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A etnoarqueologia na Amazônia: contribuições e perspectivas; The ethnoarchaeology in Amazon: contributions and perspectives

SILVA, Fabíola Andréa
Fonte: MCT/Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi Publicador: MCT/Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.78%
Desde a década de 1970, a etnoarqueologia tem sido realizada na região amazônica com diferentes temas, problemas e objetivos. Independentemente das suas perspectivas, esses trabalhos têm contribuído para o entendimento da pré-história amazônica, ampliando as possibilidades para interpretar o registro arqueológico. Além disso, contribuem na crítica e na revisão dos paradigmas tradicionais que dominaram por muito tempo as explicações sobre os modos de vida das populações amazônicas do presente e do passado. Esse artigo apresenta um panorama desses trabalhos etnoarqueológicos, salientando sua importância para o entendimento da pré-história amazônica e para a continuidade das pesquisas arqueológicas na região.; Abstract Since the 1970s, the ethnoarchaeology was held in the Amazon region with different issues, problems and goals. Regardless of their perspectives, these works have contributed to the views of prehistory of Amazon, expanding the possibilities to analyze the archaeological record. They also contribute to criticism and revision of traditional paradigms that have dominated since for long time the explanations about the ways of life of present and past Amazonians populations. This paper presents a review of ethnoarchaeological research in Amazon emphasizing the importance of ethnoarchaeology to knowledge of prehistory of Amazon as well as to the continuity of archaeological research in Amazon region.

Recurrent Parasitemias and Population Dynamics of Plasmodium vivax Polymorphisms in Rural Amazonia

ORJUELA-SANCHEZ, Pamela; SILVA, Natal Santos da; SILVA-NUNES, Monica da; FERREIRA, Marcelo Urbano
Fonte: AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE Publicador: AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Clinical trials documented alarming post-treatment Plasmodium vivax recurrence rates caused by recrudescence of surviving asexual blood stages, relapse from hypnozoites, or new infections. Here we describe high rates of P vivax recurrence (26-40% 180 days after treatment) in two cohorts of rural Amazonians exposed to low levels of malaria transmission after a vivax malaria episode treated with chloroquine-primaquine. Microsatellite analysis of 28 paired acute infection and recurrence parasites showed only two pairs of identical haplotypes (consistent with recrudescences or reactivation of homologous hypnozoites) and four pairs of related haplotypes (sharing alleles at 11-13 of 14 microsatellites analyzed). Local isolates of P vivax were extraordinarily diverse and rarely shared the same haplotype, indicating that frequent recurrences did not favor the persistence or reappearance of clonal lineages of parasites in the Population. This fast haplotype replacement rate may represent the typical population dynamics Of neutral polymorphisms in parasites from low-endemicity areas.; National Institutes of Health (NIH)[RO1 AI 075416-01]; U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico c Tecnologico (CNPq)[470570/2006-7]; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)[05//51988-0]; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)[07/51199-0]

Malaria on the Amazonian frontier: Transmission dynamics, risk factors, spatial distribution, and prospects for control

SILVA-NUNES, Monica da; CODECO, Claudia T.; MALAFRONTE, Rosely S.; SILVA, Natal S. da; JUNCANSEN, Camila; MUNIZ, Pascoal T.; FERREIRA, Marcelo U.
Fonte: AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE Publicador: AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.78%
Little follow-up data on malaria transmission in communities originating from frontier settlements in Amazonia are available. Here we describe a cohort study in a frontier settlement in Acre, Brazil, where 509 subjects contributed 489.7 person-years of follow-up. The association between malaria morbidity during the follow-up and individual, household, and spatial covariates was explored with mixed-effects logistic regression models and spatial analysis. Incidence rates for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria were 30.0/100 and 16.3/100 person-years at risk, respectively. Malaria morbidity was strongly associated with land clearing and farming, and decreased after five years of residence in the area, suggesting that clinical immunity develops among subjects exposed to low malaria endemicity. Significant spatial clustering of malaria was observed in the areas of most recent occupation, indicating that the continuous influx of nonimmune settlers to forest-fringe areas perpetuates the cycle of environmental change and colonization that favors malaria transmission in rural Amazonia.; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CNPq[470067/2004-7]; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP[03/09719-6]; FAPESP[05/51988-0]; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

Age-Dependent Acquisition of Protective Immunity to Malaria in Riverine Populations of the Amazon Basin of Brazil

LADEIA-ANDRADE, Simone; FERREIRA, Marcelo Urbano; CARVALHO, Maria Esther de; CURADO, Izilda; COURA, Jose Rodrigues
Fonte: AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE Publicador: AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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16.78%
Five community-based cross-sectional surveys of malaria morbidity and associated risk factors in remote riverine populations in northwestern Brazil showed average parasite rates of 4.2% (thick-smear microscopy) and 14.4% (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) in the overall population, with a spleen rate of 13.9% among children 2-9 years of age. Plasmodium vivax was 2.8 times more prevalent than P. falciparum, with rare instances of P. malariae and mixed-species infections confirmed by PCR; 9.6% of asymptomatic subjects had parasitemias detected by PCR. Low-grade parasitemia detected by PCR only was a risk factor for anemia, after controlling for age and other covariates. Although clinical and subclinical infections occurred in all age groups, the risk of infection and disease decreased significantly with increasing age, after adjustment for several covariates in multilevel logistic regression models. These findings suggest that the continuous exposure to hypo- or mesoendemic malaria may induce significant anti-parasite and anti-disease immunity in native Amazonians.; PAPES IV/Fiocruz; Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CNPq[410398/2006-3]; FAPESP Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo[05/51988-0]; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientffico e Technologico (CNPq)...

A rede elétrica na cidade de Tefé como instrumento de análise de integração territorial; The grid in the city of Tefé as an analytical tool for territorial integration

Queiroz, Kristian Oliveira de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/10/2011 PT
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Neste estudo, a rede elétrica é utilizada como instrumento de análise para a integração territorial restrita da cidade de Tefé ao meio técnico-científico-informacional. A ocorrência de interrupções e racionamentos no fornecimento de energia elétrica na cidade, localizada no interior do estado do Amazonas, proporciona prejuízos econômicos, sociais e culturais significativos à população, dificultando seu pleno desenvolvimento. Dessa forma, o conhecimento dos principais eventos da evolução histórica da rede elétrica no território nacional e das políticas de planejamento governamental que corroboraram para o surgimento deste problema é analisado com o propósito de entender as dinâmicas socioespaciais que não facilitam a inserção dessa fração do território ao meio geográfico contemporâneo. Os projetos de integração na fronteira amazônica produziram um crescimento sem planejamento dos objetos técnicos, que, estruturados às pressas, proporcionaram obras imediatistas, realizadas em curto prazo -- o que Milton Santos (1994) chama, para os países subdesenvolvidos, de -saltar etapas?. Isso propiciou à população consequências negativas vinculadas às estruturas sociotécnicas amazônicas, que não atendem integralmente às funções que deveriam realizar...

Polimorfismo no grupo sanguíneo Duffy e anticorpos IgG naturalmente adquiridos contra a proteína de ligação em Duffy de Plasmodium vivax (PvDBP) na Amazônia rural brasileira.; Duffy blood group polymorphism and naturally acquired IgG antibodies to Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) in rural Amazonians.

Nicolete, Vanessa Cristina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/11/2012 PT
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A proteína de ligação em Duffy (PvDBP) dos merozoítos de P. vivax se liga a glicoproteínas de membrana, chamadas de grupo sanguíneo Duffy, conhecidas como DARC. Indivíduos DARC negativos são normalmente resistentes a infecção estágio sanguínea por P. vivax; portanto, PvDBP é um forte antígeno canditato a vacina. Aqui, investigamos respostas de anticorpos contra três proteínas derivadas de PvDBP e MSP119, em 343 indivíduos de uma região Amazônica brasileira. Anticorpos contra Sal III-His, OII-His, Sal III-IV-GST e MSP119-GST foram encontrados em 43,7%, 39,0%, 14,3% e 38,8% dos indivíduos. Os indivíduos FY*BESFY*BES foram os que menos apresentaram anticorpos contra PvDBP, porém encontramos proporções similares de respondedores entre indivíduos com outros genótipos. A análise de sequências revelou muitas variantes da região II de PvDBP em 41 isolados. A mais comum (encontrada em 28,8% dos isolados), difere de Sal I e PNG- O em seis codóns de aminoácidos. Nenhuma variante tipo Sal I, cujo protótipo de vacina está em teste clínico, foi encontrada nos parasitas locais.; The Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) of the P. vivax merozoites, which binds to a erythrocyte membrane glycoprotein known as Duffy blood group antigen for chemokines (DARC). DARC-negative individuals are usually resistant to blood-stage infection with P. vivax; therefore...

Questão agrária e etnoconhecimento camponês na comunidade Pau Rosa, assentamento Tarumã Mirim, Manaus-AM; Agrarian question and peasant etnoknowledge in the Pau Rosa community, Tarumã Mirim settlement, Manaus-AM

Souza, Soraya do Carmo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/09/2013 PT
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16.78%
O objetivo deste trabalho é a análise do modo de vida camponês na comunidade Pau Rosa no projeto de assentamento Tarumã Mirim, Manaus-AM. Uma das características do etnoconhecimento camponês é o conhecimento da natureza. Neste sentido, são notórios os saberes ambientais adquiridos para a produção de remédios com base em plantas retiradas da mata, cultivadas e/ou domesticadas nos quintais. O vasto conhecimento sobre o ambiente é resultado das experiências acumuladas em virtude das trajetórias de vida diversificadas, pela transferência de conhecimentos de geração em geração e por constantes pesquisas necessárias para o tratamento de doenças. As informações sobre o etnoconhecimento foram colhidas em entrevistas aos camponeses nos sítios e nas feiras onde comercializam a produção, com registro fotográfico dos elementos constituintes dos sítios e das plantas medicinais. O recurso da história oral foi utilizado pelo fato de as entrevistas serem de extrema importância para o conhecimento da realidade local, tendo em vista, a transmissão dos saberes da cultura camponesa ser com base na oralidade. Para o entendimento do modo de vida dos camponeses residentes na comunidade Pau Rosa foi preciso resgatar o contexto maior da qual fazem parte. Dessa forma...

Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caicaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil)

Hanazaki, Natalia; Alves, Romulo R. N.; Begossi, Alpina
Fonte: Biomed Central Ltd. Publicador: Biomed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 8
ENG
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16.78%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 97/14514-1; Background: The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caicaras ( descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood.Methods: We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caicara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material.Results: The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by Caicaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds ( several species of Turdidae). Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the Caicaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein.Conclusion: Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way...

Do sonho à luta de sobrevivência na Amazônia: a caminhada das famílias camponesas do Projeto RECA

Ângelo, Daniel Dias
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 119 f. : il., tabs.
POR
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16.78%
Pós-graduação em Ciências Sociais - FCLAR; The field is in addition to barn and propellant of the Brazilian economy, the big stage where they perform social and political transformations. Since the 70s, capitalism is expanding by Amazon frontier through logging, cattle ranchers, rentiers and mining in Carajás, Pará southeastern. In this decade also saw the arrival of many families who migrated expropriated toward the frontier, driven by projects of Colonization and Agrarian Reform of Military Governments. Migrants and Amazonians; southerners, Northeastern, tappers, miners, natives, ranchers, miners and indigenous, met all the differences in the same location. Nearly half a century after the beginning of such processes, the border shows the strength of capitalist development in which they are placed, through companies of great value in Stock Exchange (BOVESPA) as Vale, Odebrecht, Camargo Correia, Friboi, Natura and Petrobras. It is within this scenario, the present study is situated in order to analyze how these families of settlers have survived in the region. Therefore, it was investigated and described the history of the struggle dreams, migration to economic success, the peasants of RECA Project, situated in Ponta do Abunã...

Afeto, viés otimista e percepção de consumidores sobre riscos e benefícios à saúde relacionados ao consumo de açaí (Euterpe precatoria); Affection, optimistic bias and perception of the health risks and benefits to health related to the consumption of açaí (Euterpe precatoria)

Geina Faria dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.45%
O açaí faz parte do hábito alimentar especialmente da população amazônica. E, seu consumo tem aumentado em outras regiões do Brasil e do exterior nos últimos anos, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais. Em paralelo, ocorrências apontaram o açaí como veículo de transmissão oral da Doença de Chagas Aguda (DCA). Assim, objetivou-se analisar a percepção de consumidores adultos do município de Coari sobre os riscos e benefícios à saúde provenientes do consumo de açaí. Entre os objetivos específicos desta pesquisa, destacam-se a identificação do nível de afeto e do viés otimista relacionados ao açaí, além da verificação da relação entre percepções de risco, benefício, nível de afeto e viés otimista com características socioeconômicas e demográficas. Informações sobre locais de compra, formas e frequência de consumo do açaí também foram avaliadas. Elaborou-se um instrumento de coleta de dados contendo perguntas relacionadas ao consumo de açaí, afeto e a caracterização dos indivíduos. Ainda, investigou-se as percepções de risco, de benefício e do conhecimento sobre risco e benefício relacionado ao consumo de açaí, abordando os conceitos: pessoal, amazonas e conhecidos. Estes conceitos foram investigados com a finalidade de verificar a avaliação do entrevistado para si próprio (pessoal)...

Health and demography of native Amazonians: historical perspective and current status

Hern,Warren M.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.17%
Native Amazonians have been the victims of two massive historical assaults, one at the time of the Conquest and the other during the Twentieth century. Due to epidemic disease and environmental destruction, many tribes have gone from contact to displacement, decimation, and extinction in a single generation. Deculturation and the construction of large development projects have had catastrophic effects on native populations. In many ways, native Amazonians have experienced a reverse of the "Epidemiologic Transition". Paradoxically, one of the effects of cultural disruption for some native Amazonians has been the loss of cultural controls on fertility with the result that high fertility has become a major health problem. Combined with rapid growth of non-indigenous Amazonian populations, deforestation, and urbanization, native Amazonians face grave obstacles to long-term survival.

Anemia and Iron Deficiency in School Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Community-Based Study in Rural Amazonia

Ferreira, Marcelo U.; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Bertolino, Carla N.; Malafronte, Rosely S.; Muniz, Pascoal T.; Cardoso, Marly A.
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2007 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2007
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.78%
We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of anemia and iron deficiency in 398 rural Amazonians aged 5–90 years in Acre, Brazil. Anemia and iron deficiency were diagnosed in 16% and 19% of the population, respectively. Anemia was likely to have multiple causes; although nearly half of anemic school children and women had altered iron status indicators, only 19.7% of overall anemia was attributable to iron deficiency. Geo-helminth infection and a recent malaria episode were additional factors affecting iron status indicators in this population.

Is there a divide between local medicinal knowledge and Western medicine? a case study among native Amazonians in Bolivia

Calvet-Mir, Laura; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/08/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.78%

RISK FACTORS FOR HTLV-II INFECTION IN PERUVIAN MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN

ZUNT, JOSEPH R.; LA ROSA, ALBERTO M.; PEINADO, JESÚS; LAMA, JAVIER R.; SUAREZ, LUIS; PUN, MONICA; CABEZAS, CESAR; SANCHEZ, JORGE
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.78%
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-II (HTLV-II) infection is endemic in indigenous groups in the Americas and injection drug users (IDUs) worldwide. In Peru, HTLV-II infection was previously identified in two indigenous Amazonians. We examined risk factors for HTLV-II infection in 2,703 Peruvian men who have sex with men (MSM): 35 (1.3%) were HTLV-II positive. HTLV-II infection was associated with syphilis, HSV-2 infection, unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and older age. This is the first report of HTLV-II in a non-indigenous non-IDU population in Peru. Additional studies are needed to determine if HTLV-II is a sexually transmitted infection in this and other sexually active populations.

The Perceived Benefits of Height: Strength, Dominance, Social Concern, and Knowledge among Bolivian Native Amazonians

Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Zebrowitz, Leslie; Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Reyes-García, Victoria; ; Godoy, Ricardo A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/05/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
Research in industrial countries suggests that, with no other knowledge about a person, positive traits are attributed to taller people and correspondingly, that taller people have slightly better socioeconomic status (SES). However, research in some non-industrialized contexts has shown no correlation or even negative correlations between height and socioeconomic outcomes. It remains unclear whether positive traits remain attributed to taller people in such contexts. To address this question, here we report the results of a study in a foraging-farming society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane’)–a group in which we have previously shown little association between height and socioeconomic outcomes. We showed 24 photographs of pairs of Tsimane’ women, men, boys, and girls to 40 women and 40 men >16 years of age. We presented four behavioral scenarios to each participant and asked them to point to the person in the photograph with greater strength, dominance, social concern, or knowledge. The pairs in the photographs were of the same sex and age, but one person was shorter. Tsimane’ women and men attributed greater strength, dominance, and knowledge to taller girls and boys, but they did not attribute most positive traits to taller adults...

The use of biocultural data in interpreting sex differences in body proportions among rural Amazonians

VERCELLOTTI, GIUSEPPE; PIPERATA, BARBARA A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
Variation in height and body proportions is relatively well understood at the inter-population level, but less is known about intra-population variation. This study explores intra-population variation in body proportions among 172 (88 female; 84 male) adult rural Amazonians. We test the hypotheses that: 1) stunting is associated with changes in proportions and fatness; 2) the sexes express different proportions in response to similar environmental stress and 3) female growth is negatively affected by the costs of reproduction. We examined height, sitting height and total leg length in subsamples based on sex and nutritional status (stunted/non-stunted) in relation to biocultural factors including access to food and healthcare and female reproductive history parameters. Differences in proportions were examined using the Quick-Test (Tsutakawa and Hewett, 1977); correlation analyses were employed to detect associations between anthropometric data and body fatness, and female reproductive history parameters. We found significantly higher rates of stunting among females (X2=5.31; p=0.02; RR=1.4). Stunted individuals exhibited relatively shorter legs than non-stunted individuals (p=0.02), although this was not found in within-sex analyses. A significant negative correlation was found between leg length index and fatness (p<0.01). Lastly...

Olfaction and Environment: Tsimane’ of Bolivian Rainforest Have Lower Threshold of Odor Detection Than Industrialized German People

Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Hummel, Thomas; Huanca, Tomas
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/07/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.78%
Olfactory sensitivity varies between individuals. However, data regarding cross-cultural and inter-group differences are scarce. We compared the thresholds of odor detection of the traditional society of Tsimane’ (native Amazonians of the Bolivian rainforest; n = 151) and people living in Dresden (Germany; n = 286) using “Sniffin’ Sticks” threshold subtest. Tsimane’ detected n-butanol at significantly lower concentrations than the German subjects. The distribution of thresholds of the Tsimane’ was very specific, with 25% of Tsimane’ obtaining better results in the olfactory test than any member of the German group. These data suggest that differences in olfactory sensitivity seem to be especially salient between industrialized and non-industrialized populations inhabiting different environmental conditions. We hypothesize that the possible sources of such differences are: (i) the impact of pollution which impairs the olfactory abilities of people from industrialized countries; (ii) better training of olfaction because of the higher importance of smell in traditional populations; (iii) environmental pressures shaping olfactory abilities in these populations.

Clinical spectrum of uncomplicated malaria in semi-immune Amazonians: beyond the " symptomatic " vs " asymptomatic " dichotomy

Silva-Nunes,Mônica da; Ferreira,Marcelo U
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
We analyzed prospectively 326 laboratory-confirmed, uncomplicated malarial infections (46.3% due to Plasmodium vivax, 35.3% due to P. falciparum, and 18.4% mixed-species infections) diagnosed in 162 rural Amazonians aged 5-73 years. Thirteen symptoms (fever, chills, sweating, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, cough, dyspnea, and diarrhea) were scored using a structured questionnaire. Headache (59.8%), fever (57.1%), and myalgia (48.4%) were the most frequent symptoms. Ninety-six (29.4%) episodes, all of them diagnosed during cross-sectional surveys of the whole study population (96.9% by molecular technique only), were asymptomatic. Of 93 symptom-less infections left untreated, only 10 became symptomatic over the next two months following diagnosis. Fever was perceived as " intense " in 52.6% of 230 symptomatic malaria episodes, with no fever reported in 19.1% episodes although other symptoms were present. We found significant differences in the prevalence and perceived intensity of fever and other clinical symptoms in relation to parasite load at the time of diagnosis and patient's age, cumulative exposure to malaria, recent malaria morbidity, and species of malaria parasite. These factors are all likely to affect the effectiveness of malaria control strategies based on active or passive detection of febrile subjects in semi-immune populations.

Moving beyond a snapshot to understand changes in the well-being of native Amazonians : panel evidence (2002-2006) from Bolivia.

Godoy, Ricardo; Reyes-Garcia, Victòria; Gravlee, Clarence C.; Huanca L., Tomás; Leonard, William R.; McDade, Thomas W.; Tanner, Susan
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.02%
Forces such as the opening of trade, globalization, multinational corporate resource extraction, urbanization, acculturation, and colonization catalyze economic, ecological, and sociocultural change, which can threaten the well‐being and habitat of native Amazonians. Understanding these forces is of paramount importance to improve the well‐being of native Amazonians and to foster the conservation of biological diversity, yet most analyses of these forces rely on cross‐sectional data. Though adequate to describe the association between variables at one point in time, cross‐sectional data do not allow one to estimate changes in well‐being over time. We collected data annually during five consecutive years (2002–2006, inclusive) from a foraging and farming society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane’) to estimate annual rates of change for seven indicators of adult well‐being. Indicators encompassed both objective and subjective measures of well‐being that included economic, health, psychological, and social dimensions that overlap well with Tsimane’ notions of well‐being. The annual rate of change in the inflation‐adjusted (hereafter real) value of food consumption (+6.35%), body mass index (+0.71%), and incidence of anger (−10.40%) show significant improvements over time...

Health and demography of native Amazonians: historical perspective and current status

Hern,Warren M.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1991 EN
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Native Amazonians have been the victims of two massive historical assaults, one at the time of the Conquest and the other during the Twentieth century. Due to epidemic disease and environmental destruction, many tribes have gone from contact to displacement, decimation, and extinction in a single generation. Deculturation and the construction of large development projects have had catastrophic effects on native populations. In many ways, native Amazonians have experienced a reverse of the "Epidemiologic Transition". Paradoxically, one of the effects of cultural disruption for some native Amazonians has been the loss of cultural controls on fertility with the result that high fertility has become a major health problem. Combined with rapid growth of non-indigenous Amazonian populations, deforestation, and urbanization, native Amazonians face grave obstacles to long-term survival.