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Lateral impact injuries with side airbag deployments—A descriptive study

Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Zhang, Jiangyue; Gennarelli, Thomas A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.96%
The present study was designed to provide descriptive data on side impact injuries in vehicles equipped with side airbags using the United States National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The database was queried with the constraint that all vehicles must adhere to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards FMVSS 214, injured occupants be in the front outboard seats with no rollovers or ejections, and side impacts airbags be deployed in lateral crashes. Out of the 7812 crashes in the 1997–2004 weighted NASS files, AIS ≥ 2 level injuries occurred to 5071 occupants. There were 3828 cases of torso-only airbags, 955 cases of torso–head bag combination, and 288 inflatable tubular structure/curtain systems. Side airbags were not attributed to be the cause of head or chest injury to any occupant at this level of severity. The predominance of torso-only airbags followed by torso–head airbag combination reflected vehicle model years and changing technology. Head and chest injuries were coupled for the vast majority of occupants with injuries to more than one body region. Comparing literature data for side impacts without side airbag deployments...

Patterns of injury associated with automobile airbag use.

Mohamed, A. A.; Banerjee, A.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
The wide use of automobile airbags has undoubtedly reduced the mortality and the incidence of serious injuries from motor vehicle accidents. However, automobile airbags appear to be associated with a variety of injuries including fatal injuries, ocular injuries, upper limb and chest injuries. Further improvements in airbag design together with education of the general public in their use should help reduce airbag-related injuries.

TORSO SIDE AIRBAG OUT-OF-POSITION EVALUATION USING STATIONARY AND DYNAMIC OCCUPANTS

Hallman, Jason J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
The risk of injury from torso side airbags in out-of-position (OOP) scenarios is assessed using stationary occupant conditions. Although stationary tests have been effective in frontal airbag assessments, their applicability to torso side airbags remains uncertain. Using the MADAYMO facet occupant model, thoracic OOP injury was evaluated using full-chest compression criteria (%C) and viscous criteria (VC) under stationary occupant conditions and occupant impact velocities of 6.0 m/s, 7.0 m/s, 8.0 m/s, and 9.0 m/s. During airbag deployment with a stationary occupant, peak %C = 21.8 % while peak VC = 0.86. At 6.0 m/s impact velocity, peak %C increased to 35.1 %; at 9.0 m/s impact velocity %C = 45.0 %. Similarly, peak VC increased from 1.19 at 6.0 m/s and to 1.96 at 9.0 m/s. These results demonstrated that thoracic injury metrics %C and VC increased in dynamic testing conditions. Therefore dynamic occupant tests may be required to effectively assess OOP thoracic injury risk.

CHARACTERIZATION OF TORSO SIDE AIRBAG AGGRESSIVITY

Hallman, Jason J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.96%
Torso side airbags are typically seat- or door-mounted; i.e., mounted within the seat back or within the door panel lateral to the occupant. Because previous work has shown the propensity of airbags to cause harm in unintended out-of-position occupant orientations, scientific investigation of injury risks continues. Such work involves anthropomorphic test devices and cadaveric specimens which have time and monetary costs associated with their use. These costs necessitate experimental efficiency, achieved by selecting representative airbags from the multitude of options in contemporary automobiles. This study proposes a novel method for characterizing torso side airbag deployment aggressivity for purposes of selection. The test fixture consisted of an array of rigidly positioned three-axis load cells oriented in opposition to a rigid airbag mount at fixed distances of 6 or 8 cm. Six exemplar torso airbag modules were subjected to these two deployment configurations. Force characteristics of maximum resultant force, peak and mean force onset rate, and linear impulse were quantified for comparison. Force characteristics demonstrated ranges between 210% (linear impulse) and 2,500% (mean force onset rate) of minimum value. This test method demonstrated differentiation in the diversity of SAB designs and quantified the airbag-environment interaction during deployment. These force characteristics may correlate to thoracic injury risk from out-of-position torso side airbag deployment.

Missile launch pad: an unusual consequence of airbag deployment

Ronnie, Davies; Emecheta, Ikechukwu E; Kevin, Hancock
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/02/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.74%
Vehicle airbags significantly reduce vehicle occupant injuries and fatalities in road accidents. However, a number of injuries are recognised as being directly attributable to airbag deployment. The majority of these are blunt injuries due to the high force of airbag deployment and include ocular injuries, burns, chest trauma and, rarely, fatalities. The authors describe a case of mixed blunt ocular and penetrating facial trauma as a result of airbag deployment.

Door Velocity and Occupant Distance Affect Lateral Thoracic Injury Mitigation with Side Airbag

Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.26%
The relationship between thoracic injury risk and parameters of door velocity and occupant distance was delineated in blunt lateral impact with side airbag deployment. A sled impact model was exercised with the validated MADYMO fiftieth percentile facet occupant model and a generalized finite element torso side airbag. Impact velocity was incremented from 4.0 to 9.0 m/s; occupant-airbag distance (at time of airbag activation) was incremented from 2.0 to 24.0 cm; simulations without airbag were also examined. Using compression, deflection rate, and the Viscous Criterion, airbag performance was characterized with respect to occupant injury risk at three points of interest: occupant distance of most protection, distance of greatest injury risk, and the newly defined critical distance. The occupant distance which demonstrated the most airbag protection, i.e., lowest injury risk, increased with increasing impact velocity. Greatest injury risk resulted when the occupant was nearest the airbag regardless of impact velocity. The critical distance was defined as the farthest distance at which airbag deployment exacerbated injury risk. This critical distance only varied considering chest compression, between 3 and 10 cm from the airbag, but did not vary when the Viscous Criterion were evaluated. At impact velocities less than or equal to 6 m/s...

Fatal Airbag-Mediated Atlanto-Occipital Dislocation in a Child

Hassan, Radhiana; Mohd Yusof, Mubarak; Kamarudin, Norie Azilah
Fonte: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia Publicador: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.74%
An atlanto-occipital dislocation is a rare airbag-induced injury in trauma patients. We report a case of an atlanto-occipital dislocation in a 6-year-old patient who was an unrestrained passenger in the front seat of a vehicle involved in a low-speed motor vehicle accident. This case illustrates the fatal threat of airbag deployment to the child passenger travelling in the vehicle front seat even in a low-speed collision, and supports the recommendation that children under 12 years of age travelling in vehicles with dual airbag systems should be seated in the back.

Comparison of Real World Side Impact/Rollover Collisions With and Without Thorax Airbag/Head Protection System: A First Field Experience Study

Baur, Peter; Lange, Wolfgang; Messner, Georg; Rauscher, Stefan; Pieske, Oliver
Fonte: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Publicador: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.54%
After the introduction of the Thorax Airbag (TA) and the Head Protection System (HPS) by BMW there has been a significant reduction of injuries in real-world collisions. Comparison of similar collisions (in-depth collision analyses) of vehicles with and without HPS/TA indicates that the effectiveness of the system was credible. Minor injuries (AIS 1) increase while serious injuries (AIS 3+) are reduced. Based on the limited cases available, a proper statistical sampling could not be achieved at this time, however the results are to be understood as indicative of a trend.

Airbag Effectiveness on Brain Trauma in Frontal Crashes

Pintar, Frank A.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Gennarelli, Thomas A.
Fonte: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Publicador: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.96%
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of frontal restraint systems in reducing the potential for head injuries, specifically brain injuries and skull fractures. The US DOT NASS database files from 1991–1998 were evaluated for drivers and right front seat occupants in frontal crashes. Of the total driver and right front seat occupants in this data set, 3.83% sustained a brain injury without skull fracture, 0.05% sustained a skull fracture without a brain injury, and 0.16% sustained both brain injury and skull fracture. The incidence of head injury was lowest among occupants who were restrained by belt alone (2.76%) and by both airbag and belt systems (3.51%). The unrestrained population had a 10.39% incidence of at least one type of head injury. In general, for maximum AIS≥2 head injuries, airbag effectiveness was greatest between 16–45 kph crash ΔV. For the more severe maximum AIS≥3 head injuries, the airbag restraint had its greatest effect up to 35 kph. It can be concluded that brain injury in frontal crashes is substantially reduced with the presence of a restraint system and the use of both airbag and belt restraint offers the greatest protection across all AV categories. Restraint system effectiveness for the non-head-injured occupant is variable but...

Field Data on Head Injuries in Side Airbag Vehicles in Lateral Impact

Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Gennarelli, Thomas A.
Fonte: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Publicador: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
Field data on side airbag deployments in lateral crashes and head injuries have largely remained anecdotal. Consequently, the purpose of this research was to report head injuries in lateral motor vehicle impacts. Data from the National Automotive Sampling System files were extracted from side impacts associated with side airbag deployments. Matched pairs with similar vehicle characteristics but without side airbags were also extracted. All data were limited to the United States Federal Motor vehicle Safety Standards FMVSS 214 compliant vehicles so that the information may be more effectively used in the future. In this study, some fundamental analyses are presented regarding occupant- and vehicle-related parameters.

The Blue Ribbon Panel on Depowered and Advanced Airbags — Status Report on Airbag Performance

Ferguson, Susan A.; Schneider, Lawrence; Segui-Gomez, Maria; Arbogast, Kristy; Augenstein, Jeffrey; Digges, Kennerly H.
Fonte: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Publicador: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.54%
In February 2000, a group of highway safety organizations sent a letter to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation expressing concern about a possible return to the 30-mph rigid barrier test using unbelted dummies previously required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208. The letter asked the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to expedite data collection of the real-world crash experience of airbag-equipped vehicles certified to the 30-mph sled test using unbelted dummies because of suggestions that depowered airbags may not provide the same level of protection, particularly to larger, unbelted occupants. For the same reason, the letter also recommended that the auto industry commit funding for additional data collection and to establish a panel of experts to evaluate the data. In response, the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (Alliance) committed to funding a 3-year program to be managed by an independent third party. A panel of experts consisting of representatives from the highway safety research community, the National Transportation Safety Board, academia, medical institutions, and the insurance industry was established as the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) for Evaluation of Depowered and Advanced Airbags and met for the first time in February 2001. The BRP also includes representatives from NHTSA and the automobile industry who participate as observers. The BRP held its first public meeting in April 2003 to provide an update of its activities and to summarize the real-world evidence on the performance of depowered airbags. This AAAM session will provide a brief summary of the public meeting.

Investigation into the Noise Associated with Airbag Deployment: Part III – Sound Pressure Level and Auditory Risk as a Function of Inflatable Device

Banglmaier, R.F.; Rouhana, S.W.
Fonte: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Publicador: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
Several criteria for assessing noise-induced hearing loss from automotive inflatable devices, such as airbags, were proposed in the past. However, their development was based on epidemiological studies of steady state noise and not impulsive noise. More recently, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) developed and validated a mathematical model of the ear, which may be used to assess noise induced hearing loss from impulsive noise sources. Previous studies have contributed to understanding the effects of impulse noise on occupants, but were performed on first generation frontal airbags and did not provide information on airbag and occupant safety systems in today’s fleet of vehicles. This study presents the results of a parametric investigation of current inflatable devices across a variety of vehicles and considers the size and seating location of the occupant in vehicles of varying volume. In addition, the study considers advanced airbag technologies such as dual stage frontal airbags, side airbags, inflatable curtains, and seat belt pretensioners.

Driver Stature Injuries and Airbag Deployments--Analysis of Umtri Crash Investigations--

Huelke, Donald F.
Fonte: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Publicador: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.96%
At the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), 784 crashes involving steering wheel airbag deployments have been investigated in detail (as of 3/1/98). A subset of only the frontal crashes, in which the steering wheel airbag deployed and driver stature was known, was formed (654 drivers). The vast majority of all drivers were lap-shoulder belted. Of these drivers, 70% sustained no injuries or an AIS-1 level injury. In these 654 crashes there were 204 “short” stature drivers, 165 cm or less in height (32% of all drivers). There were 40 of these with injuries at the MAIS-2 level and 15 who survived with an MAIS injury level of 3 or 4. Details of the injury locations and contacts are presented. Data on the taller drivers (450) were similarly tabulated. Of the taller drivers (≥ 168 cm), 74% had a MAIS-0 or 1 level injury. Of taller drivers with the MAIS-3, 4 or 5 injuries, the majority (67%) had such injuries unrelated to the deployment of the airbag. Of all the MAIS-2+ injured drivers, short or tall, 60% had such injuries unrelated to airbag deployments. The lower extremity was the body area most often involved, followed by the brain and upper extremity injuries.

Driver Injury Patterns in the United States and Australia: Does Beltwearing or Airbag Deployment Make A Difference?

McKay, Mary Pat; Fitzharris, Michael; Fildes, Brian
Fonte: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Publicador: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.74%
Airbags in the United States and Australia are fundamentally different. In the U.S., airbags are designed as primary restraints to protect unbelted occupants while those in Australia are design as supplementary to the seatbelt. The deployment thresholds, power, and velocity of deployment therefore differ. Using a cohort comparison method, this study set out to determine if the injury patterns of belted and unbelted drivers in airbag deployed crashes were different in the United States and Australia. This study focussed only on intermediate and full-size passenger vehicles to allow comparability between popular Australian vehicles and US vehicles. The results suggest that US belted and unbelted drivers tend to suffer a higher percentage of injuries to the face, thorax, and upper extremity as a result of airbag contact compared with the Australian sample. In addition, unbelted US drivers appeared to suffer a higher percentage of head and facial injuries from non-airbag contact sources than the US belted and Australian samples.

A Case of Severe Airbag Related Ocular Alkali Injury

Barnes, Shawn S; Wong, William; Affeldt, John C
Fonte: University Clinical, Education & Research Associate (UCERA) Publicador: University Clinical, Education & Research Associate (UCERA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
While airbags have saved many lives and are clearly beneficial overall, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) powder produced by the inflation reaction can cause significant alkali ocular injury if not irrigated promptly. Here we report a case of severe airbag related ocular alkali injury as a way to bring attention to the need for prompt ocular irrigation following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) with airbag deployment.

Rethinking Airbag Safety: Airbag Injury Causing Bilateral Blindness

Ogun, Olufunmilola Abimbola; Ikyaa, Sewuese Yangi; Ogun, Gabriel Olabiyi
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.96%
A healthy 40-year-old man, restrained in the front passenger seat, suffered visually disabling blunt ocular trauma following spontaneous release of the passenger side air-bag module, during vehicular deceleration, without an automobile crash. Though the driver-side airbag was also released, the driver was unharmed. The passenger suffered bilateral hyphema, bilateral vitreous hemorrhage and suspected posterior scleral rupture in the left eye and also had an eyebrow laceration, from impact with the dashboard panel covering the air-bag module, which was detached by the force of airbag deployment. This is the first reported case from West Africa and the first case in which part of the airbag module detached to cause additional trauma. This report adds to the growing burden of evidence world-wide, for a review of the safety aspects of the automobile airbag. This case clearly illustrates that although airbags reduce mortality, they carry a high risk of ocular morbidity, even with seat belt restraint.

Seatbelt versus seatbelt and airbag injuries in a single motor vehicle crash

Afifi, Ibrahim; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Peralta, Ruben
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.74%
Seatbelt restraints are important for occupant safety which substantially reduces morbidity and mortality in severe motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Though, it has been established that the air bag and seatbelt use reduce injury severity and mortality but still there is limited information on the pattern of injury by restraint type. Herein, we presented two case reports which describe the injury pattern of two patients (both were restrained but only driver had airbag) involved in a single MVC. Both of them had severe traumatic injuries, however, the restrained passenger without airbag, sustained more severe injuries of intestine, kidney and spinal cord. In addition to seatbelt, airbag provides considerable protection against severe blunt abdominal trauma. Therefore, installation of airbags especially for front seat passenger is imperative for minimizing the risk of significant traumatic injuries.

The effect of motor vehicle airbag deployment on tooth surfaces

Ashar, A.; James, H.; Higgins, D.; Kaidonis, J.; Anderson, R.
Fonte: Macquarie University School of Management Publicador: Macquarie University School of Management
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.09%
Motor vehicle airbag technology is directed at the reduction of injury to drivers and passengers however a number of researchers have reported cases of injuries caused by airbags. Injuries to tooth surfaces, particularly tooth wear following the deployment of motor vehicle airbags, have never been studied. A review of the literature and clinical experience does not suggest tooth enamel abrasion to be a likely outcome following airbag deployment. This in vitro pilot study was conducted to assess the effect on tooth surfaces following the deployment of motor vehicle airbags, and in particular to attempt to reproduce the injuries claimed in a case report published in the Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology in December 2007. A sample of extracted upper anterior teeth (n = 20) were analyzed using unaided visual observation, photographic and microscopic observation pre- and post- airbag deployment. Teeth were mounted on a fabricated head form (similar to those used in crash test dummies) using dental putty. The tests were performed using a modified airbag test rig with airbags deployed in 5 different positions relative to the head, with respect to distance and angulations. The result of the tests showed no changes to the teeth with unaided observation...

Behandlungsergebnisse polytraumatisierter Patienten der Chirurgischen Universitätsklinik Tübingen im Zeitraum 2002 / 03 unter besonderer Berücksichtung von Verletzungsschutz durch Airbag und Sicherheitsgurt; Results in treatment of polytraumatic patients after a car accident that occurred between 2002 and 2003 at the Dept. of surgery and transplantation of the Tübingen University Hospital, under consideration of airbag and seatbelt

Presler, Jan Onno
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.21%
Diese Arbeit untersucht präklinische und klinische Aspekte bei Verkehrsunfallopfern. Im Rahmen des Qualitätsmanagements werden die Behandlungsergebnisse von in den Schockraum eingelieferten Patienten ermittelt und mit früheren Untersuchungen an der UKT und anderen Kliniken verglichen. Unter Berücksichtigung der zunehmenden Gurtnutzung, der serienmäßigen Pkw-Ausstat¬tung mit Airbag und ABS-Bremssystemen sowie Stabilisierungsprogrammen lassen sich Veränderungen von Verletzungsschwere, Verletzungsmustern und Outcome der verunfallten Fahrzeug¬insassen aufzeigen. Diese Studie erfasst retrospektiv insgesamt 834 Patienten, welche in den Jahren 2002 und 2003 in den Schockraum der Chirurgischen UKT eingeliefert wurden. Davon wurden 65 Pkw-Unfälle, in 20 Fällen auch unter Einsichtnahme der polizeilichen Unfalldokumentation, genauer aus¬gewertet. In 13 Fällen wurden kasuistisch Unfallhergang, Verletzungsschutz durch Sicherheitsgurt und Airbag, präklinische Versorgung und klinische Behandlung dargestellt. In den Monaten Mai bis Juli verunfallten im Jahresverlauf die meisten Menschen. Durchschnittlich wurden 35 Patienten pro Monat in den Schockraum eingeliefert (Max.: 56, Juli 2002 / Min.: 20, Januar 2003). An Freitagen und Samstagen sowie am späten Nachmittag (16-18 Uhr) fanden sich erhöhte Patientenzahlen. Mit 67% gegenüber 33% waren ca. zwei Drittel männliche Verletzte. Das Durch¬schnittsalter für 2002 betrug 39 (Max.: 91...

Out-of-plane behavior of masonry infill walls

Akhoundi, Farhad; Vasconcelos, Graça; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Palha, Carlos Alberto Oliveira Fernandes; Martins, Andreia
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /05/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.04%
In order to investigate the out-of-plane behaviour of masonry infill walls, quasi-static testing was performed on a masonry infill walls built inside a reinforced concrete frame by means of an airbag system to apply the uniform out-of-plane load to each component of the infill. The main advantage of this testing setup is that the out-of-plane loading can be applied more uniformly in the walls, contrarily to point load configuration. The test was performed under displacement control by selecting the mid-point of the infill as control point. Input and output air in the airbag was controlled by using a software to apply a specific displacement in the control point of the infill wall. The effect of the distance between the reaction frame of the airbag and the masonry infill on the effective contact area was previously analysed. Four load cells were attached to the reaction frame to measure the out-of-plane force. The effective contact area of the airbag was calculated by dividing the load measured in load cells by the pressure inside the airbag. When the distance between the reaction walls and the masonry infill wall is smaller, the effective area is closer to the nominal area of the airbag. Deformation and crack patterns of the infill confirm the formation of arching mechanism and two-way bending of the masonry infill. Until collapse of the horizontal interface between infill and upper beam in RC frame...