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A Y-linked anti-Müllerian hormone duplication takes over a critical role in sex determination

Hattori, Ricardo S.; Murai, Yu; Oura, Miho; Masuda, Shuji; Majhi, Sullip K.; Sakamoto, Takashi; Fernandino, Juan I.; Somoza, Gustavo M.; Yokota, Masashi; Strüssmann, Carlos A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
Gonadal sex determination in vertebrates generally follows a sequence of genetically programmed events. In what is seemingly becoming a pattern, all confirmed or current candidate “master” sex-determining genes reported in this group, e.g., SRY in eutherian mammals, DMY/dmrt1bY in medaka, DM-W in the African clawed frog, and DMRT1 in chicken encode transcription factors. In contrast, here we show that a male-specific, duplicated copy of the anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) is implicated in testicular development of the teleost fish Patagonian pejerrey (Odontesthes hatcheri). The gene, termed amhy because it is found in a single metacentric/submetacentric chromosome of XY individuals, is expressed much earlier than the autosomal amh (6 d after fertilization vs. 12 wk after fertilization) and is localized to presumptive Sertoli cells of XY males during testicular differentiation. Moreover, amhy knockdown in XY embryos resulted in the up-regulation of foxl2 and cyp19a1a mRNAs and the development of ovaries. These results are evidence of a functional amh duplication in vertebrates and suggest that amhy may be the master sex-determining gene in this species. If confirmed, this would be a unique instance of a hormone-related gene, a member of the TGF-β superfamily...

Coexistence of Genotypic and Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination in Pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis

Yamamoto, Yoji; Zhang, Yan; Sarida, Munti; Hattori, Ricardo S.; Strüssmann, Carlos A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
In this study, we examined whether a homolog of the master sex-determining gene amhy of Odontesthes hatcheri is present and plays any role in testis determination of pejerrey O. bonariensis, a species otherwise known for its strong temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Screening of wild and laboratory-reared pejerrey for amhy revealed a high, although not complete linkage with phenotypic sex. The sex ratio in an amhy+/−/amhy−/− full sibling progeny reared during the thermolabile period of sex determination at an intermediate temperature of 25°C was 68.7% male:31.3% female; all amhy+/− fish developed as males whereas about 2/3 and 1/3 of the amhy−/− were female and male, respectively. Expression analyses revealed that amhy transcription began during embryo stage and decreased by the end of sex determination period. The autosomal amha was present in all individuals regardless of amhy genotype; its expression increased significantly from the end of the same period in the gonads of all amhy+/− but only in part of the amhy−/− animals. After histological gonadal differentiation, all gonads of amhy−/− animals with amha ISH signals were testes and those without it were ovaries. These results suggest that amhy is important for testicular differentiation in pejerrey...

A Tandem Duplicate of Anti-Müllerian Hormone with a Missense SNP on the Y Chromosome Is Essential for Male Sex Determination in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

Li, Minghui; Sun, Yunlv; Zhao, Jiue; Shi, Hongjuan; Zeng, Sheng; Ye, Kai; Jiang, Dongneng; Zhou, Linyan; Sun, Lina; Tao, Wenjing; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Kocher, Thomas D.; Wang, Deshou
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/11/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
Variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway is emerging as an important mechanism by which gonadal sex determination is controlled in teleosts. Here we show that amhy, a Y-specific duplicate of the anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) gene, induces male sex determination in Nile tilapia. amhy is a tandem duplicate located immediately downstream of amhΔ-y on the Y chromosome. The coding sequence of amhy was identical to the X-linked amh (amh) except a missense SNP (C/T) which changes an amino acid (Ser/Leu92) in the N-terminal region. amhy lacks 5608 bp of promoter sequence that is found in the X-linked amh homolog. The amhΔ-y contains several insertions and deletions in the promoter region, and even a 5 bp insertion in exonVI that results in a premature stop codon and thus a truncated protein product lacking the TGF-β binding domain. Both amhy and amhΔ-y expression is restricted to XY gonads from 5 days after hatching (dah) onwards. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of amhy in XY fish resulted in male to female sex reversal, while mutation of amhΔ-y alone could not. In contrast, overexpression of Amhy in XX fish, using a fosmid transgene that carries the amhy/amhΔ-y haplotype or a vector containing amhy ORF under the control of CMV promoter, resulted in female to male sex reversal...

Evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes and sex determination genes: insights from monotremes.

Toledo-Flores, Deborah Fernanda
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
Genetic sex determination systems are generally based on the presence of differentiated sex chromosomes. Birds have a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in which males are ZZ and females ZW, whereas mammals have an XX/XY system with males being XY and females XX. Monotremes have an extraordinary sex chromosome system that consists of multiple sex chromosomes: 5X5Y in platypus and 5X4Y in echidna. Intriguingly, the monotreme sex chromosomes show extensive homology to the bird ZW and not to the therian XY. However, sex determination in monotremes is still a mystery; the Y-specific Sry gene that triggers male sex determination in therian mammals is absent and so far very few genes have been identified on Y chromosomes in monotremes. To gain more insights into the gene content of Y-chromosomes and to identify potential sex determination genes in the platypus a collaborative large scale transcriptomic approach led to the identification of new male specific genes including the anti-Muellerian hormone AMH that I mapped to Y₅, this makes Amhy an exciting new candidate for sex determination in monotremes. Platypus chromosome 6 is largely homologous to the therian X and therefore it represents the therian proto sex chromosome. In addition, this autosome features a large heteromorphic nucleolus organizer region (NOR) and associates with the sex chromosomes during male meiosis (Casey and Daish personal communication). I investigated chromosome 6 heteromorphism in both sexes and found a number of sex-specific characteristics related to the extent of the NOR heteromorphism...