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Corrositex (R), BCOP and HET-CAM as alternative methods to animal experimentation

Laignier Cazedey, Edith Cristina; Carvalho, Flavia Chiva; Masquio Fiorentino, Flavia Angelica; Daflon Gremiao, Maria Palmira; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Conjunto Quimicas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Conjunto Quimicas
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 759-766
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Tests in animals are used as models in toxicological and investigative studies. However, such tests have been considered inhumane because they can cause pain and suffering to experimental animals, while these methods can often be subjective. Protests calling for animal protection have questioned the effectiveness of in vivo tests and suggest the introduction of alternative, in vitro methods. International organizations, such as the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the National Institute of Health (NIH), the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), that regulate and develop new alternative animal models, have indicated the running of preliminary assays and execution of sequential tests, which consider physical-chemical properties and data of in vitro assays, before performing in vivo studies. Towards this background, the objective of the present article was to select promising alternative methods such as Corrositex (R), BCOP and HET-CAM, intended to refine or replace the use of animals and reduce their suffering.

Estudo comparativo de metodologias aplicadas em análises de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido com gerenciamento de resíduos químicos

Lourenço, Maria do Socorro Nahuz
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: viii, 100 f.
POR
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Zootecnia - FCAV; Foram realizados dois experimentos, objetivando-se avaliar quantitativamente diferentes metodologias propostas em análises de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), visando à precisão dos resultados analíticos, a redução nos custos e no tempo das análises, bem como a minimização no descarte de resíduos químicos. Foram utilizados seis alimentos de uso corrente na alimentação animal: feno de Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.), cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.), silagem de milho (Zea mays L.), capim-xaraés (Brachiaria brizanta cv. Xaraés), capim-marandu (Brachiaria brizanta cv. Marandu) e um concentrado protéico, o farelo de babaçu (Orbignya phalerata). No primeiro experimento foram comparados os teores de FDN e FDA obtidos pelo método convencional com três métodos alternativos que utilizam a autoclave como sistema digestor e no segundo experimento foi avaliada a possibilidade de reutilizar, por uma vez, as soluções detergentes e a acetona recuperada, utilizadas no desenvolvimento das primeiras análises. O delineamento experimental utilizado na análise de cada alimento foi o inteiramente casualizado...

A comparison of alternative sources of inocula in an in vitro digestibility technique

Borba, Alfredo Emílio Silveira de; Ribeiro, João Ramalho
Fonte: Elsevier/INRA Publicador: Elsevier/INRA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 ENG
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55.82%
Copyright © Elsevier / INRA, 1996.; In this paper we make the comparison between sources of inocula for an in vitro digestibility method based on that of Tilley and Terry (1963) as modified by Alexander and McGowan (1966). The best results for the prediction of the in vivo digestibility were obtained using the traditional method of rumen liquor from fistulated sheep. However, with the two alternative methods, one using rumen liquor from slaughtered cattle, and another, a sheep faeces suspension as inocula sources, we obtained results significantly correlated with in vivo digestibility at the 5% level, although with lower correlation coefficients. The method that uses rumen liquor from slaughtered cattle is, in our opinion, a valid alternative to the traditional method.

New developments in alternative methods to control postharvest fruit decay

Nunes, Carla
Fonte: Universidade do Algarve Publicador: Universidade do Algarve
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2010 ENG
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65.95%
Proceedings of the International Conference “Environmentally friendly and safe technologies for quality of fruit and vegetables”, held in Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal, on January 14-16, 2009. This Conference was a join activity with COST Action 924.; Public concern in food safety and the increase of pathogen resistant populations has enhanced the interest in developing methods to control postharvest fruit decay alternative to fungicides. According to their nature alternative methods can be classified as biological, chemical or physical. This article reviews research on alternative postharvest disease control methods and explores new possibilities of research to improve their efficacy.

Corrositex®, BCOP and HET-CAM as alternative methods to animal experimentation

Cazedey,Edith Cristina Laignier; Carvalho,Flávia Chiva; Fiorentino,Flávia Angélica Másquio; Gremião,Maria Palmira Daflon; Salgado,Hérida Regina Nunes
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
Tests in animals are used as models in toxicological and investigative studies. However, such tests have been considered inhumane because they can cause pain and suffering to experimental animals, while these methods can often be subjective. Protests calling for animal protection have questioned the effectiveness of in vivo tests and suggest the introduction of alternative, in vitro methods. International organizations, such as the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the National Institute of Health (NIH), the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), that regulate and develop new alternative animal models, have indicated the running of preliminary assays and execution of sequential tests, which consider physical-chemical properties and data of in vitro assays, before performing in vivo studies. Towards this background, the objective of the present article was to select promising alternative methods such as Corrositex®, BCOP and HET-CAM, intended to refine or replace the use of animals and reduce their suffering.

Alternative methods in toxicity testing: the current approach

Araújo,Gabrielle Luck de; Campos,Maria Augusta Amaral; Valente,Maria Anete Santana; Silva,Sarah Cristina Teixeira; França,Flávia Dayrell; Chaves,Miriam Martins; Tagliati,Carlos Alberto
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
Alternative methods are being developed to reduce, refine, and replace (3Rs) animals used in experiments, aimed at protecting animal welfare. The present study reports alternative tests which are based on the principles of the 3Rs and the efforts made to validate these tests. In Europe, several methodologies have already been implemented, such as tests of irritability, cell viability, and phototoxicity as well as in vitro mathematical models together with the use of in silico tools. This is a complex process that spans from development to regulatory approval and subsequent adoption by various official entities. Within this regulatory framework is REACH, the European Community Regulation for chemicals and their safe use. In Brazil, the BraCVAM (Brazilian Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods) was recently established to validate alternative methods and stimulate incorporation of new methodologies. A new vision of toxicology is emerging for the 21st century (Tox-21), and the subsequent changes are shaping a new paradigm.

Alternative methods of follow up in breast cancer: a systematic review of the literature

Montgomery, D A; Krupa, K; Cooke, T G
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
Regular clinical follow up after breast cancer is a common practice. Evidence from retrospective reviews casts doubt on the efficacy of this practice and the various guidelines for follow up show little concordance. Our aim was to investigate what alternative follow-up methods (including reduced frequency of visits) have been subjected to controlled trial and to establish what evidence exists from controlled trials to advise the guidelines. The study involved systematic review of the literature using MEDLINE, Embase, CancerLit, Web of Sciences and EBM reviews as data sources. Methods included reviewing all randomised controlled trials comparing different follow-up frequencies or comparing an alternative method with clinical follow up after breast cancer. All outcome measures addressed in the trials were analysed. Two trials compared frequency of traditional follow up. Five trials assessed alternative methods. All were of inadequate power or duration to establish ideal frequency of clinic visits or safety of alternative follow-up methods. Alternative follow up had no detrimental effect on satisfaction or outcome. Few trials have been conducted, all of which are underpowered to establish safety of reducing or replacing clinic visits. Alternative methods of follow up are acceptable to patients and may be associated with other benefits. Larger trials are required.

Validation of Alternative Methods for the Analysis of Drinking Water and Their Application to Escherichia coli ▿

Boubetra, Abdelkader; Le Nestour, François; Allaert, Corrie; Feinberg, Max
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
In Europe, the Drinking Water Directive of the European Commission indicates which methods (most of which are CEN/ISO-standardized methods) should be used for the analysis of microbiological parameters (European Commission, Environment, Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998). According to the Directive, alternative methods “may be used, providing it can be demonstrated that the results obtained are at least as reliable as those produced by the methods specified.” The prerequisite for the routine use of any alternative method is to provide evidence that this method performs equivalently to the corresponding reference method. In this respect, the ISO 16140 standard (ISO, ISO 16140. Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs—Protocol for the Validation of Alternative Methods, 2003) represents a key issue in generating such a procedure based on an interlaboratory study. A new statistical tool, called the accuracy profile, has been developed to better interpret the data. The study presented here is based upon the enumeration of Escherichia coli bacteria in water. The reference method may require up to 72 h to provide a confirmed result. The aim of this publication is to present data for an alternative method by which results can be obtained in 18 h (Colilert-18/Quanti-Tray) based upon defined substrate technology (DST). The accuracy profile is a statistical and graphical decision-making tool and consists of simultaneously combining...

Alternative methods in toxicology: pre-validated and validated methods

Kandárová, Helena; Letašiová, Silvia
Fonte: Slovak Toxicology Society SETOX Publicador: Slovak Toxicology Society SETOX
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
The development of alternative methods to animal experimentation has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years. Today, in vitro and in silico methods have an important role in the hazard identification and assessment of toxicology profile of compounds. Advanced alternative methods and their combinations are also used for safety assessment of final products. Several alternative methods, which were scientifically validated and accepted by competent regulatory bodies, can be used for regulatory toxicology purposes, thus reducing or fully replacing living animals in toxicology experimentation. The acceptance of the alternative methods as valuable tools of modern toxicology has been recognized by regulators, including OECD, FDA and EPA.

Contribution to the implementation of validated alternative methods for rabies diagnosis

Bones, Vanessa Carli
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 126f. : il.; application/pdf
PORTUGUêS
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Orientadora : Profª. Drª. Carla Forte Maiolino Molento; Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias. Defesa: Curitiba, 25/11/2014.; Inclui referências; Abstract: Laboratory animals are frequently used in many countries, despite the existence of validated alternative methods (VAM). The objective of this thesis was to collaborate to the implementation of VAM for rabies diagnosis in Brazil, contributing to the reduction of harmful laboratory animal use. The thesis was organized in six chapters: Chapter I is an introduction; II presents alternatives to the use of laboratory animals in Brazil and current opportunities to the development and use of alternative methods; III describes perceived barriers to the adoption of alternatives to laboratory animal use for rabies diagnosis, focusing on current rabies diagnosis methods performed in Brazil and other countries and barriers associated with replacing mice; IV presents a cost comparative study of the Mouse Inoculation Test (MIT) and the Virus Isolation in Cell Culture (VICC) for rabies diagnosis in Brazil, aiming to compare the costs to perform both test; V describes a decision tree (DT) to assist the replacement of laboratory animals in Brazil using rabies diagnosis as a model...

Clinical Validation and Comparison of Alternative Methods for Evaluation of Entrainment Mapping

Derejko, P.; Szumowski, L.; Sanders, P.; Dimitri, H.; Kuklik, P.; Przybylski, A.; Urbanek, P.; Szufladowicz, E.; Bodalski, R.; Sacher, F.; Haissaguerre, M.; Walczak, F.
Fonte: Futura Publ Co Publicador: Futura Publ Co
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
INTRODUCTION: Measuring the postpacing interval (PPI) and correcting for the tachycardia cycle length (TCL) is an important entrainment response (ER). However, it may be impossible to measure PPI due to electrical noise on the mapping catheter. To overcome this problem, 2 alternative methods for the assessment of ER have been proposed: N+1 difference (N+1 DIFF) and PPIR method. PPI-TCL difference (PPI-TCL) correlates very well with ER assessed by new methods, but the agreement with PPI-TCL was established only in relation to PPIR method. Moreover, it is not known which of these methods is superior in the assessment of ER. METHODS: We analyzed 155 episodes of ER in 21 patients with heterogeneous reentrant arrhythmias. ER was estimated by PPI-TCL and by both alternative methods. Agreement between methods was assessed by means of the Bland-Altman test, kappa coefficient (kappa), and correlation coefficient (r). Finally, a mathematical comparison of the alternative methods was performed. RESULTS: The agreement between PPI-TCL and alternative methods was very good. For N+1 DIFF the mean difference was -1.86 +/- 7.31 ms; kappa = 0.9; r = 0.98; for PPIR method the mean difference was -1.46 +/- 7.65 ms; kappa = 0.92; r = 0.99. Agreement between both alternative methods was also very high: the mean difference of 0.5 +/- 6.6 ms; kappa = 0.89; r = 0.99. The analysis of the equations used for calculation of ER by these methods revealed that essentially they were mathematically equivalent. CONCLUSION: Each of the alternative methods may be used for evaluation of ER when PPI-TCL cannot be assessed directly. Results obtained by both alternative methods are comparable.; Pawel Derejko...

Making Validated Alternatives Available - the Stragies and Work of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM)

ZUANG VALERIE; HARTUNG THOMAS
Fonte: Japanese Society of Alternatives to Animal Experiments Publicador: Japanese Society of Alternatives to Animal Experiments
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
ECVAM was created in 1991 further to Directive 86/609/EEC on the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes which prescribes to use alternative methods whenever possible. As a service of the EU Joint Research Centre, ECVAM has pioneered the validation process and became a proactive facilitator for effective animal protection, especially in the field of regulatory toxicology. The field of alternatives is currently driven by the expectations from both cosmetics and chemicals policies: The 7th amendment to the Cosmetics Directive published in 2003 foresees to phase out animal experiments completely within 10 years. A timetable for the phasing out of the individual animal tests published by the European Commission in September 2004 had been supported by a taskforce of stakeholders chaired by ECVAM. The legislation is reinforced by an immediate testing ban for finished products and for all the human health effects, for which alternative methods have been validated by ECVAM. Furthermore, a testing ban and a marketing ban, which cannot be postponed, apply in 6 years for topical and acute systemic toxicity, while the animal tests for all the other human health effects should be phased out in 10 years with a possible postponement by codecision procedure. The legislation for chemicals (REACH) is only emerging. It foresees data requirements for more than 30.000 substances produced at levels above 1 ton per year. Extensive in vivo data requirements are expected for a core of about 6.000 substances with highest production and concern. Alternative methods shall first be considered throughout the testing and be predominantly used for the largest group of chemicals...

Report on the International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing: State of the Science and Planning the Way Forward

STOKES William; MCFARLAND Richard; KULPA-EDDY Jodie; GATEWOOD D.; LEVIS Robin; HALDER Maria; PULLE Gayle; KOJIMA H; CASEY Warren; GAYDAMAKA Alexander; MILLER Timothy; BROWN Karen; LEWIS Charles; CHAPSAL Jean-Michel; BRUCKNER Lukas; GAIROLA Sunil; KAMPHUIS
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Potency testing of most human and veterinary rabies vaccines requires vaccination of mice followed by a challenge test using an intracerebral injection of live rabies virus. The National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), and their international partners organized an international workshop to review the availability and validation status of alternative methods that might reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals for rabies vaccine potency testing, and to identify priority research and development efforts necessary to further advance alternative methods. Workshop participants agreed that rabies vaccine potency testing using the mouse challenge test should use general anesthesia for intracerebral virus injections, and that humane endpoints should be used routinely as the basis for euthanizing animals to minimize pain and distress. Workshop participants recommended that a near term priority should be to replace the mouse challenge with a test validated to ensure potency, such as the mouse antibody serum neutralization test (SNT) for adjuvanted veterinary rabies vaccines for which an international collaborative study was recently completed. The workshop recommended that an in vitro antigen quantification test should be a high priority for product-specific validation of non-adjuvanted human and veterinary rabies vaccines. Finally...

EURL ECVAM progress report on the development, validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods (2010-2013) Prepared in the framework of Directive 76/768/EEC and Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 on cosmetic products

ZUANG Valerie; SCHAEFFER MICHAEL WILHELM; TUOMAINEN ANITA MAARIT; AMCOFF SVEN PATRIK; BERNASCONI Camilla; BREMER Susanne; CASATI Silvia; CASTELLO Paolo; COECKE Sandra; CORVI Raffaella; GRIESINGER Claudius; JANUSCH ROI Annett; KIRMIZIDIS GEORGIOS; PRIETO P
Fonte: European Union Publicador: European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
ENG
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Provisions of Regulation No 1223/2009 on cosmetic products require that the European Commission reports on a yearly basis to the European Parliament and Council on the progress made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods and on the compliance with the deadlines of the animal testing and marketing bans. This EURL ECVAM technical report provides an update since 2010 on the state of play of alternative methods for all the toxicological areas relevant to the Cosmetics Regulation and supplements the 2013 Commission Communication on the animal testing and marketing ban and on the state of play in relation to alternative methods in the field of cosmetics. Overall good progress has been made in the validation and regulatory acceptance in areas such as local toxicity where the underpinning science is more advanced and mature alternative methods are available. For very complex endpoints on the other hand, such as chronic systemic toxicity, carcinogenicity or reproductive toxicity, efforts are predominantly focused on research and development where the emphasis is on the integration of a variety of methods based on mechanistic understanding. The future is bright however, since considerable advances in new in vitro technologies...

A tutorial for analysing the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods for assessing chemical toxicity: the case of acute oral toxicity prediction

NORLEN Hedvig; WORTH Andrew; GABBERT Silke
Fonte: FRAME Publicador: FRAME
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
Compared with traditional animal methods for toxicity testing, in vitro and in silico methods are widely considered to allow for more cost-effective assessment of chemicals. However, how to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods has remained unclear. This paper offers a user-oriented tutorial to performing cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of alternative (non-animal) methods. The purpose is to demonstrate how CEA facilitates the identification of the alternative method, or the combination of methods, that offers the highest information gain per unit of cost. We illustrate how information gains and costs of single methods and method combinations can be assessed. Using acute oral toxicity as an example, we apply CEA to a set of four in silico methods (ToxSuite, TOPKAT, T.E.S.T, ADMET Predictor), one in vitro method (3T3 neutral red uptake cytotoxicity assay), and various combinations of these methods. Our results underline that in silico tools are more cost-effective than the in vitro test. Battery combinations of alternative methods, however, do not necessarily outperform single methods because information gains from a battery are easily outweighed by additional costs.; JRC.I.5-Systems Toxicology

ECVAM's Approach to Intellectual Property Rights in the Validation of Alternative Methods

LINGE JENS; HARTUNG THOMAS
Fonte: FRAME Publicador: FRAME
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) such as patents, designs, trademarks and copyright play an important role in all industries investing in research and development. Protection for products and production processes is routinely sought. Also, IPRs often cover methods and materials used in research and development, e.g. patents for toxicity testing methods have been issued. The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) receives submissions of alternative methods which are often, at least partially, protected by IPRs. As participant in projects under the sixth framework programme, ECVAM is also obliged to provide for the adequate and effective protection of results in these projects. Many of ECVAM’s stakeholders thus ask how IPRs affect the development, validation, and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods. ECVAM has already been confronted several times with patented methods. During the EC/HO study on non-animal tests for eye irritation, the question arose as to how EYETEX, a patented method, should be handled. At that time, no action was taken, since EYETEX did not meet the performance standards for the study. During the ECVAM study on skin corrosivity, two of the methods involved in the study, EpiSkin and Skin2...

Incorporating In Vitro Alternative Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity into International Hazard and Risk Assessment Strategies

COECKE SANDRA; GOLDBERG Alan; ALLEN Sandra; BUZANSKA LEONORA; CALAMANDREI Gemma; CROFTON Kevin; HARENG L.; HARTUNG THOMAS; KNAUT HOLGER; HONEGGER Paul; JACOBS MIRIAM; LEIN Pamela; LI Abby; MUNDY William; OWEN David; SCHNEIDER Steffen; SILBERGELD Ellen; RE
Fonte: US DEPT HEALTH HUMAN SCIENCES PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE Publicador: US DEPT HEALTH HUMAN SCIENCES PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This is the report of the first workshop on 'Incorporating In Vitro Alternative Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing into International Hazard and Risk Assessment Strategies' held in Ispra, Italy on 19-21 April 2005. The workshop was hosted by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and jointly organized by ECVAM, the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) and the Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT). The primary aim of the workshop was to identify and catalogue potential methods that could be used to assess how data from in vitro alternative methods could help to predict and identify DNT hazards. Working groups focused on two different aspects: (1) Details on the science available in the field of DNT, including discussions on the models available to capture the critical DNT mechanisms and processes, and (2) Policy and strategy aspects to assess the integration of alternative methods in a regulatory framework. This report summarises these discussions and details the recommendations and priorities for future work.; JRC.I.2-Validation of Alternative Methods

Microbiological quality and safety of minimally processed vegetables marketed in Campinas, SP-Brazil, as assessed by traditional and alternative methods

Maistro, Liliane Correa; Nago Miya, Norma Teruko; Sant'Ana, Anderson S.; Pereira, Jose Luiz
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.81%
In this study, a total of 172 samples of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) were collected from supermarkets in the city of Campinas, Brazil. The MPV were analyzed using traditional and/or alternative methods for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coil, coagulase positive staphylococci, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. All the MPV analyzed presented populations of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms and total coliforms were >4 log(10) CFU/g and 1.0-3.4 log(10) CFU/g, respectively. E. coil was enumerated in only 10 samples out of 172 collected, while none of the 172 samples of MPV presented contamination by coagulase positive Staphylococcus (<10(1) CFU/g). Among the four methods used for detection of Salmonella in MPV (Vidas, 1,2 Test, Reveal, and Traditional), when Reveal was used a total of 29 positive samples were reported. For L monocytogenes, the four methods tested (Vidas, Vip, Reveal, and traditional) performed similarly. The presence of Salmonella and L monocytogenes in MPV was confirmed in one (watercress) and two samples (watercress and escarole), respectively. In conclusion, it has been observed that the microbiological quality of MPV commercialized in Campinas is generally satisfactory. Besides...

Microbiological quality and safety of minimally processed vegetables marketed in Campinas, SP-Brazil, as assessed by traditional and alternative methods

Maistro, Liliane Correa; Nago Miya, Norma Teruko; Sant'Ana, Anderson S.; Pereira, Jose Luiz
Fonte: Elsevier; Oxford Publicador: Elsevier; Oxford
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.81%
In this study, a total of 172 samples of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) were collected from supermarkets in the city of Campinas, Brazil. The MPV were analyzed using traditional and/or alternative methods for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coil, coagulase positive staphylococci, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. All the MPV analyzed presented populations of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms and total coliforms were >4 log(10) CFU/g and 1.0-3.4 log(10) CFU/g, respectively. E. coil was enumerated in only 10 samples out of 172 collected, while none of the 172 samples of MPV presented contamination by coagulase positive Staphylococcus (<10(1) CFU/g). Among the four methods used for detection of Salmonella in MPV (Vidas, 1,2 Test, Reveal, and Traditional), when Reveal was used a total of 29 positive samples were reported. For L monocytogenes, the four methods tested (Vidas, Vip, Reveal, and traditional) performed similarly. The presence of Salmonella and L monocytogenes in MPV was confirmed in one (watercress) and two samples (watercress and escarole), respectively. In conclusion, it has been observed that the microbiological quality of MPV commercialized in Campinas is generally satisfactory. Besides...

Corrositex®, BCOP and HET-CAM as alternative methods to animal experimentation

Cazedey, Edith Cristina Laignier; Carvalho, Flávia Chiva; Fiorentino, Flávia Angélica Másquio; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
Testes em animais são utilizados como modelos em estudos toxicológicos e de pesquisa. Entretanto, tais testes têm sido considerados desumanos, porque causam dor e sofrimento aos animais experimentais, porquanto estes métodos podem, freqüentemente, ser subjetivos. Protestos clamando pela proteção animal têm questionado a eficácia dos testes in vivo e sugerem a introdução de métodos alternativos in vitro. Organizações internacionais, tais como Comitê de Coordenação Interagências de Métodos de Validação Alternativos (ICCVAM), Instituto Nacional de Saúde (NIH), Organização para Cooperação Econômica e Desenvolvimento (OECD), que regulam e desenvolvem novos métodos alternativos aos modelos animais, indicaram a realização de ensaios preliminares e a execução de testes seqüenciais, que consideram as propriedades físico-químicas e os dados dos ensaios in vitro, antes de efetuarem estudos in vivo. Nessa direção, o objetivo do presente artigo foi selecionar métodos alternativos promissores, tais como Corrositex®, BCOP e HET-CAM, com o intuito de aperfeiçoar ou substituir o uso de animais e reduzir seus sofrimento.; Tests in animals are used as models in toxicological and investigative studies. However, such tests have been considered inhumane because they can cause pain and suffering to experimental animals...