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Air pollution forecast in Portugal: a demand from the new air quality framework directive

Monteiro, A; Lopes, M; Miranda, AI; Borrego, C; Vautard, R
Fonte: Inderscience Enterprises Ltd Publicador: Inderscience Enterprises Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.95%
This work aims at developing and validating a numerical air quality operational forecasting system that will be applied over Portugal. The CHIMERE model was chosen for the chemistry-transport simulation using the meteorological parameters supplied by the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model, forced by the AVN/NCEP global forecasts. An experiment of 48-hour real-time forecast simulations was performed, on a daily basis, during the four summer months of 2003. The numerical model system is then evaluated against hourly time series of basic meteorological variables and of ozone and NO(2) concentrations, collected in several Portuguese monitoring stations included in meteorological and air quality network. Statistical skill scores are discussed and compared with previous studies. The results point this developed model system as a useful tool that can be used and implemented to anticipate pollution episodes, to local and regional air quality management and for population information purpose.

Procedures for estimation of modelling uncertainty in air quality assessment

Borrego, C.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.; Costa, A. M.; Carvalho, A. C.; Lopes, M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.93%
The main objectives of this work focus, firstly, on a review of the current existent methodologies to estimate air quality modelling uncertainty, and, secondly, in the preparation of guidelines for modelling uncertainty estimation, which can be used by local and regional authorities responsible for air quality management. From the application exercise, it was concluded that it is possible to define a subset of statistical parameters able to reproduce the general uncertainties estimation. Concerning the quality indicators defined by EU directives, the results show that the legislated uncertainty estimation measures are ambiguous and inadequate in several aspects, mainly in what concerns the error measures for hourly and daily indicators based on the highest observed concentration. A relative error at the percentile correspondent to the allowed number of exceedances of the limit value was suggested and tested, showing that is a more robust and appropriate parameter for model performance evaluation.

Air quality management in Portugal: example of needs and available tools

Borrego, C.; Miranda, A. I.; Coutinho, M.; Ferreira, J.; Carvalho, A. C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.07%
The Framework Directive (FWD) and the proposed Daughter Directives are the newest legislative instruments concerning a new political strategy and air quality management approach for Europe. Additionally, the member countries of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe have included the concepts of critical load and level for planning air pollution abatement strategies and as a base of international agreements concerning limitation of the emissions of air pollutants. These concepts imply an accurate knowledge about pollutants deposition fluxes. The paper describes the main needs and the tools available to define a strategy of air quality management in Portugal. Two study cases are presented: (1) extensive monitoring plan to assess the impact of an urban incinerator plant; and (2) contribution to a methodology to estimate critical levels for a coastal region in Portugal. These different approaches allowed illustrating the complexity of the implementation of an air pollution management strategy.

Regional and urban air quality modelling under a climate change scenario; Modelação da qualidade do ar regional e urbana em cenário de alteração climática

Sá, Maria Elisa Seabra Azevedo Cunha e
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.06%
The better understanding of the interactions between climate change and air quality is an emerging priority for research and policy. Climate change will bring changes in the climate system, which will affect the concentration and dispersion of air pollutants. The main objective of the current study is to assess the impacts of climate change on air quality in 2050 over Portugal and Porto urban area. First, an evaluation and characterization of the air quality over mainland Portugal was performed for the period between 2002 and 2012. The results show that NO2, PM10 and O3 are the critical pollutants in Portugal. Also, the influence of meteorology on O3, NO2 and PM10 levels was investigate in the national main urban areas (Porto and Lisboa) and was verified that O3 has a statistically significant relationship with temperature in most of the components. The results also indicate that emission control strategies are primary regulators for NO2 and PM10 levels. After, understanding the national air quality problems and the influence that meteorology had in the historical air quality levels, the air quality modelling system WRF-CAMx was tested and the required inputs for the simulations were prepared to fulfil the main goal of this work. For the required air quality modelling inputs...

Distributed GIS for Monitoring and Modeling Urban Air Quality

Yeang, Chen-Hsiang, 1969-; Ferreira, Joseph Jr; Ismail, Ayman
Fonte: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference in Urban Planning and Urban Management Publicador: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference in Urban Planning and Urban Management
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 439559 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.99%
The progress of technology has made the measurement of air quality and the simulation of complex air pollution models both feasible and cost-effective. However, there is a long way to go in terms of facilitating widespread access to the data and models, and linking the monitoring of trace gases with specific urban activities and land use that might be controllable. As part of a NASA-funded project, we are working with scientists and engineers to design and test a distributed GIS infrastructure for studying such "urban respiration" phenomena. Measurements of trace gases within a metropolitan area (from mobile and fixed instruments) are geo-referenced, time-stamped, and stored in a relational database server (Oracle). GIS services (using ArcInfo and ArcView) are connected to the database so that subsets of the trace gas measurements can be extracted and converted on-the-fly into GIS data layers. These subsets (by location, date, and time-of-day) can be displayed and cross-referenced with other layers such as weather conditions, land use and cover, topography, hydrography, demography, and congestion levels of road networks. A web-based interface (using ArcView Internet Map Server) allows research team members at different locations to query...

Urban Air Quality Management : Coordinating Transport, Environment, and Energy Policies in Developing Countries

Kojima, Masami; Lovei, Magda
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.19%
Transport-related air pollution is increasingly contributing to environmental health risks in many developing country cities. The social costs of poor urban quality can be significant, making this issue an immediate priority. Long-term measures for dealing with the problem include urban planning, and traffic demand management. This paper however, focuses primarily on cost-effective measures, that are feasible to implement, and that can bring measurable results in the short to medium term. There is a tendency in the environment sector, to focus narrowly on controlling emissions by importing the best available technology. Cost-effective, and sustainable solutions, however, require much broader approaches. In developing countries, improving air quality is not simply a matter of importing advanced technologies, while, choices concerning feasibility, sequencing, and timing of pollution reducing measures, have serious fiscal, and economic consequences. Thus the guiding principle for selection of strategies, should be the balancing of costs...

Improving Air Quality in Metropolitan Mexico City : An Economic Valuation

The Mexico Air Quality Management Team
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
116.2%
Mexico City has for years experienced high levels of ozone and particulate air pollution. In 1995-99 the entire population of the Mexico City metropolitan area was exposed to annual average concentrations of fine particulate pollution (particulates with a diameter of less than 10 micrometers, or PM10) exceeding 50 micrograms per cubic meter, the annual average standard in both Mexico and the United States. Two million people were exposed to annual average PM10 levels of more than 75 micrograms per cubic meter. The daily maximum one-hour ozone standard was exceeded at least 300 days a year. The Mexico Air Quality Management Team documents population-weighted exposures to ozone and PM10 between 1995 and 1999, project exposures in 2010, and computes the value of four scenarios for 2010: A 10 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. A 20 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. Achievement of ambient air quality standards across the metropolitan area. A 68 percent reduction in ozone and a 47 percent reduction in PM10 across the metropolitan area. The authors calculate the health benefits of reducing ozone and PM10 for each scenario using dose-response functions from the peer-reviewed literature. They value cases of morbidity and premature mortality avoided using three approaches: Cost of illness and forgone earnings only (low estimate). Cost of illness...

Overcoming Institutional and Governance Challenges in Environmental Management : Case Studies from Latin America and the Caribbean Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.25%
The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region has a unique mix of qualities and challenges when it comes to the environment. It is exceptionally endowed with natural assets, with globally significant biodiversity and valuable crops, and also harbors the world s greatest carbon sink in the Amazon. The purpose of the series is to contribute to the global knowledge exchange on innovation in environmental and water resources management and the pursuit of greener and more inclusive growth. The series addresses issues relevant to the region s environmental sustainability agenda from water resources management to environmental health, natural resource management, biodiversity conservation, environmental policy, pollution management, environmental institutions and governance, ecosystem services, environmental financing, irrigation and climate change and their linkages to development and growth. The author presents three successful case studies. The first case study describes how Colombia designed and implemented an air quality management program based on public awareness...

Tools for Improving Air Quality Management : A Review of Top-down Source Apportionment Techniques and Their Application in Developing Countries

Johnson, Todd M.; Guttikunda, Sarath; Wells, Gary J.; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, Tami C.; Russell, Armistead G.; Watson, John G.; West, Jason
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.08%
Building an effective air quality management system (AQMS) requires a process of continual improvement, and the source apportionment techniques described in this report can contribute in a cost effective manner to improving existing systems or even as the first step to begin an AQMS. This is good news for many developing country cities where the combination of rapid growth, dirty fuels, and old and polluting technologies are overwhelming the capacities of cities to control air pollution. For these cities, source apportionment offers policymakers practical tools for identifying and quantifying the different sources of air pollution, and thereby increasing the ability to put in place effective policy measures to reduce air pollution to acceptable levels. This report arises from a concern over the lack of objective and scientifically-based information on the contributions of different sources of air pollution, especially for fi ne particulate matter (PM), in developing countries. PM is the air pollutant of most concern for adverse health effects...

Willingness to Pay for Air Quality Improvements in Sofia, Bulgaria

Wang, Hua; Whittington, Dale
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76%
Through a survey the authors study willingness to pay for improvements in air quality in Sofia, Bulgaria. Using a stochastic payment car approach - asking respondents the likelihood that they would agree to pay a series of prices - they estimate the distribution of willingness to pay various prices. They find that people in Sofia are willing to pay up to about 4.2 percent of their income for a program to improve air quality. The income elasticity of willingness to pay for air quality improvements is about 27 percent. For comparison, they also used the referendum contingent valuation approach. Results from that approach yielded a higher estimate of willingness to pay.

Towards Cleaner Industry and Improved Air Quality Monitoring in Kazakhstan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.17%
Kazakhstan's environmental situation is at a critical cross-road, where the pressures of economic growth without adequate environmental controls and the legacy of industrial production are beginning to take their toll on society in terms of health. In addition, Kazakhstan strives to promote itself as a modern and resource-efficient economy that is worthy of top international standing. In response, a series of proactive planning has emerged through such strategic initiatives as the Green Economy Concept with its accompanying actions that aim to reduce the ecological footprint of economic activities, promote sustainable economic growth and place Kazakhstan on a cleaner and greener development path. The document details the background and context of the situation in the country, and the initiatives that are being taken to improve air quality.

Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; Afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa, Akiko; Khan, Asif Shuja
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.18%
Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This book examines policy options to strengthen the Pakistan clean air program (PCAP) to better address the cost imposed by outdoor air pollution upon Pakistan's economy and populace. The approach provided in this book recommends that the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies (EPAs) take on a limited number of high return, essential, and feasible interventions drawn largely from the PCAP. The objective of this book is to examine policy options to control outdoor air pollution in Pakistan. The findings of the analysis aim at assisting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in the design and implementation of reforms to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Pakistan's ambient air quality institutions. The overarching theme of this book is that prioritizing interventions is essential to address the cost of outdoor air pollution...

Cleaner Transport Fuels for Cleaner Air in Central Asia and the Caucasus

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.11%
Combating pollution needs to be based on standards supported by enforced regulatory, and physical infrastructure, not always in place in countries in transition from central planning to a market economy. Policymakers in the Central Asia and the Caucus region, however, are recognizing the need for such steps against pollution, demonstrated by their commitment to phase out lead from gasoline. To support these efforts, the Bank undertook a regional study on cleaner transport fuels for urban quality improvement in the region, recognizing that fuel quality improvements should be linked to broader air quality management, to ensure cost-effectiveness, and in addressing these issues, it is therefore possible to build on economies of scale, avoid duplications, allow the transfer of experience, and facilitate intra-regional trade in petroleum products. This lead to this study's observations, and recommendations. The establishment of continuous monitoring of the "classical" pollutants, should permit comparison with international standards...

Clean Air and Healthy Lungs : Enhancing the World Bank's Approach to Air Quality Management

Awe, Yewande; Nygard, Jostein; Larssen, Steinar; Lee, Heejoo; Dulal, Hari; Kanakia, Rahul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.19%
This report specifically deals with air pollution, which was reported, by the World Health Organization (WHO), as the single largest environmental health risk globally in 2012 (WHO, 2014a). Air pollution from outdoor and household sources jointly account for more than 7 million deaths (3.7 million from ambient air pollution and 4.3 million from household air pollution). The following sections of this chapter present the objectives of, and key aspects of the institutional context for, this report followed by an examination of some of the major drivers of deteriorating ambient air quality in developing countries; air pollution sources and impacts; and the status of air quality management in developing countries. Chapter two presents the results of a desk-based portfolio review of World Bank projects that are relevant to reduction of air pollution. This is followed, in chapter three, by an examination of case studies of World Bank projects whose objectives include addressing ambient air pollution, highlighting good practices and lessons for future work of the Bank in supporting clients. Chapter four presents possible approaches for enhancing future Bank support in helping clients to improve air quality and reduce the associated adverse health outcomes. Chapter five presents overall conclusions and recommendations.

Studies of urban air quality using electrochemical based sensor instruments

Popoola, Olalekan Abdul Muiz
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Chemistry; Centre for Atmospheric Science; Queens College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Chemistry; Centre for Atmospheric Science; Queens College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.01%
Poor air quality has been projected to be the world?s top cause of environmental premature mortality by 2050 surpassing poor sanitation and dirty water (IGBP / IGAC press release, 2012 ). One of the major challenges of air quality management is how to adequately quantify both the spatial and temporal variations of pollutants for the purpose of implementing necessary mitigation measures. The work described in this thesis aims to address this problem using novel electrochemical based air quality (AQ) sensors. These instruments are shown to provide cost effective, portable, reliable, indicative measurements for urban air quality assessment as well as for personal exposure studies. Three principal pollutants CO, NO and NO2 are simultaneously measured in each unit of the AQ instrument including temperature / RH measurements as well as GPS (for time and position) and GPRS for data transmission. Laboratory studies showed that the electrochemical sensor nodes can be highly sensitive, showing linear response during calibration tests at ppb level (0-160 ppb). The instrumental detection limits were found to be < 4 ppb (CO and NO) and < 1 ppb for NO2 with fast response time equivalent to t90 < 20 s. Several field studies were carried out involving deployment of both the mobile and static electrochemical sensor nodes. Results from some short-term studies in four different cities including Cambridge (UK)...

United States Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Research Program Accomplishments Report

Hagan, Nicole
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 1068355 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.08%
Millions of dollars are spent annually on research to advance the scientific basis for setting air quality standards and implementing programs to protect public health and the environment. It is necessary for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) to document and evaluate their accomplishments in order to communicate the value of their research to the public and government leaders. This report is intended to highlight the major research accomplishments of EPA’s Clean Air Research Program since 2002. Among the most notable achievements are near roadway studies, understanding emissions from wild and prescribed fires, advancing characterization of emissions, improving source apportionment and characterization, and control of secondary PM2.5 from coal combustion. Significant progress has also been made in understanding secondary organic aerosol formation, development of a new secondary organic aerosol model, updating emissions inventories, and improving measurement and modeling techniques. Additionally, health research has investigated target doses of pollutants to various human lung sites, identified risk factors for susceptible subpopulations, uncovered biological mechanisms for cardiopulmonary effects...

Air quality monitoring network design to control PM10 in Buenos Aires city

Venegas,L. E.; Mazzeo,N. A.
Fonte: Latin American applied research Publicador: Latin American applied research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76%
An air-quality monitoring network properly designed is a key component of any air quality control programme. This paper presents an objective procedure to determine the minimum number of monitoring sites needed to detect the occurrence of background air pollutant concentrations greater than a reference concentration level (C L) in an urban area. We propose an air quality monitoring network design based on the analysis of the results of atmospheric dispersion models, in order to identify the grid cells (in which the city is divided) where the air pollutant concentration exceeds C L. At present, Buenos Aires city has not an air quality monitoring network. This paper also describes the application of the proposed methodology to design a monitoring network to control PM10 levels in Buenos Aires. Results show that four monitoring stations are required to detect the occurrence of PM10 24h-concentrations greater than C L=0.150 mg m-3.

Health impact assessment of decreases in PM10 and ozone concentrations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: A basis for a new air quality management program

Riojas-Rodríguez,Horacio; Álamo-Hernández,Urinda; Texcalac-Sangrador,José Luis; Romieu,Isabelle
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.98%
Objective. To conduct a health impact assessment (HIA) to quantify health benefits for several PM and O3 air pollution reduction scenarios in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Results from this HIA will contribute to the scientific support of the MCMA air quality management plan (PROAIRE) for the period 2011-2020. Materials and methods. The HIA methodology consisted of four steps: 1) selection of the air pollution reduction scenarios, 2) identification of the at-risk population and health outcomes for the 2005 baseline scenario, 3) selection of concentration-response functions and 4) estimation of health impacts. Results. Reductions of PM10 levels to 20 μg/m³ and O3 levels to 0.050ppm (98 µg/m³) would prevent 2300 and 400 annual deaths respectively. The greatest health impact was seen in the over-65 age group and in mortality due to cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion. Improved air quality in the MCMA could provide significant health benefits through focusing interventions by exposure zones.

A review of scientific linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality, with implications for air quality management in South Africa

Thambiran,Tirusha; Diab,Roseanne D.
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.15%
In recent years there has been considerable advancement in our scientific understanding of the linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality. A warmer, evolving climate is likely to have severe consequences for air quality due to impacts on pollution sources and meteorology. Climate-induced changes to sources of tropospheric ozone precursor gases and to atmospheric circulation are likely to lead to changes in both the concentration and dispersion of near-surface ozone that could act to offset improvements in air quality. The control of air pollutants through air quality management is also likely to impact on climate change, with reductions in ozone, particulate matter and sulphur dioxide being of particular interest. The improved understanding of the relationship between air quality and climate change provides a scientific basis for policy interventions. After a review of the scientific linkages, the potential to include climate change considerations in air quality management planning processes in South Africa was examined.

Health impact assessment of decreases in PM10 and ozone concentrations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: A basis for a new air quality management program

Riojas-Rodríguez,Horacio; Álamo-Hernández,Urinda; Texcalac-Sangrador,José Luis; Romieu,Isabelle
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.98%
Objective. To conduct a health impact assessment (HIA) to quantify health benefits for several PM and O3 air pollution reduction scenarios in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Results from this HIA will contribute to the scientific support of the MCMA air quality management plan (PROAIRE) for the period 2011-2020. Materials and methods. The HIA methodology consisted of four steps: 1) selection of the air pollution reduction scenarios, 2) identification of the at-risk population and health outcomes for the 2005 baseline scenario, 3) selection of concentration-response functions and 4) estimation of health impacts. Results. Reductions of PM10 levels to 20 μg/m³ and O3 levels to 0.050ppm (98 µg/m³) would prevent 2300 and 400 annual deaths respectively. The greatest health impact was seen in the over-65 age group and in mortality due to cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion. Improved air quality in the MCMA could provide significant health benefits through focusing interventions by exposure zones.