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NATO: The Indispensable Western Alliance

Romão, Rui M. J.
Fonte: Repositório Comum de Portugal Publicador: Repositório Comum de Portugal
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 21/09/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.27%
A Research Paper Developed as part of the Air Command and Staff College program.; The 21st century did not start well. Terrorism and war has marked every single year so far. It is not a good sign of what this century will be. In the last century, globalization, the victory over communism, a technology driven revolution, the chance of spreading a model of society thru the internet and modern communication systems, all allowed the rise of political awareness, envy and resentment against the West. The Western societies feel less secure now than they did during the Cold War period. Their values and beliefs are at stake. The problem is not only the asymmetric threats, it is also the political conflicts between Americans and Europeans. Instead of unifying efforts against a common threat, the Allies seem to be drifting further apart, and loosing the war. How can the West escape from this trap and guarantee the preservation of their values? This preservation is essential, so that future generations can have the opportunity to live in a free world and make their choices. NATO is the indispensable Alliance to the preservation of the western values. It is a tool capable of creating a bridge between American and European interests and identities and without it...

Melanin-based plumage coloration and flight displays in plovers and allies.

Bókony, Veronika; Liker, András; Székely, Tamás; Kis, János
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/12/2003 EN
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26.76%
Plovers and their allies exhibit an impressive diversity of melanin-based plumage patterns ranging from non-melanized to completely melanized species. We use phylogenetic comparative methods to test whether melanization has evolved in relation to sexual selection for attracting mates, to selection for signalling territory defence, or to natural selection for camouflage. First, according to sexual-selection theory, melanized plumage has evolved to amplify the courtship displays of males. As predicted by this hypothesis, we found that males with aerial displays had more melanized plumage than males of ground-displaying species. In addition, sexual dimorphism in melanization was greater in species with display flights than in species with ground displays. Second, melanization may have evolved through social interactions to signal competitive ability in territory defence. We did not find evidence for this hypothesis, since breeding density was unrelated to the melanization of either sex. Finally, melanized plumage may camouflage the incubating parent. The latter hypothesis was not supported, since melanization was unrelated either to the darkness of nest substrate or the extent of vegetation cover. Taken together, our results are most consistent with the sexual-selection hypothesis...

Evolutionary transitions and mechanisms of matte and iridescent plumage coloration in grackles and allies (Icteridae)

Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E; Estep, Laura K; Hill, Geoffrey E
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.76%
Iridescent structural colour is found in a wide variety of organisms. In birds, the mechanisms that create these colours are diverse, but all are based on ordered arrays of melanin granules within a keratin substrate in barbules. The feathers of the grackles and allies in the family Icteridae range in appearance from matte black to iridescent. In a phylogenetic analysis of this clade, we identified several evolutionary transitions between these colour states. To describe a possible mechanistic explanation for the lability of plumage coloration, we used spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and thin-film optical modelling of the feathers of 10 icterid species from five genera, including taxa with matte black or iridescent feathers. In matte black species, melanin was densely packed in barbules, while in iridescent species, melanin granules were arranged in ordered layers around the edges of barbules. The structured arrangement of melanin granules in iridescent species created optical interfaces, which are shown by our optical models to be critical for iridescent colour production by coherent scattering. These data imply that rearrangement of melanin granules in barbules is a mechanism for shifts between black and iridescent colours...

Policy and System Change and Community Coalitions: Outcomes From Allies Against Asthma

Clark, Noreen M.; Lachance, Laurie; Doctor, Linda Jo; Gilmore, Lisa; Kelly, Cindy; Krieger, James; Lara, Marielena; Meurer, John; Friedman Milanovich, Amy; Nicholas, Elisa; Rosenthal, Michael; Stoll, Shelley C.; Wilkin, Margaret
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2010 EN
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26.76%
Objectives. We assessed policy and system changes and health outcomes produced by the Allies Against Asthma program, a 5-year collaborative effort by 7 community coalitions to address childhood asthma. We also explored associations between community engagement and outcomes.

Comparative ontogeny of the cyathium in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) and its allies: exploring the organ–flower–inflorescence boundary1

Prenner, Gerhard; Rudall, Paula J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2007 EN
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26.76%
We present a detailed comparative ontogenetic analysis of pseudanthia of representatives of all three subtribes of Euphorbieae (Euphorbiinae, Neoguillauminiinae, Anthosteminae) in order to clarify their homologies and interpretation. The cyathium of Euphorbia and its allies (subtribe Euphorbiinae) closely resembles a bisexual flower but is traditionally interpreted as an inflorescence bearing clusters of highly reduced male flowers surrounding a single terminal female flower. Previously unreported characters are (1) male flowers formed one above the other in the male inflorescences of some Euphorbiinae, (2) late-developing perianthlike structures in some male flowers of Neoguillauminia cleopatra, (3) evidence for a bracteate origin of the female perianth in Anthosteminae and Neoguillauminiinae, and (4) spatiotemporally independent formation of abscission zone and perianth. Indistinct boundaries between inflorescence, flower, and floral organs demonstrate that defining the cyathium neither as an inflorescence nor as a flower is entirely satisfactory and indicate a “hybrid” flower/inflorescence nature of the cyathium. Based on our current knowledge and the existing phylogenetic context, it is most parsimonious to suggest that the cyathium evolved from a determinate thyrse with a terminal female flower surrounded by dichasial male partial inflorescences. We speculate that the cyathium was formed because of strong condensation and possible overlap between expression zones of regulatory genes.

Oxytocin modulates selection of allies in intergroup conflict

De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Greer, Lindred L.; Handgraaf, Michel J. J.; Shalvi, Shaul; Van Kleef, Gerben A.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
In intergroup competition and conflict, humans benefit from coalitions with strong partners who help them to protect their in-group and prevail over competing out-groups. Here, we link oxytocin, a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus, to ally selection in intergroup competition. In a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment, males self-administered oxytocin or placebo, and made selection decisions about six high-threat and six low-threat targets as potential allies in intergroup competition. Males given oxytocin rather than placebo viewed high-threat targets as more useful allies and more frequently selected them into their team than low-threat targets.

Improvements in Health Care Use Associated With Community Coalitions: Long-Term Results of the Allies Against Asthma Initiative

Clark, Noreen M.; L. Lachance, Laurie; Benedict, M. Beth; Doctor, Linda Jo; Gilmore, Lisa; Kelly, Cynthia S.; Krieger, James; Lara, Marielena; Meurer, John; Milanovich, Amy Friedman; Nicholas, Elisa; Song, Peter X. K.; Rosenthal, Michael; Stoll, Shelley
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.76%
Objectives. We assessed changes in asthma-related health care use by low-income children in communities across the country where 6 Allies Against Asthma coalitions (Hampton Roads, VA; Washington, DC; Milwaukee, WI; King County/Seattle, WA; Long Beach, CA; and Philadelphia, PA) mobilized stakeholders to bring about policy changes conducive to asthma control.

The evolutionary origins of diadromy inferred from a time-calibrated phylogeny for Clupeiformes (herring and allies)

Bloom, Devin D.; Lovejoy, Nathan R.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.76%
One of the most remarkable types of migration found in animals is diadromy, a life-history behaviour in which individuals move between oceans and freshwater habitats for feeding and reproduction. Diadromous fishes include iconic species such as salmon, eels and shad, and have long fascinated biologists because they undergo extraordinary physiological and behavioural modifications to survive in very different habitats. However, the evolutionary origins of diadromy remain poorly understood. Here, we examine the widely accepted productivity hypothesis, which states that differences in productivity between marine and freshwater biomes determine the origins of the different modes of diadromy. Specifically, the productivity hypothesis predicts that anadromous lineages should evolve in temperate areas from freshwater ancestors and catadromous lineages should evolve in tropical areas from marine ancestors. To test this, we generated a time-calibrated phylogeny for Clupeiformes (herrings, anchovies, sardines and allies), an ecologically and economically important group that includes high diversity of diadromous species. Our results do not support the productivity hypothesis. Instead we find that the different modes of diadromy do not have predictable ancestry based on latitude...

Confronting bias: How targets and allies can address prejudice against gay men in the workplace

Martinez, Larry
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
While many organizations have taken steps to protect minority individuals from the negative effects of prejudice and discrimination, such initiatives may be met with limited success. That is, prejudice and discrimination may remain major problems even with organizations who adopt organizational policies to enhance equity and reduce workplace discrimination. This dissertation examines the use of an individual-level strategy that individuals can enact in response to prejudice and/or discrimination, and that is the strategy of directly confronting the prejudice of their co-workers. This study examines the utility of confronting co-workers in the workplace with particular emphasis on the cognitions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of third-party bystanders following witnessing a confrontation. I anticipated that the identity of the confronter (a member of the target group or an ally) and the level of conflict (high or low conflict) as well as the type of conflict (aggressive vs. calm, and personalized to the individual vs. generalized to society as a whole) in the confrontation would differentially impact outcome variables. Indeed, the results suggest that allies (versus targets) who confront elicit more positive behavioral intentions from observers to enact such strategies in the future; that high conflict (either aggressive or personalized) confrontations elicit more negative cognitions...

The second front grand strategy and civil-military relations of western allies and the USSR, 1938-1945

Schur, Denys
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
The debate about grand strategy in the Second World War has scarcely ended even in the 21st Century. The present study examines the classical issue of the grand strategy in Europe and the anti-Hitler coalition as concerns the US-UK-Soviet exchange about the Second Front. The great phenomenon of the Second World War was the creation of an unprecedented military alliance between the western powers and the Soviet Union. Due to mutual antagonism the inter-Allied cooperation during the Second World War was very complicated and at times extremely tense. Perhaps the most acute disagreement in the relationship between the Allies was the "Second Front" controversy. Despite desperate Soviet demands to open the Second Front as soon as possible, the Western Allies launched a massive cross-channel operation in the northwestern Europe only in June 1944. This thesis analyses the reasons of why it took the western powers so long to organize and execute such an operation and its implications for the post-war order. The detailed analysis of the grand strategy during the Second World War is one of the ways to comprehend the violent 20th Century amid the carnage of the 21st Century and its own problems of grand strategy.

Ballistic missile defense and NATO alliance relations

Raffier, John P.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.27%
Short-range missiles in Third World arsenals pose a serious threat to forward employed U.S. and allied military forces. The acquisition of longer- range missiles has the potential to extend that threat to the population and territory of the United States and its allies. While NATO member states have agreed to develop Theater Missile Defense (TMD) systems to support forward- deployed troops, they continue to dispute which TMD systems ought to be developed and whether territorial or population defenses ought to be built. In this long-standing dispute, the United States has often found itself at odds with its European allies. This thesis argues that ballistic missile defense remains a potential source of friction between the United States and its European allies, but for substantially different reasons than in the Cold War era. The strategic and political differences which alienated allies during the Cold War have been replaced by economic considerations and the inability to develop a unified BMD strategy. These factors continue to make BMD a divisive issue. To prevent the erosion of Alliance relations, the United States must show greater sensitivity to the interests of its European allies, who in turn must exhibit a greater commitment to NATO goals.

NATO nuclear reductions and the assurance of Central and Eastern European Allies

Guthe, Kurt
Fonte: National Institute for Public Policy Publicador: National Institute for Public Policy
Tipo: Livro
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.76%
Recent years have seen a debate within NATO over the issue of whether U.S. nonstrategic nuclear weapons in Europe should be retained in their current status, reduced in number, or withdrawn from the Continent. Some countries, including Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium have advocated removal of the weapons. Others, notably member states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) are wary of changes in the nuclear posture of the alliance. The position of the United States and NATO as a whole is that future talks with Russia should include discussion of greater transparency, relocation, or reduction of nonstrategic nuclear arsenals. Russia has demanded a number of conditions for talks that indicates an unwillingness to begin negotiations anytime soon. These conditions include complete withdrawal of U.S. nonstrategic nuclear weapons from Europe before reductions are considered, discussion of limits on other types of arms, bringing other countries into the talks, and full implementation of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START), which is scheduled for 2018. Assuming negoiations eventually take place, this report examines the question of how the pursuit of limits on U.S. nonstrategic nuclear weapons might be balanced with the concerns of CEE allies regarding dangers posed by Russia and the value of nonstrategic nuclear weapons in mitigating those dangers. More specifically...

Are gender equality institutions the policy allies of the feminist movement? A contingent "yes" in the Spanish central state

Valiente Fernández, Celia
Fonte: Routledge Taylor & Francis Publicador: Routledge Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2007 ENG
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26.76%
This article studies the extent to which gender equality institutions are the policy allies of the feminist movement in Spain. A policy ally of the feminist movement is defined as one that adopts the demands of the movement and includes them in the policy process. This article analyses the role played by the Women’s Institute (WI) between 1983 and 2003 in 12 policy debates, in a third of which the WI was an ally of the movement. Two circumstances are identified as necessary for the WI to act as an ally of the feminist movement, whilst other are not strictly necessary but have facilitated the WI acting as a policy ally of the movement.

NATO's Prague Capabilities Commitment: origins and prospects; North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Prague Capabilities Commitment

Kugel, Joseph P.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: viii, 95 p. ;
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis analyzes the origins and prospects of NATO's Prague Capabilities Commitment (PCC). Following the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991, NATO's conventional military capabilities rose in importance as the Allies undertook crisis management operations in the Balkans. Capability shortcomings, particularly among the European Allies, led NATO in 1999 to approve a Defense Capabilities Initiative (DCI). However, the DCI's disappointing results, the terrorist attacks on the United States on 11 September 2001, the subsequent American military action in Afghanistan in cooperation with NATO Allies, the leading role of NATO Allies in the International Security Assistance Force in Kabul, and other factors convinced the Allies to make a new effort to improve capabilities. The Allies decided at the November 2002 Prague Summit to endorse the PCC. The PCC's prospects for success may not be greater than those of the DCI unless the European Allies commit greater resources, pool assets in multinational frameworks, pursue specialization in military missions, and modify their procurement priorities. Moreover, the PCC's success hinges on closely related initiatives: the NATO Response Force and the new command structures.; Major...

The great asymmetry : America's closest allies in times of war

Von Hlatky Udvarhelyi, Stéfanie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
Cette thèse étudie la dynamique entre les États-Unis et ses alliés privilégiés lorsque la coopération militaire est en jeu. Nous y proposons que les attentes de l’allié principal déterminent le niveau de coopération des autres pays mais que deux variables intermédiaires - la cohésion du gouvernement et la capacité militaire de l’allié - en déterminent l’exécution. Cette analyse porte aussi sur les stratégies utilisées par les états secondaires pour accroître leur pouvoir dans cette relation asymétrique : initier des négociations bilatérales dans le but d’obtenir des concessions stratégiques, faire valoir leur point de vue par le biais d’organisations internationales ou, encore, évoquer des principes d’ordre éthique et moral. Même si les alliés secondaires peuvent rarement influencer l’allié dominant, ils ont néanmoins la capacité d’agir de façon autonome et de résister aux pressions du plus fort. L’argument de la thèse repose sur trois propositions : dans une alliance asymétrique, les pays ne partagent pas nécessairement la même perception des menaces au niveau international; en cas de désaccord, le résultat des négociations entre alliés ne favorise pas toujours le partenaire dominant ; au moment de la prise de décision en matière de politique étrangère...

Imagem e propaganda em Portugal durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial

Cardoso, Débora Marina Canhoto
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 POR
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27.17%
Mestrado em História Moderna e Contemporânea especialidade em Cidades e Património; Pretende-se nesta dissertação estudar a fotografia de caráter propagandístico relativa à Segunda Guerra Mundial, publicada em Portugal durante esse período. Tomando como atores centrais a Alemanha, enquanto potência do Eixo, e a Inglaterra, enquanto potência Aliada, verificámos que ambas utilizaram amplamente a fotografia como meio de persuasão e de propaganda de guerra. Partimos da observação e análise das fotografias de guerra publicadas em revistas de propaganda, editadas e distribuídas em Portugal a partir de 1940, sendo fontes centrais desta dissertação as revistas A Esfera (pró-Eixo) e o Mundo Gráfico (pró-Aliados). O que se pretende apresentar e defender é a grande dimensão que a propaganda de guerra teve em Portugal, através da ação dos beligerantes que formaram grupos de influência. Apesar de Portugal se ter afirmado como um país neutro, o fenómeno da propaganda em Portugal, sobretudo a que distribuída através de imprensa, fez com que se tornasse num Estado «colaborante» com os diversos beligerantes. Para melhor compreender este fenómeno, será utilizada uma metodologia onde as questões colocadas serão analisadas de forma comparada...

Building Alliances in Unlikely Places: Progressive Allies and the Tobacco Institute's Coalition Strategy on Cigarette Excise Taxes

Campbell, Richard B.; Balbach, Edith D.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
The tobacco industry often utilizes third parties to advance its policy agenda. One such utilization occurred when the industry identified organized labor and progressive groups as potential allies whose advocacy could undermine public support for excise tax increases. To attract such collaboration, the industry framed the issue as one of tax fairness, creating a labor management committee to provide distance from tobacco companies and furthering progressive allies' interests through financial and logistical support. Internal industry documents indicate that this strategic use of ideas, institutions, and interests facilitated the recruitment of leading progressive organizations as allies. By placing excise taxes within a strategic policy nexus that promotes mutual public interest goals, public health advocates may use a similar strategy in forging their own excise tax coalitions.

The development of human female competition: allies and adversaries

Benenson, Joyce F.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.76%
Throughout their lives, women provide for their own and their children's and grandchildren's needs and thus must minimize their risk of incurring physical harm. Alliances with individuals who will assist them in attaining these goals increase their probability of survival and reproductive success. High status in the community enhances access to physical resources and valuable allies. Kin, a mate, and affines share a mother's genetic interests, whereas unrelated women constitute primary competitors. From early childhood onwards, girls compete using strategies that minimize the risk of retaliation and reduce the strength of other girls. Girls’ competitive strategies include avoiding direct interference with another girl's goals, disguising competition, competing overtly only from a position of high status in the community, enforcing equality within the female community and socially excluding other girls.

La Gran Guerra llega a España : la revista “Los Aliados” y la causa aliadófila. Propaganda y debate político en un país neutral

Tomasoni, Matteo
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 SPA
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26.76%
En este artículo se pretende analizar algunos de los acontecimientos finales de la Primera Guerra Mundial y los efectos que estos provocaron en un país neutral como España a lo largo de la segunda mitad de 1918. Este estudio se hará a través del enfoque periodístico de una revista aliadófila, Los Aliados, que en su momento se creó no solo como respuesta a los ambientes germanófilos –en su mayoría reunidos en torno a la revista Renovación Española–, sino también como núcleo intelectual comprometido con una paz democrática de claros matices wilsonianos. Lo que nos demostrará que, pese a su neutralidad, España permaneció muy atenta al desarrollo del conflicto y comprometida con un debate que con el tiempo proporcionó las condiciones de su futura adhesión a la Sociedad de Naciones. A este respecto, observaremos que la propaganda jugó un papel fundamental en este avance político, debido a la publicación –precisamente en Los Aliados– de una ingente cantidad de material propagandístico proveniente en su mayoría desde el exterior, originando a su vez la base y el filtro informativo más cercano a las posturas aliadófilas.; En aquest article es pretén analitzar alguns dels esdeveniments finals de la Primera Guerra Mundial i els efectes que aquests van provocar en un país neutral com Espanya al llarg de la segona meitat de 1918. Aquest estudi es farà a través de l'enfocament periodístic d'una revista aliadòfila...

As republicans take over the senate, they have lost some of their most willing allies on the democratic side

Swers, Michele
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/11/2014 EN; EN
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Last night saw the Republican Party retake the Senate, and win their largest majority in the House for more than 60 years. Michele Swers reflects on the results, writing that despite concentrating on state-level issues, many Democrats were dragged down by President Obama’s unpopularity and the national climate. She writes that while the Republican Party may be celebrating their victory today, they have kicked out many of the Democrats that would have been their allies on key issues such as trade and tax reform, meaning that legislative compromises are now even less likely.