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Allometric growth of two species of Ephemeroptera from Neotropical mountains streams

Paciencia, Gabriel de Paula; Bispo, Pitagoras da Conceicao; Cortezzi, Sara Sanches
Fonte: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS; NEW YORK Publicador: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS; NEW YORK
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.43%
The present study evaluated the relative growth and allometry of Massartella brieni Lestage and Thraulodes sp. (Leptophlebiidae: Ephemeroptera). The morphometric analysis was based on 23 measurements and was conducted using a multivariate approach. Throughout postembryonic ontogeny, all of the head measurements, including those of the mouthparts, exhibited negative allometric growth. The mesothorax and wing pad exhibited positive allometric growth. The hind legs lengths in M. brieni and the fore and hind legs lengths in Thraulodes sp. exhibited positive allometry. The abdominal length in these two species exhibited positive allometric growth. Positive allometry was also observed along the abdomen width for M. brieni, and isometry was observed for Thraulodes sp. The relative strengthening of the thorax (in preparation for the winged stage) and the relative increase in the abdomen (which may be related to the development of the reproductive structures) during growth indicate that many of the structures that exhibit positive allometric growth are related to the transition from the aquatic to the adult stage of development.; CNPq; CNPq [301652/2008-2, 473246/2004-0, 477349/2007-2]; CAPES; CAPES; CAPES (PPG in Zoology, IBB, UNESP); CAPES (PPG in Zoology...

Alometria e arquitetura de árvores; Allometry and trees architecture

Salles, Ivan Santos; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira
Fonte: Editor Executivo: Carlos Eduardo Falavigna da Rocha; São Paulo Publicador: Editor Executivo: Carlos Eduardo Falavigna da Rocha; São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
O sucesso de uma planta depende de sua capacidade de maximizar o ganho energético e a eficiência reprodutiva sem comprometer sua estabilidade estrutural. Este jogo entre resistência estrutural, balanço energético e capacidade reprodutiva tem sido um grande desafio para as plantas desde a saída destas do meio aquático, e agrava-se com o aumento do porte dos indivíduos. Neste trabalho pretendemos apresentar uma visão geral sobre relações alométricas e, baseadas em medidas diretas dos ramos, propor algumas novas idéias de como tais relações influenciam a arquitetura da copa e como ao mesmo tempo são influenciadas pelo ambiente.; The success of a plant is dependent of its capability in maximizing the energy gain and in increasing the reproductive efficiency without compromising the structural stability. This dynamic involving structure, energy efficiency and reproductive efficiency became an important issue especially after the event of plants conquering the terrestrial environment, and have been increasing in importance with the growth of the overall size of individuals. In this work we are going to present an overview of allometry and present some new ideas showing the influence of allometry over the canopy architecture and how it can be affected by the environment.

When size makes a difference: allometry, life-history and morphological evolution of capuchins (Cebus) and squirrels (Saimiri) monkeys (Cebinae, Platyrrhini)

Marroig, Gabriel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
Abstract Background How are morphological evolution and developmental changes related? This rather old and intriguing question had a substantial boost after the 70s within the framework of heterochrony (changes in rates or timing of development) and nowadays has the potential to make another major leap forward through the combination of approaches: molecular biology, developmental experimentation, comparative systematic studies, geometric morphometrics and quantitative genetics. Here I take an integrated approach combining life-history comparative analyses, classical and geometric morphometrics applied to ontogenetic series to understand changes in size and shape which happen during the evolution of two New World Monkeys (NWM) sister genera. Results Cebus and Saimiri share the same basic allometric patterns in skull traits, a result robust to sexual and ontogenetic variation. If adults of both genera are compared in the same scale (discounting size differences) most differences are small and not statistically significant. These results are consistent using both approaches, classical and geometric Morphometrics. Cebus is a genus characterized by a number of peramorphic traits (adult-like) while Saimiri is a genus with paedomorphic (child like) traits. Yet...

When size makes a difference: allometry, life-history and morphological evolution of capuchins (Cebus) and squirrels (Saimiri) monkeys (Cebinae, Platyrrhini)

Marroig, Gabriel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
Abstract Background How are morphological evolution and developmental changes related? This rather old and intriguing question had a substantial boost after the 70s within the framework of heterochrony (changes in rates or timing of development) and nowadays has the potential to make another major leap forward through the combination of approaches: molecular biology, developmental experimentation, comparative systematic studies, geometric morphometrics and quantitative genetics. Here I take an integrated approach combining life-history comparative analyses, classical and geometric morphometrics applied to ontogenetic series to understand changes in size and shape which happen during the evolution of two New World Monkeys (NWM) sister genera. Results Cebus and Saimiri share the same basic allometric patterns in skull traits, a result robust to sexual and ontogenetic variation. If adults of both genera are compared in the same scale (discounting size differences) most differences are small and not statistically significant. These results are consistent using both approaches, classical and geometric Morphometrics. Cebus is a genus characterized by a number of peramorphic traits (adult-like) while Saimiri is a genus with paedomorphic (child like) traits. Yet...

Alometria reprodutiva da tartaruga-da-Amazônia (Podocnemis expansa): bases biológicas para o manejo; Allometry of reproduction of Giant Amazon Turtle (Podocnemis expansa): biological basis for management

Cantarelli, Vitor Hugo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/09/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Este trabalho objetivou estudar a reprodução da tartaruga-da-Amazônia (Podocnemis expansa) através dos resultados obtidos em 25 anos de manejo executados pelo Projeto Quelônios da Amazônia. Para tanto foi descrito um capítulo introdutório que situa o histórico e atual situação da espécie na Amazônia brasileira destacando a importância do manejo de quelônios para a conservação e alternativas de uso sustentável. No capitulo dois, o Projeto é apresentado e analisado, tendo como objetivo a proteção e manejo da reprodução dos quelônios amazônicos, principalmente da tartaruga. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados obtidos do manejo nos rios Purus (AC e AM), Juruá e Uatumã (AM), Amazonas (AP, PA), Araguaia (GO, TO), Crixás- Açú (GO), das Mortes (MT), Xingú, Trombetas e Tapajós (PA), Guaporé (RO) e Branco (RR). Os resultados de 52 milhões de filhotes mostram os principais incrementos no recrutamento de fêmeas e no manejo da produção de filhotes tendo como referências os rios Tapajós (PA), Xingu (PA), Branco (RR), das Mortes (MT), Purus (AM) e Amazonas (AP). No capitulo três foi estudada alometria reprodutiva em P. expansa em três praias nos rios Branco (RR), Trombetas (PA) e Araguaia (GO), entre setembro de 2002 a fevereiro de 2003. Relações alométricas foram obtidas através de regressão linear. As fêmeas com classe de massa corpórea entre 25 e 30 kg produziram mais ovos. As classes de massa corpórea das fêmeas variando de 20 a 30 kg para o Araguaia...

Allometric growth of two species of Ephemeroptera from Neotropical mountains streams

Paciencia, Gabriel de Paula; Bispo, Pitagoras da Conceicao; Cortezzi, Sara Sanches
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 145-150
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.43%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 98/11074-3; Processo FAPESP: 02/07216-4; Processo FAPESP: 04/09711-8; Processo FAPESP: 98/05073-4; The present study evaluated the relative growth and allometry of Massartella brieni Lestage and Thraulodes sp. (Leptophlebiidae: Ephemeroptera). The morphometric analysis was based on 23 measurements and was conducted using a multivariate approach. Throughout postembryonic ontogeny, all of the head measurements, including those of the mouthparts, exhibited negative allometric growth. The mesothorax and wing pad exhibited positive allometric growth. The hind legs lengths in M. brieni and the fore and hind legs lengths in Thraulodes sp. exhibited positive allometry. The abdominal length in these two species exhibited positive allometric growth. Positive allometry was also observed along the abdomen width for M. brieni, and isometry was observed for Thraulodes sp. The relative strengthening of the thorax (in preparation for the winged stage) and the relative increase in the abdomen (which may be related to the development of the reproductive structures) during growth indicate that many of the structures that exhibit positive allometric growth are related to the transition from the aquatic to the adult stage of development.

Comparative allometry growth of some marine fish digenetic trematodes

Saad-Fares,A.; Combes,C.
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Allometric growth variation was compared for Plagioporus idoneus, Lepocreadium pegorchis, Opecoeloides furcatus, Bacciger israelensis, Aphanurus stossichi and Parahurleytrema trachinoti collected from East Mediterranean fishes. The pharynx, the oral and the ventral sucker diameters always showed a negative allometry. The other parameters tested were variable with the species. We study the effects of some environmental factors: the influence of the host species is analysed in Plagioporus idoneous, wich parasitizes Oblada melanura, Diplodus sargus and D. vulgaris and in Lepocreadium pegorchis, wich parasitizes Pagellus erythrinus, Lithognathus mormyrus and Spicara smaris; the influence of the microhabitat and the intensity of infection is analysed in Bacciger israelensis and Aphanurus stossichi, both parasites of Boops boops. We report significant differences with the host species, for the allometric growth of the testes; the effect of the microhabitat was revealed by the hindbody allometric value; no significant difference was detected in relation with the intensity of infection.

Allometry of some woody plant species in a Brazilian savanna after two years of a dry season fire

Dodonov,P.; Lucena,IC; Leite,MB; Silva Matos,DM
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
Studies of allometry are important in explaining effects of fire and herbivory, for estimating biomass in forests, and so on. There has been extensive research on plant allometry in temperate and tropical forests, showing that plant architecture often adjusts to the elastic similarity model, but not in Brazilian savannas (cerrado). We studied allometry of Dalbergia miscolobium, Diospyros hispida, Erythroxylum suberosum, Miconia albicans, M. ligustroides, Schefflera vinosa, and Xylopia aromatica in a cerrado sensu stricto area that was affected by a fire in August 2006. We expected that the study species would not adjust to any of the allometric models considered common for forest species ("constant stress", "elastic similarity", and "geometric growth"), and that there would be differences in allometry in burnt and unburnt patches. We sampled two species in 60 5 × 5 m contiguous plots placed in three transects, and five species in 100 5 × 5 m contiguous plots placed in five transects, where we measured the diameters at soil level (DSL) and the heights of all shoots. We used standardized major axis regressions on log-transformed data. The regression slope between the height and DSL was higher than 1.0 (p < 0.05) for four species, showing a greater height than would be expected under geometric growth...

Temperature-mediated transitions between isometry and allometry in a colonial, modular invertebrate

Edmunds, Peter J
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
The evolutionary success of animal design is strongly affected by scaling and virtually all metazoans are constrained by allometry. One body plan that appears to relax these constraints is a colonial modular (CM) design, in which modular iteration is hypothesized to support isometry and indeterminate colony size. In this study, growth rates of juvenile scleractinians (less than 40 mm diameter) with a CM design were used to test this assertion using colony diameters recorded annually for a decade and scaling exponents (b) for growth calculated from double logarithmic plots of final versus initial diameters. For all juvenile corals, b differed significantly among years, with isometry (b=1) in 4 years, but positive allometry (b>1) in 5 years. The study years were characterized by differences in seawater temperature that were associated significantly with b for growth, with isometry in warm years but positive allometry in cool years. These results illustrate variable growth scaling in a CM taxon and suggest that the switch between scaling modes is mediated by temperature. For the corals studied, growth was not constrained by size, but this outcome was achieved through both isometry and positive allometry. Under cooler conditions, positive allometry may be beneficial as it represents a growth advantage that increases with size.

A Conceptual Framework for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Regulating Ontogenetic Allometry

Li, Hongying; Huang, Zhongwen; Gai, Junyi; Wu, Song; Zeng, Yanru; Li, Qin; Wu, Rongling
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/11/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.43%
Although ontogenetic changes in body shape and its associated allometry has been studied for over a century, essentially nothing is known about their underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms. One of the reasons for this ignorance is the unavailability of a conceptual framework to formulate the experimental design for data collection and statistical models for data analyses. We developed a framework model for unraveling the genetic machinery for ontogenetic changes of allometry. The model incorporates the mathematical aspects of ontogenetic growth and allometry into a maximum likelihood framework for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. As a quantitative platform, the model allows for the testing of a number of biologically meaningful hypotheses to explore the pleiotropic basis of the QTL that regulate ontogeny and allometry. Simulation studies and real data analysis of a live example in soybean have been performed to investigate the statistical behavior of the model and validate its practical utilization. The statistical model proposed will help to study the genetic architecture of complex phenotypes and, therefore, gain better insights into the mechanistic regulation for developmental patterns and processes in organisms.

Environmental modulation of metabolic allometry in ornate rainbowfish Rhadinocentrus ornatus

Vaca, H. Fabian; White, Craig R.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.43%
The nature of the relationship between the metabolic rate (MR) and body mass (M) of animals has been the source of controversy for over seven decades, with much of the focus on the value of the scaling exponent b, where MR is proportional to Mb. While it is well known that MR does not generally scale isometrically (i.e. b is seldom equal to 1), the value of b remains the subject of heated debate. In the present study, we examine the influence of an ecologically relevant abiotic variable, pH, on the metabolic allometry of an Australian freshwater fish, Rhadinocentrus ornatus. We show that the value of b is lower for rainbowfish acclimated to acidic (pH 5.0) conditions compared to rainbowfish acclimated to alkaline conditions (pH 8.5), but that acute exposure to altered pH does not alter the value of b. This significant effect of an abiotic variable on metabolic allometry supports a growing body of evidence that there is no universal value of b and demonstrates that experimental manipulations of metabolic allometry represent powerful, and as yet underused, tools to understand the factors that constrain and influence the allometry of metabolic rate.

Limb bone allometry during postnatal ontogeny in non-avian dinosaurs

Kilbourne, Brandon M; Makovicky, Peter J
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.43%
Although the interspecific scaling of tetrapods is well understood, remarkably little work has been done on the ontogenetic scaling within tetrapod species, whether fossil or recent. Here the ontogenetic allometry of the femur, humerus, and tibia was determined for 23 species of non-avian dinosaur by regressing log-transformed length against log-transformed circumference for each bone using reduced major axis bivariate regression. The femora of large theropod species became more robust during ontogeny, whereas growth in the femora of sauropodomorphs and most ornithischians was not significantly different from isometry. Hadrosaur hindlimb elements became significantly more gracile during ontogeny. Scaling constants were higher in all theropods than in any non-theropod taxa. Such clear taxonomically correlated divisions were not evident in the ontogenetic allometry of the tibia and hindlimb bones did not scale uniformly within larger taxonomic groups. For taxa in which the ontogenetic allometry of the humerus was studied, only Riojasaurus incertus exhibited a significant departure from isometry. Using independent contrasts, the regression of femoral allometry against the log of adult body mass was found to have a significant negative correlation but such a relationship could not be established for other limb elements or growth parameters...

Tree height–diameter allometry across the United States

Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height–diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies...

The relationship between stem-form, stand-closure and site -conditions : the influence of environmental conditions on tree allometry and forest structure in west-central Alberta

Jaques, Kathleen E.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Changes in the configuration of a tree stern result insignificant differences in its total volume and in the proportion of that volume that is merchantable timber. Tree allometry, as represented by stem-fo~, is the result of the vertical force of gravity and the horizontal force of wind. The effect of wind force is demonstrated in the relationship between stem-form, standclosure and site-conditions. An increase in wind force on the individual tree due to a decrease in stand density should produce a more tapered tree. The density of the stand is determined by the conditions that the trees are growing under. The ability of the tree to respond to increased wind force may also be a function of these conditions . This stem-form/stand-closure/site-conditions relationship was examined using a pre-existing database from westcentral Alberta. This database consisted of environmental, vegetation, soils and timber data covering a wide range of sites. There were 653 sample trees with 82 variables that formed the basis of the analysis. There were eight tree species consisting of Pinus contorta, Picea mariana, Picea engelmannii x glauca, Abies lasiocarpa, Larix laricina, Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Populus balsamifera plus a comprehensive all-species data set. As the actual conformation of the stern is very individual...

Allometric Exponents Do Not Support a Universal Metabolic Allometry

White, C.; Cassey, P.; Blackburn, T.
Fonte: Ecological Soc Amer Publicador: Ecological Soc Amer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
The debate about the value of the allometric scaling exponent (b) relating metabolic rate to body mass (metabolic rate = a X mass^) is ongoing, with published evidence both for and against a 3/4-power scaling law continuing to accumulate. However, this debate often revolves around a dichotomous distinction between the 3/4-power exponent predicted by recent models of nutrient distribution networks and a 2/3 exponent predicted by Euclidean surface-area-to-volume considerations. Such an approach does not allow for the possibility that there is no single "true" exponent. In the present study, we conduct a meta-analysis of 127 interspecific allometric exponents to determine whether there is a universal metabolic allometry or if there are systematic differences between taxa or between metabolic states. This analysis shows that the effect size of mass on metabolic rate is significantly heterogeneous and that, on average, the effect of mass on metabolic rate is stronger for endotherms than for ectotherms. Significant differences between scaling exponents were also identified between ectotherms and endotherms, as well as between metabolic states (e.g., rest, field, and exercise), a result that applies to b values estimated by ordinary least squares...

When size makes a difference: allometry, life-history and morphological evolution of capuchins (Cebus) and squirrels (Saimiri) monkeys (Cebinae, Platyrrhini)

Marroig, Gabriel 
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
Abstract Background How are morphological evolution and developmental changes related? This rather old and intriguing question had a substantial boost after the 70s within the framework of heterochrony (changes in rates or timing of development) and nowadays has the potential to make another major leap forward through the combination of approaches: molecular biology, developmental experimentation, comparative systematic studies, geometric morphometrics and quantitative genetics. Here I take an integrated approach combining life-history comparative analyses, classical and geometric morphometrics applied to ontogenetic series to understand changes in size and shape which happen during the evolution of two New World Monkeys (NWM) sister genera. Results Cebus and Saimiri share the same basic allometric patterns in skull traits, a result robust to sexual and ontogenetic variation. If adults of both genera are compared in the same scale (discounting size differences) most differences are small and not statistically significant. These results are consistent using both approaches...

Sexual selection explains Rensch's rule of allometry for sexual size dimorphism

Dale, James; Dunn, Peter O; Figuerola, Jordi; Lislevand, Terje; Székely, Tamás; Whittingham, Linda A
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
In 1950, Rensch first described that in groups of related species, sexual size dimorphism is more pronounced in larger species. This widespread and fundamental allometric relationship is now commonly referred to as ‘Rensch's rule’. However, despite numerous recent studies, we still do not have a general explanation for this allometry. Here we report that patterns of allometry in over 5300 bird species demonstrate that Rensch's rule is driven by a correlated evolutionary change in females to directional sexual selection on males. First, in detailed multivariate analysis, the strength of sexual selection was, by far, the strongest predictor of allometry. This was found to be the case even after controlling for numerous potential confounding factors, such as overall size, degree of ornamentation, phylogenetic history and the range and degree of size dimorphism. Second, in groups where sexual selection is stronger in females, allometry consistently goes in the opposite direction to Rensch's rule. Taken together, these results provide the first clear solution to the long-standing evolutionary problem of allometry for sexual size dimorphism: sexual selection causes size dimorphism to correlate with species size.

Life-history variation and allometry for sexual size dimorphism in Pacific salmon and trout

Young, Kyle A.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
Allometry for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is common in animals, but how different evolutionary processes interact to determine allometry remains unclear. Among related species SSD (male:female) typically increases with average body size, resulting in slopes of less than 1 when female size is regressed on male size: an allometric relationship formalized as ‘Rensch's rule’ . Empirical studies show that taxa with male-biased SSD are more likely to satisfy Rensch's rule and that a taxon's mean SSD is negatively correlated with allometric slope, implicating sexual selection on male size as an important mechanism promoting allometry for SSD. I use body length (and life-history) data from 628 (259) populations of seven species of anadromous Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) to show that in this genus life-history variation appears to regulate patterns of allometry both within and between species. Although all seven species have intraspecific allometric slopes of less than 1, contrary to expectation slope is unrelated to species' mean SSD, but is instead negatively correlated with two life-history variables: the species' mean marine age and variation in marine age. Second, because differences in marine age among species render SSD and body size uncorrelated...

Multivariate allometry and myocardium abnormalities during experimental systemic nitric oxide blockage

Xavier-Vidal,Ricardo; Ramirez Carvajal,Santiago Segundo; Cunha,Sônia Baptista da; Madi,Kalil
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica; Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia; Sociedade Brasileira de Citopatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica; Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia; Sociedade Brasileira de Citopatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
Using allometry to evaluate numerical data from normal and experimental hypertensive rats' myocardium, thirteen normotensive Wistar male young rats were examined. Hearts were processed using histological routine methods. For myocardial quantification we utilized an M-42 Test-System. Fifteen fields were randomly considered. Parameters utilized: volumetric density (Vv %); volume (V µm³) and cardiac weight. The chi2 proposed by Anderson and the F proposed by Jolicoeur were utilized to test the isometric hypothesis in multivariate allometry. Results in the first analysis show eigenvalues at first principal component with proportions of 70.11%. Results concerning coefficients show V nuclei with a coefficient greater than the isometric point. In the second analysis, eigenvalues of first principal component show a proportion of 75.68%, using three variables. Results of the second analysis show Vv matrix with a coefficient greater than the isometric point. In the third analysis, eigenvalues of first principal component show a proportion of 70.18%, using three variables. Results of the third analysis show V nuclei with a coefficient greater than the isometric point. This suggests that the nuclei of the myocytes have the major variance between the variables utilized. Using chi2 and F tests we rejected isometric hypothesis. Then we can clearly identify the growth center advocated by Huxley as the myocyte nuclei. In conclusion...

The Global Yield, and Allometry of Self-Thinned Mixed Forests: A Theoretical and Simulative Inquiry

Barreto,Luís Soares
Fonte: Unidade de Silvicultura e Produtos Florestais Publicador: Unidade de Silvicultura e Produtos Florestais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
The author uses his theory for mixed stands, and his model BACO2 for tree competition to clarify the global yield, and allometry of self-thinned even-aged mixed stands with two species. He analyses the effects of the competitive hierarchy, initial proportions of the species, and the relative size of the trees of the two competitors. He extends the results to self-thinned uneven-aged mixed stands.