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Biomass burning in Brazil`s Amazonian ""arc of deforestation"": Burning efficiency and charcoal formation in a fire after mechanized clearing at Feliz Natal, Mato Grosso

RIGHI, Ciro Abbud; GRACA, Paulo Mauricio Lima de Alencastro; CERRI, Carlos Clemente; FEIGL, Brigitte Josefine; FEARNSIDE, Philip Martin
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
Estimates of greenhouse-gas emissions from deforestation are highly uncertain because of high variability in key parameters and because of the limited number of studies providing field measurements of these parameters. One such parameter is burning efficiency, which determines how much of the original forest`s aboveground carbon stock will be released in the burn, as well as how much will later be released by decay and how much will remain as charcoal. In this paper we examined the fate of biomass from a semideciduous tropical forest in the ""arc of deforestation,"" where clearing activity is concentrated along the southern edge of the Amazon forest. We estimated carbon content, charcoal formation and burning efficiency by direct measurements (cutting and weighing) and by line-intersect sampling (LIS) done along the axis of each plot before and after burning of felled vegetation. The total aboveground dry biomass found here (219.3 Mg ha(-1)) is lower than the values found in studies that have been done in other parts of the Amazon region. Values for burning efficiency (65%) and charcoal formation (6.0%, or 5.98 Mg C ha(-1)) were much higher than those found in past studies in tropical areas. The percentage of trunk biomass lost in burning (49%) was substantially higher than has been found in previous studies. This difference may be explained by the concentration of more stems in the smaller diameter classes and the low humidity of the fuel (the dry season was unusually long in 2007...

Diversity and Physiological Characterization of D-Xylose-Fermenting Yeasts Isolated from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest

Cadete, Raquel M.; Melo, Monaliza A.; Dussan, Kelly J.; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Silva, Silvio S.; Zilli, Jerri E.; Vital, Marcos J. S.; Gomes, Fatima C. O.; Lachance, Marc-Andre; Rosa, Carlos A.
Fonte: PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE; SAN FRANCISCO Publicador: PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE; SAN FRANCISCO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
Background: This study is the first to investigate the Brazilian Amazonian Forest to identify new D-xylose-fermenting yeasts that might potentially be used in the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 224 yeast strains were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in two Amazonian forest reserve sites. These samples were cultured in yeast nitrogen base (YNB)-D-xylose or YNB-xylan media. Candida tropicalis, Asterotremella humicola, Candida boidinii and Debaryomyces hansenii were the most frequently isolated yeasts. Among D-xylose-fermenting yeasts, six strains of Spathaspora passalidarum, two of Scheffersomyces stipitis, and representatives of five new species were identified. The new species included Candida amazonensis of the Scheffersomyces clade and Spathaspora sp. 1, Spathaspora sp. 2, Spathaspora sp. 3, and Candida sp. 1 of the Spathaspora clade. In fermentation assays using D-xylose (50 g/L) culture medium, S. passalidarum strains showed the highest ethanol yields (0.31 g/g to 0.37 g/g) and productivities (0.62 g/L.h to 0.75 g/L.h). Candida amazonensis exhibited a virtually complete D-xylose consumption and the highest xylitol yields (0.55 g/g to 0.59 g/g)...

Efeitos do manejo florestal na estrutura da avifauna na floresta Amazônica de Paragominas (Pará); Effects of the forest management on birds structure in Paragominas Amazonian forest (Para)

Cardona, Miguel Angel Quimbayo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/12/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
O Pará é o estado Amazônico mais visado pela atividade madeireira. Possui a maior gama de serrarias da Amazônia, e produze mais de 50% da madeira em tora do Brasil. A zona Leste do Estado é a responsável por 45% da produção de madeira em tora. Nessa zona se localiza o município de Paragominas, onde o 56% da população urbana depende diretamente da indústria madeireira para sua subsistência. Esta região faz parte da chamada área de endemismo Belém, cuja perda de floresta nativa é de 67,48% devido ao desmatamento. Historicamente as explorações madeireiras foram desenvolvidas com técnicas convencionais, que produzem danos tanto na floresta quanto no solo, e com impactos diretos sobre a fauna que depende da floresta. Na última década estabeleceram-se uma série de diretrizes técnicas para promover o manejo florestal em florestas de terra firme da Amazônia Brasileira, recomendadas pelo Conselho de Manejo Florestal (FSC) para todas as operações de exploração em florestas nativas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do manejo florestal, incluída a exploração de impacto reduzido, em áreas exploradas em diferentes temporadas (1997, 2000, 2003, 2006 e 2009) e uma área não explorada sob a comunidade de aves...

Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and main hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire

Soares Neto, T. G.; Carvalho, J. A.; Veras, C. A. G.; Alvarado, E. C.; Gielow, R.; Lincoln, E. N.; Christian, T. J.; Yokelson, R. J.; Santos, J. C.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 438-446
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 98/00104-9; Processo FAPESP: 02/08964-4; Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire are presented and discussed. The experiment was conducted in the arc of deforestation, near the city of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The average carbon content of dry biomass was 48% and the estimated average moisture content of fresh biomass was 42% on wet weight basis. The fresh biomass and the amount of carbon on the ground before burning were estimated as 528 t ha(-1) and 147 t ha(-1), respectively. The overall biomass consumption for the experiment was estimated as 23.9%. A series of experiment in the same region resulted in average efficiency of 40% for areas of same size and 50% for larger areas. The lower efficiency obtained in the burn reported here occurred possibly due to rain before the experiment. Excess mixing ratios were measured for CO2, CO, CH4, C-2-C-3 aliphatic hydrocarbons, and PM2.5. Excess mixing ratios of CH4 and C-2-C-3 hydrocarbons were linearly correlated with those of CO. The average emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4, NMHC, and PM2.5 were 1,599, 111.3, 9.2, 5.6, and 4.8 g kg(-1) of burned dry biomass...

Biodiversity conservation in human-modified Amazonian forest landscapes

Peres, Carlos A.; Gardner, Toby A.; Barlow, Jos; Zuanon, Jansen; Michalski, Fernanda; Lees, Alexander C.; Vieira, Ima C. G.; Moreira, Fatima M. S.; Feeley, Kenneth J.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 2314-2327
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.77%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Amazonia (sensu lato) is by far the largest tropical forest region, but has succumbed to the highest absolute rates of tropical deforestation and forest degradation, driven by rapid frontier expansion, road-building, and spontaneous or government-subsidized migration. The large area-through-time and paleo-climatic stability of Amazonian forests may help explain the high regional to local scale plant and animal species diversity of true forest specialists and high ecological sensitivity to contemporary land-use change. We describe the prevailing forms of anthropogenic disturbance that affect forest organisms in the context of the geographic and evolutionary background that has shaped the degree to which forest species may be resilient to environmental change. The fate of Amazonian biodiversity will partly depend upon the interaction between land-use and climate change, and the extent to which seasonally-dry forests can retain immunity against catastrophic recurrent wildfires. This review illustrates the importance of considering interactions between different forms of forest disturbance to develop effective conservation policy. We conclude with some considerations of the policy agenda necessary to protect forest cover and forest biodiversity at a meaningful scale across the Amazonian biome. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Habitat patch size modulates terrestrial mammal activity patterns in Amazonian forest fragments

Norris, Darren; Michalski, Fernanda; Peres, Carlos A.
Fonte: Alliance Communications Group Division Allen Press Publicador: Alliance Communications Group Division Allen Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 551-560
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Understanding how environmental change influences the behavior of organisms is central for both ecological understanding and species conservation. We used camera traps to monitor the diurnal variation in activity of 3 ubiquitous terrestrial mammals in neotropical forests-nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis), and red-rumped agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina)-across a fragmented forest landscape of the southern Brazilian Amazon. Results from a total of 3,086 camera-trap days distributed across 21 forest patches (ranging in size from 2 to 14,480 ha) and 2 undisturbed continuous forest areas were used to test the effects of a series of abiotic and forest disturbance variables on species activity. An information theoretic analysis revealed significant predictors of the temporal distribution of activity that varied among species. Habitat fragmentation affected the activity of both nocturnal species, but effects of habitat patch area depended on interactions with disturbance variables for the common opossum. of the 3 species investigated, D. novemcinctus exhibited the greatest variation in activity in relation to forest patch size. Armadillos were strictly nocturnal in forest areas >1...

Emissões de mercúrio proveniente da queima de floresta tropical na região de Rio Branco (AC, Brasil); Mercury emissions from tropical forest burning in the region of Rio Branco (AC, Brazil)

José Javier Melendez Pérez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/03/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
O presente trabalho buscou avaliar o impacto da queima de florestas na região Amazônica sobre as emissões de Hg devidas, tanto à queima de biomassa, quanto do solo durante a queimada. Grande parte dos dados necessários foi adquirida a partir de um experimento de queimada programada, numa parcela de floresta de 2,25 ha localizada na estação experimental da EMBRAPA, em Rio Branco (Acre), que foi realizada em setembro de 2011. O fator de emissão de Hg, definido aqui como a massa de Hg emitida por área de floresta, foi calculado pela diferença no estoque de Hg antes e depois da queima obtendo um valor de aproximadamente 4 g Hg ha. Para determinar o fator de emissão foram coletadas e analisadas amostras de solos e vegetação. A concentração de Hg nas amostras coletadas foi determinada usando um método de análise direto por decomposição térmica da amostra e detecção por absorção atômica, que evita a maioria dos processos típicos de pré-tratamento da amostra como digestões acidas, redução do Hg(II) e etapas de separação líquido-gás. Este trabalho integra-se a um amplo programa de estudos destinados a quantificar as principais emissões e parâmetros de consumo de biomassa em queimas de floresta amazônica desenvolvidos por pesquisadores do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) e da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Estes realizaram um inventário florístico no sitio de estudo e forneceram os dados de biomassa e de eficiência de combustão necessários para os cálculos do fator de emissão. Também foi realizado um estudo de especiação de Hg no solo da floresta...

A 15-year post evaluation of the fire effects on ant community in an area of Amazonian forest

Santos,Jean C.; Delabie,Jacques H. C.; Fernandes,G. Wilson
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
Fire represents an important disturbance to ant communities in areas of fire regime. Otherwise, little is known about the effects of fire on ant communities in areas of non-fire regimes, such as in the Amazonian region. We evaluated the long-term effect of fire on ant species richness in a rain forest (Bacaba Plateau) burned 15-years ago and compare our data with the data of primary unburned forest. A total of 85 ant species distributed in 21 genera and 14 tribes were collected; among them, 72 and 44 species were found on the litter and vegetation, respectively. The fire damaged forest studied supports an intermediate richness of ants when compared to a primary unburned rain forest in the same region. A comparative analysis of ant species richness showed that the Bacaba Plateau presented a different ant fauna when compared with the primary unburned forests, suggesting that fire can alter ant species composition. Although, our results cannot be conclusive on the effects of fire on ant community, they represent a pioneer data on human induced fire in tropical rain forests.

Regeneration of five commercially-valuable tree species after experimental logging in an Amazonian forest

Lima,Albertina Pimentel; Lima,Odilon Pimentel de; Magnusson,William Ernest; Higuchi,Niro; Reis,Francisco Quintiliano
Fonte: Sociedade de Investigações Florestais Publicador: Sociedade de Investigações Florestais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
This study investigated the regeneration variation of five commercially valuable tree species in relation to different intensities of felling in fourteen 4-ha plots in an area under experimental forest management. This experiment was carried out in a typical Amazonian tropical forest sample on "terra-firme," in Manaus (AM). Plots were logged 7 and 8 years (1987 and 1988), or 3 years (1993) before the study. All trees with height greater than 2 m, and diameter at breast height (DBH) smaller than 10 cm were measured. Only Aniba hostmanniana, Ocotea aciphylla, Licaria pachycarpa, Eschweilera coriacea and Goupia glabra were sufficiently common for individual analyses. These species have high timber values in the local market. Eight years after logging, the species responded differently to logging intensities. The numbers of individuals of Goupia glabra and Aniba hostmanniana were positively related to the intensity of logging, while Ocotea aciphylla, Licaria pachycarpa, and Eschweilera coriacea showed no statistically significant response. In the most recently (1993) logged areas, Goupia glabra and Aniba hostmanniana had higher numbers of individuals than the control plots.

Diet and prey availability of terrestrial insectivorous birds prone to extinction in amazonian forest fragments

Mestre,Luiz Augusto Macedo; Cohn-Haft,Mario; Dias,Manoel Martins
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
This study compared niche breath, prey size, and diet variability in two pairs of sympatric species of terrestrial insectivorous birds, each pair containing one species that can persist in small forest fragments and one that does not. The pairs were Myrmeciza ferruginea and Sclerurus rufigularis; and Formicarius colma and F. analis, respectively. The prey availability in forest fragments was also sampled and compared to the availability in continuous forests. Niche breath indices did not differ between pair members, but diet variability differed in the opposite direction from that hypothesized. Although the two bird species most vulnerable to fragmentation fed on larger prey than less vulnerable species, prey availability, including that based on prey size did not differ among fragmented versus continuous forest sites. Thus, diet per se appeared not to be an important cause of extinction-proneness in these species. The simplest explanation proposed, that vulnerability to fragmentation was directly related to territory size, requires testing. However, it was consistent with observations that the bird species feeding on larger prey also need larger territories.

Seasonal variation in the maximum rate of leaf gas exchange of canopy and understory tree species in an Amazonian semi-deciduous forest

Sendall,Kerrie M.; Vourlitis,George L.; Lobo,Francisco A.
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Leaf gas exchange, water potential, and specific leaf area of two tropical semi-deciduous tree species, Brosimum lactescens S. Moore and Tovomita schomburgkii Planch & Triana, were quantified to establish how these properties were affected by seasonal variations in rainfall and leaf canopy position. The study was conducted at a site near Sinop Mato Grosso, Brazil, which is located within the ecotone of savanna and tropical rain forest. Both species exhibited significant declines in leaf water potential (ΨL), specific leaf area, area- and mass-based light saturated photosynthesis and dark respiration, and maximum stomatal conductance during the dry-season, suggesting that leaf structural properties and gas exchange are significantly altered by drought that develops during the 4-month dry season. Internal leaf CO2 concentrations (Ci) were consistently lower during the dry season suggesting that the decline in maximum photosynthesis was due in part to a decline in stomatal conductance. However, seasonal variations in leaf gas exchange were larger for upper-canopy leaves, indicating an important interaction between drought stress and canopy position. The seasonal variation in leaf gas exchange and morphology was presumably due to a combination of drought stress and leaf lifespan. The results of this study suggest that drought has important implications for the leaf physiology and morphology of semi-deciduous Amazonian forest trees.

Increasing biomass in Amazonian forest plots.

Baker, Timothy R; Phillips, Oliver L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Almeida, Samuel; Arroyo, Luzmila; Di Fiore, Anthony; Erwin, Terry; Higuchi, Niro; Killeen, Timothy J; Laurance, Susan G; Laurance, William F; Lewis, Simon L; Monteagudo, Abel; Neill, David A; Vargas,
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/03/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
A previous study by Phillips et al. of changes in the biomass of permanent sample plots in Amazonian forests was used to infer the presence of a regional carbon sink. However, these results generated a vigorous debate about sampling and methodological issues. Therefore we present a new analysis of biomass change in old-growth Amazonian forest plots using updated inventory data. We find that across 59 sites, the above-ground dry biomass in trees that are more than 10 cm in diameter (AGB) has increased since plot establishment by 1.22 +/- 0.43 Mg per hectare per year (ha(-1) yr(-1), where 1 ha = 10(4) m2), or 0.98 +/- 0.38 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) if individual plot values are weighted by the number of hectare years of monitoring. This significant increase is neither confounded by spatial or temporal variation in wood specific gravity, nor dependent on the allometric equation used to estimate AGB. The conclusion is also robust to uncertainty about diameter measurements for problematic trees: for 34 plots in western Amazon forests a significant increase in AGB is found even with a conservative assumption of zero growth for all trees where diameter measurements were made using optical methods and/or growth rates needed to be estimated following fieldwork. Overall...

Contrasting simulated past and future responses of the Amazonian forest to atmospheric change.

Cowling, Sharon A; Betts, Richard A; Cox, Peter M; Ettwein, Virginia J; Jones, Chris D; Maslin, Mark A; Spall, Steven A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/03/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Modelling simulations of palaeoclimate and past vegetation form and function can contribute to global change research by constraining predictions of potential earth system responses to future warming, and by providing useful insights into the ecophysiological tolerances and threshold responses of plants to varying degrees of atmospheric change. We contrasted HadCM3LC simulations of Amazonian forest at the last glacial maximum (LGM; 21 kyr ago) and a Younger Dryas-like period (13-12 kyr ago) with predicted responses of future warming to provide estimates of the climatic limits under which the Amazon forest remains relatively stable. Our simulations indicate that despite lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations and increased aridity during the LGM, Amazonia remains mostly forested, and that the cooling climate of the Younger Dryas-like period in fact causes a trend toward increased above-ground carbon balance relative to today. The vegetation feedbacks responsible for maintaining forest integrity in past climates (i.e. decreased evapotranspiration and reduced plant respiration) cannot be maintained into the future. Although elevated atmospheric CO2 contributes to a positive enhancement of plant carbon and water balance, decreased stomatal conductance and increased plant and soil respiration cause a positive feedback that amplifies localized drying and climate warming. We speculate that the Amazonian forest is currently near its critical resiliency threshold...

Fire-mediated dieback and compositional cascade in an Amazonian forest

Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.69%
The only fully coupled land–atmosphere global climate model predicts a widespread dieback of Amazonian forest cover through reduced precipitation. Although these predictions are controversial, the structural and compositional resilience of Amazonian forests may also have been overestimated, as current vegetation models fail to consider the potential role of fire in the degradation of forest ecosystems. We examine forest structure and composition in the Arapiuns River basin in the central Brazilian Amazon, evaluating post-fire forest recovery and the consequences of recurrent fires for the patterns of dominance of tree species. We surveyed tree plots in unburned and once-burned forests examined 1, 3 and 9 years after an unprecedented fire event, in twice-burned forests examined 3 and 9 years after fire and in thrice-burned forests examined 5 years after the most recent fire event. The number of trees recorded in unburned primary forest control plots was stable over time. However, in both once- and twice-burned forest plots, there was a marked recruitment into the 10–20 cm diameter at breast height tree size classes between 3 and 9 years post-fire. Considering tree assemblage composition 9 years after the first fire contact, we observed (i) a clear pattern of community turnover among small trees and the most abundant shrubs and saplings...

Evidence for strong seasonality in the carbon storage and carbon use efficiency of an Amazonian forest

Rowland, Lucy; Hill, Timothy Charles; Stahl, Clement; Siebicke, Lukas; Burban, Benoit; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Ponton, Stephane; Bonal, Damien; Meir, Patrick; Williams, Mathew
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
The relative contribution of gross primary production and ecosystem respiration to seasonal changes in the net carbon flux of tropical forests remains poorly quantified by both modelling and field studies. We use data assimilation to combine nine ecological time series from an eastern Amazonian forest, with mass balance constraints from an ecosystem carbon cycle model. The resulting analysis quantifies, with uncertainty estimates, the seasonal changes in the net carbon flux of a tropical rainforest which experiences a pronounced dry season. We show that the carbon accumulation in this forest was four times greater in the dry season than in the wet season and that this was accompanied by a 5% increase in the carbon use efficiency. This seasonal response was caused by a dry season increase in gross primary productivity, in response to radiation and a similar magnitude decrease in heterotrophic respiration, in response to drying soils. The analysis also predicts increased carbon allocation to leaves and wood in the wet season, and greater allocation to fine roots in the dry season. This study demonstrates implementation of seasonal variations in parameters better enables models to simulate observed patterns in data. In particular, we highlight the necessity to simulate the seasonal patterns of heterotrophic respiration to accurately simulate the net carbon flux seasonal tropical forest.

Modulação do estoque de carbono em paisagens fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica em função dos efeitos de borda; Edge effects modulation of carbon stocks in fragmented Atlantic forest landscapes

Carvalho, Francisco D'Albertas Gomes de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/06/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Apesar da reconhecida importância da fragmentação no balanço de carbono (C) das florestas tropicais, a maior parte do conhecimento a cerca deste assunto provém de estudos conduzidos na floresta Amazônica e desconsidera processos relacionados à influência da configuração da paisagem. Em particular, estimativas precisas da emissão de CO2 devido à fragmentação devem levar em consideração efeitos aditivos de borda e a idade das bordas. Nós investigamos estes efeitos sobre parâmetros estruturais de florestas (densidade, altura e área basal das árvores) e no estoque de C em oito fragmentos florestais (13 a 362 ha) antigos (>=70 anos), cercados de pastagens, em uma região de Mata Atlântica. Amostramos 5297 troncos, divididos em quatro tratamentos em cada um dos fragmentos: interior dos fragmentos; bordas antigas (>50 anos) em quina; bordas antigas retas; bordas novas (<50 anos) retas. Calculamos a biomassa acima do solo (BAS) através de equações alométricas que consideram a altura do tronco e seu diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP) e convertemos esse valor em carbono estocado na vegetação. O estoque de C foi altamente variável entre tratamentos, abrangendo valores entre 6.61 Mg ha-1 até 87.96 Mg ha-1 (média= 29.55 ± 14.97 Mg ha-1). As áreas de interior continham um estoque de C maior...

Root niche separation can explain avoidance of seasonal drought stress and vulnerability of overstory trees to extended drought in a mature Amazonian forest

Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Munger, J. William; Saleska, Scott R.; Oliveira Jr, Raimundo C. de; Camargo, Plinio B. de
Fonte: AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION; WASHINGTON Publicador: AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION; WASHINGTON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.65%
Large areas of Amazonian evergreen forest experience seasonal droughts extending for three or more months, yet show maximum rates of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration during dry intervals. This apparent resilience is belied by disproportionate mortality of the large trees in manipulations that reduce wet season rainfall, occurring after 2-3 years of treatment. The goal of this study is to characterize the mechanisms that produce these contrasting ecosystem responses. A mechanistic model is developed based on the ecohydrological framework of TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network)-based Real Time Integrated Basin Simulator + Vegetation Generator for Interactive Evolution (tRIBS+VEGGIE). The model is used to test the roles of deep roots and soil capillary flux to provide water to the forest during the dry season. Also examined is the importance of "root niche separation," in which roots of overstory trees extend to depth, where during the dry season they use water stored from wet season precipitation, while roots of understory trees are concentrated in shallow layers that access dry season precipitation directly. Observational data from the Tapajo's National Forest, Brazil, were used as meteorological forcing and provided comprehensive observational constraints on the model. Results strongly suggest that deep roots with root niche separation adaptations explain both the observed resilience during seasonal drought and the vulnerability of canopy-dominant trees to extended deficits of wet season rainfall. These mechanisms appear to provide an adaptive strategy that enhances productivity of the largest trees in the face of their disproportionate heat loads and water demand in the dry season. A sensitivity analysis exploring how wet season rainfall affects the stability of the rainforest system is presented. Citation: Ivanov...

The persistence of ant-following birds in small amazonian forest fragments

Harper,Lee H.
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1989 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
SUMMARYMist-net captures of army ant-following bird were monitored during the isolation of central Amazonian forest fragments of 1 ha (n = 5), 10 ha (n = 4) and 100 ha (n = 1). Post-isolation captures of the three obligate ant-following birds Dendrocinela merula, Pithys albifrons, and Gymnopithys rufigula decreased significantly in all fragments. post-isolation captures of four facultative ant-following species were not significantly different in forest fragments of 1 ha and 10 ha, although two species decreased significantly in the 100 ha fragment. Experimental introductions of obligate species into small forest fragments in the absence and presence of introduced Eciton burchelli army ant colonies resulted in significantly greater recaptures of introduced birds when active army ant colonies were present. Of the 105 birds introduced, 58 ' 55%) crossed 100-320 m od dedorested area an were recaptured in continuous forest.

The importance of forest disturbance for the recruitment of the large arborescent palm Attalea maripa in a seasonally-dry Amazonian forest

Salm,Rodolfo
Fonte: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Publicador: Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
The hypothesis that forest disturbance is important for the recruitment of the large arborescent palms Attalea maripa was tested with a natural experiment in the Pinkaití site (7º 46'S; 51º 57'W), a seasonally-dry Amazonian forest. A 8,000 m long trail, that crosses, in its lower half, an open forest along the Pinkaití stream bottomlands and, on its upper half, a dense forest on a hill, was divided in 160 0.15 ha (50x30 m) sampling units. At each unit, adult palms were counted and percentage of canopy openness was measured with a concave spherical densiometer. The palms were nearly five times more abundant at the bottomlands, whose forest had a canopy 14.8% more open than that of the hill; supporting the hypothesis that disturbance is important for their recruitment.

DIAMETER STRUCTURE AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL FREQUENCY OF A “TERRA FIRME” AMAZON FOREST, BEFORE AND AFTER SELECTIVE CUTTING; DIAMETER STRUCTURE AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL FREQUENCY OF A “TERRA FIRME” AMAZON FOREST, BEFORE AND AFTER SELECTIVE CUTTING

da Cunha, Ulisses Silva; universidade Federal do Amazonas; Machado, Sebastião do Amaral; Universidade Federal do Paraná; Filho, Afonso Figueiredo; Universiddade do Centro-Oeste do Paraná; de Freitas, Joberto Veloso; Universidade Federal do Amazonas
Fonte: FUPEF DO PARANÁ Publicador: FUPEF DO PARANÁ
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/05/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article aims to characterize horizontal and diameter structure of a managed forest using graphic expression techniques. Data for this research is result of complete forest inventory (census) carried out from a block of 800 hectares, before and after selective cutting, inside Tapajós National Forest, located in the Municipality of Belterra, State of Pará, Brazil. The analysis revealed that, in relation to horizontal structure, intense cutting resulted in changes of different levels mainly to phytosociological frequency of some species, such as, Manilkara huberi, Carapa guianensis and Tabebuia serratifolia. The diameter structure of some species, such as Sextonia rubra and Dipteryx odorata, revealed changes after selective cutting under technically acceptable rates, because the stock levels of some diameter classes surpassed the limits of balance observed for polycyclic systems with silviculture based on natural regeneration. The inclusion of graphics in the harvest operating plan for the 10 most important species listed in forest management, that is, before and after selective cutting, would lead to the desirable structure maintenance.; This article aims to characterize horizontal and diameter structure of a managed forest using graphic expression techniques. Data for this research is result of complete forest inventory (census) carried out from a block of 800 hectares...