0.04). On the other hand, there were no differences in times of laryngoscopy (P = 0.645; IC 95% 3.1, +4.8) and intubation (P = 0.62; C95%  −6.1, +10.0) between the two devices. No relevant complications were found during the maneuvers of intubation using both devices. Conclusions. The Airtraq is a useful laryngoscope in unskillful anesthesiology residents improving the laryngeal view and...

Contribution of Dentist Anesthesiologists to Dental Anesthesiology Research

Ganzberg, Steven; Rashid, Robert G.; Davidian, Edward
Fonte: The American Dental Society of Anesthesiology Publicador: The American Dental Society of Anesthesiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
In order to determine if dentist anesthesiologists (DAs) actively contribute to research in the field of anesthesiology, and thus contribute new knowledge to the field, an extensive literature search was accomplished. DAs make up only 1.5% of dentists who actively contribute to anesthesia research but account for 10% of publications. To determine if the impact of DA research was similar to the American Dental Association (ADA) recognized specialties, h-indices of noted researchers in other specialties were compared to the h-indices of noted DA researchers. The results show that the impact of top DA researchers in dental anesthesiology is similar to the impact of top dental specialty researchers, despite lack of academic departments in dental schools where a large percentage of dental research is completed. Dentist anesthesiologists actively contribute to the research in anesthesiology for dentistry and thus, actively contribute to new knowledge in the field.

Demand in Pediatric Dentistry for Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentist Anesthesiologists: A Survey of Directors of Dentist Anesthesiologist and Pediatric Dentistry Residencies

Hicks, C. Gray; Jones, James E.; Saxen, Mark A.; Maupome, Gerardo; Sanders, Brian J.; Walker, LaQuia A.; Weddell, James A.; Tomlin, Angela
Fonte: The American Dental Society of Anesthesiology Publicador: The American Dental Society of Anesthesiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
This study describes what training programs in pediatric dentistry and dental anesthesiology are doing to meet future needs for deep sedation/general anesthesia services required for pediatric dentistry. Residency directors from 10 dental anesthesiology training programs in North America and 79 directors from pediatric dentistry training programs in North America were asked to answer an 18-item and 22-item online survey, respectively, through an online survey tool. The response rate for the 10 anesthesiology training program directors was 9 of 10 or 90%. The response rate for the 79 pediatric dentistry training program directors was 46 of 79 or 58%. Thirty-seven percent of pediatric dentistry programs use clinic-based deep sedation/general anesthesia for dental treatment in addition to hospital-based deep sedation/general anesthesia. Eighty-eight percent of those programs use dentist anesthesiologists for administration of deep sedation/general anesthesia in a clinic-based setting. Pediatric dentistry residency directors perceive a future change in the need for deep sedation/general anesthesia services provided by dentist anesthesiologists to pediatric dentists: 64% anticipate an increase in need for dentist anesthesiologist services...

Risk and safety concerns in anesthesiology practice: The present perspective

Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Kaur, Jasbir
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.06%
Newer developments and advancements in anesthesiology, surgical, and medical fields have widened the functional scope of anesthesiologist thus increasing his professional responsibilities and obligations. While at workplace, anesthesiologist is exposed to a wide array of potential hazards that can be detrimental to his overall health. Numerous risks and safety concerns have been mentioned in the literature, but the magnitude of challenges in anesthesiology practice are far greater than those cited and anticipated. Many times these challenging situations are unavoidable and the attending anesthesiologist has to deal with them on an individual basis. These hazards not only affect the general health but can be extremely threatening in various other ways that can increase the potential risks of morbidity and mortality. This article is an attempt to bring a general awareness among anesthesia fraternity about the various health hazards associated with anesthesia practice. Also, a genuine attempt has been made to enumerate the various preventive methods and precautions that should be adopted to make practice of anesthesiology safe and smooth.

Ensino de anestesiologia durante a graduação por meio de uma liga acadêmica: qual o impacto no aprendizado dos alunos?; Anesthesiology Teaching during Undergraduation through an Academic League: what is the Impact in Students' Learning?; Enseñanza de la anestesiología durante el pregrado por medio de una liga académica: ¿cuál es el impacto en el aprendizaje de los alumnos?

Ramalho, Alan Saito; Silva, Felipe Duarte; Kronemberger, Tatiana Barboza; Pose, Regina Albanese; Abramides Torres, Marcelo Luis; Carmona, Maria Jose Carvalho; Auler Junior, Jose Otavio Costa
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; NEW YORK Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; NEW YORK
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR; ENG; SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.33%
Justificativa e objetivos: As ligas acadêmicas vêm se firmando como instrumentos de ensino médico e inserção dos estudantes de medicina na prática das especialidades, inclusive na anestesiologia. Como o papel das ligas no processo de desenvolvimento de competências e aprendizado de seus alunos não é bem conhecido, avaliou-se o aprendizado dos integrantes de uma liga acadêmica de anestesiologia após um ano de participação nas suas atividades. MÉTODO: Os alunos de uma liga acadêmica de anestesiologia foram acompanhados de março a dezembro de 2010 e avaliados por meio de testes cognitivos objetivos de múltipla escolha aplicados antes do início das atividades e após sua conclusão. A frequência nas atividades e o perfil epidemiológico dos alunos foram correlacionados aos resultados dos testes. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 20 acadêmicos do 3º ao 6º ano, com média de idade de 22,8 (21-26) anos. A frequência média nas atividades propostas foi 10,4/13 (80%). A média de acertos no primeiro teste foi 8,1/17 (47,6%), sendo que os alunos do 3º ano apresentam notas menores (p < 0,02) em relação aos demais. No teste pós-liga, a média de acertos foi 11,9/17 (70%), mostrando melhora no desempenho dos alunos (p < 0...

Comparison of knowledge of perioperative care in primary care residents versus anesthesiology residents

Adesanya, Adebola O.; Joshi, Girish P.
Fonte: Baylor Health Care System Publicador: Baylor Health Care System
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
Primary care physicians (internal medicine and family practice) are often asked to evaluate patients before surgery and prepare them for the procedure. The goal of our study was to examine primary care and anesthesiology resident physicians' knowledge of preoperative evaluation and preparation as well as perioperative changes during anesthesia and surgery. To this end, a questionnaire was sent to primary care resident physicians and anesthesiology resident physicians in our university hospital system. One hundred twenty questionnaires were distributed, and the overall response rate was 50.8%. Although there was agreement between anesthesiology and primary care residents in many of the areas surveyed, differences were observed in questions related to appropriateness of preoperative instructions regarding medications, utility of routine preoperative testing, and identification of expected physiologic changes during anesthesia and surgery. Of the maximum possible 36 points, the mean score for anesthesiology residents (27.55) was higher than the mean scores for primary care residents (21.4 and 20.24 for internal medicine and family practice, respectively), although overall scores were generally lower than expected for both anesthesiology and primary care residents. The level of training of the respondents did not significantly affect the responses. We conclude that primary care resident physicians were knowledgeable about most perioperative care...