Página 1 dos resultados de 263 itens digitais encontrados em 0.021 segundos

Controle hormonal da defesa à herbivoria em tomateiro; Hormonal control of herbivory defense in tomato

Campos, Marcelo Lattarulo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/04/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Apesar de sua elevada importância econômica mundial, o cultivo do tomateiro é classificado como de alto risco devido à infestação da cultura por um grande número de pragas e doenças. Esse problema leva tal cultura a depender amplamente da aplicação de agroquímicos que, além de elevaram o custo de produção, são potenciais causadores de danos ambientais e do aparecimento de outras pragas e doenças. Observando o problema mais detalhadamente, pode-se perceber que uma grande parcela das perdas advém dos danos causados por artrópodes herbívoros, os quais são capazes de se alimentar de diversas partes da planta, causando, geralmente, perda de produtividade. Apesar disso, o tomateiro apresenta mecanismos de defesa naturais contra tais pragas, como tricomas e aleloquímicos, que agem intoxicando os artrópodes, dificultando sua movimentação e/ou alterando varias fases de seu desenvolvimento. A busca por genótipos de tomateiro com maior densidade de tricomas e elevado teor de aleloquímicos é hoje considerado um hot spot de pesquisa, devido ao benefício que trariam como redução do custo de produção e maior produtividade. Sabese que vários hormônios vegetais estão ligados a geração de caracteres anti-herbivoria...

Ocorrência de pragas na cultura do algodão transgênico (bt) e convencional cultivado no sistema adensado e não-adensado

Romano, Daniele
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 65 f. : il.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Pós-graduação em Agronomia - FEIS; The cotton crop presents a complex of pests that can provide damage to the productivity and fiber quality. The narrow row cotton cultivation is different of the conventional space system, by having a larger number of plants in the same area, obtain greater precocity in the cotton cycle, with a cotton ready for harvest in 150 days, with a lower production cost, but can also occur impact on the occurrence and management of the insects. In Brazil cotton resistant to lepidopteran insects, Bollgard I (Bt), was introduced in 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of pests in transgenic crop (Bt) and non-Bt growing in the conventional and narrow row cotton in the region of Primavera do Leste - MT, conducted at the 2nd harvest crop year 2010, in the Mato Grosso Experimental Cotton Institute- IMAmt. The treatments were evaluated weekly in order to verify the fluctuation of the major pests of cotton throughout the cycle. Monitoring of pests were being in 10 plants per plot, counting arthropods and separating them by species and obtained the rate of infestation and then decide to spray. Even also the percentage of defoliation caused by the caterpillars was evaluated. Based on these results it was concluded that: treatments with Bt (NuOpal) had the lowest incidence of Alabama argillacea...

Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

Oliveira,DGP; Alves,LFA; Sosa-Gómez,DR
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

Potential Use of a Serpin from Arabidopsis for Pest Control

Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Maharramov, Jafar; Carrillo, Laura; Vandenabeele, Steven; Vercammen, Dominique; Van Breusegem, Frank; Smagghe, Guy
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
Although genetically modified (GM) plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resistant transgenic plants are not compromised and to target those pests that are not susceptible. Experimental GM plants producing plant protease inhibitors have been shown to confer resistance against a wide range of agricultural pests. In this study we assessed the potential of AtSerpin1, a serpin from Arabidopsis thaliana (L). Heynh., for pest control. In vitro assays were conducted with a wide range of pests that rely mainly on either serine or cysteine proteases for digestion and also with three non-target organisms occurring in agricultural crops. AtSerpin1 inhibited proteases from all pest and non-target species assayed. Subsequently, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) were fed on artificial diets containing AtSerpin1...

Advances and perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production.

OLIVEIRA, D. G. P.; ALVES, L. F. A.; SOSA-GÓMEZ, D. R.
Fonte: Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola, Campinas, v. 16, n. 1, p. 1-12, jan./mar. 2014. Publicador: Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola, Campinas, v. 16, n. 1, p. 1-12, jan./mar. 2014.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.85%
Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.; 2014

Sri Lanka : Promoting Agricultural and Rural Non-farm Sector Growth, Voume 2. Annexes and Statistical Tables

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.83%
Economic development has brought about, the decline in contribution of the agricultural sector to the economy of Sri Lanka, and, consistent with this economic transformation, the structure of employment also changed. Thus, as labor migrates away from agriculture, the productivity, for those who remain in the land, needs to increase significantly. This report examines the constraints to promoting more rapid agricultural, and rural non-farm sector growth, and, reviews the recent performance of the agricultural, and rural non-farm sectors, in particular the non-plantation agricultural sector; scrutinizes the major policy, and regulatory barriers, that hinder a sustained growth in rural areas; and, proposes options for improvement in the key areas. A critical step to achieve this sector growth, and meet the changing demands of the overall economy, is the need to formulate, and implement a renewed rural development strategy, that builds on synergies in the agricultural, and non-farm sectors. This integrated rural development framework becomes an instrument that can complement a sustained growth in the non-farm sector...

Summary of tests with DDT in 1944 for control of forest insects

Craighead, Frank C ( Frank Cooper ), 1890-1982; Brown, R. C; United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Fonte: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine; United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine ( [Washington, D.C ) Publicador: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine; United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine ( [Washington, D.C )
Tipo: mixed material Formato: 7 p. : ; 27 cm.
Publicado em //1945] ENGLISH
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45.75%
Caption title.; At head of title: United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Administration. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.; "E-649."; "April 1945."; Reproduced from a typescript.; (Statement of Responsibility) compiled by F. C. Craighead and R. C. Brown, Division of Forest Insect Investigations.

Tests with DDT for control of the pecan nut casebearer in the southeastern states

Phillips, Arthur M., 1903-; United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Fonte: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine ( [Washington, D.C ) Publicador: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine ( [Washington, D.C )
Tipo: mixed material Formato: 3 p. : ; 27 cm.
Publicado em //1948] ENGLISH
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Caption title.; "E-746."; "April 1948."; (Statement of Responsibility) by Arthur M. Phillips ; in cooperation with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

Mozambique Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment; Risk Prioritization

Suit, Kilara C.; Choudhary, Vikas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
Agricultural risk management is a central issue that Mozambique faces in development, and multiple stakeholders have analyzed this challenge, sometimes with different terminology and focusing on varying aspects. The government of Mozambique has adopted the strategic plan for agricultural development (PEDSA 2010-19) that focuses on: (i) increasing the availability of food in order to reduce hunger through growth in small producer productivity and emergency response capacity; (ii) enlarging the land area under sustainable management and the number of reliable water management systems; (iii) increasing access to the market through improved infrastructures and interventions in marketing; and (iv) improving research and extension for increased adoption of appropriate technologies by producers and agro-processors. The World Bank’s agriculture sector risk assessment takes a holistic approach and relies on long time-series historical data to arrive at an empirical and objective assessment of agricultural risks and their impacts on Mozambique. This assessment will form the basis of the second step...

Rwanda Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

Giertz, Asa; Gray, George; Mudahar, Mohinder S.; Rubaiza, Rhoda; Galperin, Diana; Suit, Kilara
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agriculture Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
Agriculture is the dominant sector of the economy, contributing a third of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and about half of Rwanda’s export earnings. The government of Rwanda has therefore made agricultural development a priority and allocated significant resources to improving productivity, expanding the livestock sector, promoting sustainable land management, and developing supply chains and value-added activities. At the same time, Rwanda’s agriculture sector faces a series of challenges. Agriculture is dominated by small-scale, subsistence farming under traditional agricultural practices and rain-fed agriculture. As a result, average crop yields are low compared with potential yields, and exposed to risks such as weather related shocks and pest and disease outbreaks. The purpose of this report is to assess existing risks to the agriculture sector, prioritize them according to their frequency and impacts on the sector, and identify areas of risk management solutions that need deeper specialized attention. Three levels of risks are assessed: production risks...

Basic Agricultural Public Expenditure Diagnostic Review : Ghana's Ministry of Food and Agriculture

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
Ghana, like many other African countries, had made a commitment in 2003 to allocate at least ten percent of their national budgetary resources to develop the agricultural sector by 2008, following the adoption of the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), with an aim towards realizing food security and poverty reduction. This Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) for Ghana analyzes data on public spending from both government and donor sources to assess: 1) the alignment between expenditure patterns within the agricultural sector and stated policy priorities; and 2) the effectiveness of public spending by comparing spending against results. The outputs of the review include a comprehensive agricultural expenditure assessment to help provide a solid foundation for carrying out specialized studies, such as Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS), and the establishment of the levels and composition of public expenditure in the selected subsectors

Sustainable Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Dissemination (SMARTD) : A Strategic Framework

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
Revitalizing agriculture is critical for rural Indonesia's economic prosperity. Historically, Indonesia's dramatic poverty reduction was driven by progress in agriculture and agriculture continues to be a potent driver of growth and poverty alleviation. Agricultural sector growth strongly induces non-agricultural sector growth in rural areas, particularly through demand for locally produced and services. Agricultural sector productivity growth (along with price changes) has remained the most important way out of poverty. To shift agriculture along these dimensions, Indonesia needs to transition from its current and ineffective public stance, growing subsidies and selective output protection, to a more aggressive provision of public goods and services that build support systems for farmers to achieve continuous productivity gains. This will require an enabling agriculture policy environment, significant improvement in the delivery of services, agricultural research and extension in particular, and supporting enabling investments...

Reviving Sri Lanka's Agricultural Research and Extension System : Towards More Innovation and Market Orientation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
This review's objectives were to examine the structure and performance of the agricultural research and extension systems (public and private) at the central and provincial levels, identify successes as well as constraints to improving the system s effectiveness for fostering innovation, and propose options for further policy and institutional development, drawing on lessons from international experience. The review focused principally on nonplantation crops, although its main recommendations apply across the agricultural sector. This synthesis report summarizes the main findings of the review and builds upon them by adding some new elements. The conflict in Sri Lanka is explicitly recognized. Additionally, the implications of changes in the wider agricultural context for agricultural research and extension are explored, and have led to the adoption of an innovation systems perspective to organize the major findings

Increasing Resilience to Climate Change in the Agricultural Sector in the Middle East : The Cases of Jordan and Lebanon

Verner, Dorte; Lee, David R.; Ashwill, Maximillian; Wilby, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
The increasing resilience to climate change in the agricultural sector report presents local-level priorities, informed by stakeholder input, to build agricultural resilience in both countries. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to improve the understanding of climate change projections and impacts on rural communities and livelihoods in selected regions of Jordan and Lebanon, specifically the Jordan River Valley and Lebanon's Bekaa Valley; (2) to engage local communities, farmers, local experts, and local and national government representatives in a participatory fashion in helping craft agricultural adaptation options to climate change; and (3) to develop local and regional climate change action plans that formulate recommendations for investment strategies and strategic interventions in local agricultural systems. The climate challenges confronting development in the Middle East are particularly stark. This region, and in particular its rural people, face what might be called a "triple threat" from climate change. First...

Agricultural Sector Policy Note for Bosnia and Herzegovina : Trade and Integration Policy Notes; Studija o politici poljoprivrednog sektora u Bosni i Hercegovini : studija o politikama trgovine i integracije

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
The agricultural season in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) begins earlier than in most European countries, shipping costs are relatively low, and land and labor prices are more favorable than in other southern European countries. As a result, the country's agriculture sector should be well positioned to compete on the export markets. With 20.6 percent of all employed in BH, agriculture remains an important sector for employment, despite a decline in the working-age population in rural areas. Additionally, it will be important for BH to develop well-functioning land institutions, so that the land market can operate more efficiently and thus enable business development. Finally, BH should integrate climate change adaptation and environmental sustainability into agricultural policies, programs, and investments. To succeed in agriculture, producers and governments will have to adapt, and the way to start is to focus on reducing agriculture's vulnerability to current climate variability.

Sustainable Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Dissemination (SMARTD) : A Strategic Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
Revitalizing agriculture is critical for rural Indonesia's economic prosperity. Historically, Indonesia's dramatic poverty reduction was driven by progress in agriculture and agriculture continues to be a potent driver of growth and poverty alleviation. Agricultural sector growth strongly induces non-agricultural sector growth in rural areas, particularly through demand for locally produced and services. Agricultural sector productivity growth (along with price changes) has remained the most important way out of poverty. To shift agriculture along these dimensions, Indonesia needs to transition from its current and ineffective public stance, growing subsidies and selective output protection, to a more aggressive provision of public goods and services that build support systems for farmers to achieve continuous productivity gains. This will require an enabling agriculture policy environment, significant improvement in the delivery of services, agricultural research and extension in particular, and supporting enabling investments...

Reducing the Vulnerability of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's Agricultural Systems to Climate Change : Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options

Sutton, William R.; Srivastava, Jitendra P.; Neumann, James E.; Strzępek, Kenneth M.; Boehlert, Brent B.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.8%
Agricultural production is inextricably tied to climate, making agriculture one of the most climate-sensitive of all economic sectors. In countries such as the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia, the risks of climate change for the agricultural sector are a particularly immediate and important problem because the majority of the rural population depends either directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. Climate impacts can therefore undermine progress that has been made in poverty reduction and adversely impact food security and economic growth in vulnerable rural areas. In order to be effective, a plan for adapting the sector to climate change must strengthen both human capital and physical capital in their capacity. The need to adapt to climate change in all sectors is now on the agenda of national governments and development partners. As a result, development partners will continue to have an important role in enhancing the adaptive capacity of the Macedonian agricultural sector. Another key factor for FYR Macedonia's development of an adaptation plan for agriculture is furthering FYR Macedonia's work toward European Union (EU) accession, for which FYR Macedonia has been a candidate since 2005. The Macedonian government has already begun to focus on required EU reforms...

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Agricultural Sector Review; Revitalizing Agriculture for Economic Growth, Job Creation and Food Security

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.84%
Economic growth, job creation, and development are central to the decade of transformation (2015-25) and long-term security for the people of Afghanistan. The Bank and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GoIRA) recognize that agriculture and rural development are a key to inclusive growth, and hence need renewed vigor and strategic long-term investments. Further, the Bank and the GoIRA acknowledge that increases in agricultural productivity and market access for smallholders are critical for rural development, job creation, and food security in Afghanistan. Sections two and three of this report describe the agricultural sector and its current and potential roles in the Afghan economy, and present the rationale for choosing certain areas and subsectors for a selective 'first mover' strategy to achieve early gains. Section four outlines the constraints and potential in each of the three value chains proposed for the selective strategy, irrigated wheat, intensive livestock production, and horticulture. Section five describes cross-cutting constraints and how best to address them...

Reducing the Vulnerability of Armenia's Agricultural Systems to Climate Change : Impact Assessment and Adaption Options

Ahouissoussi, Nicolas; Neumann, James E.; Srivastava, Jitendra P.; Boehlert, Brent; Sharrow, Steven
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.8%
Within any economy, agriculture is the sector that is most sensitive to climate change. In Armenia, however, the risks are even more pronounced because the majority of the rural population depends on agriculture for their livelihoods. This publication outlines the policy options available to Armenia, based on a rigorous evaluation of the impacts of climate change on agricultural systems. It provides a solid foundation for taking strategic and, in many cases, immediate action to implement climate-smart agriculture in the country. Specifically, this report provides a menu of options for climate change adaptation in the agricultural and water resources sectors, along with specific recommended actions that are tailored to distinct agricultural regions within Armenia. These recommendations reflect the results of three inter-related activities, conducted jointly by the expert team and local partners: (1) quantitative economic modeling of baseline conditions and the effects of certain adaptation options; (2) qualitative analysis conducted by the expert team of agronomists...

Utilização de Óleos Essenciais na Agricultura

Ootani, Marcio Akio; Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner de Souza; Ramos, Antonio Carlos Costa; Brito, Deyvid Rocha; da Silva, Jessica Batista; Cajazeira, João Paulo
Fonte: Journal of Biotechnology and Biodiversity Publicador: Journal of Biotechnology and Biodiversity
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/06/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Essential oils are alternative to control pathogenic agents, agricultural pests and weeds, with the use of pesticidesin agriculture has been an important tool in the control of many pathogenic microorganisms and plants to increaseproduction, but the indiscriminate use of these chemicals has negatively affected the environment and human health.It has been researched lately, demand for new plants with metabolic molecules such as terpenes, alkaloids andphenolic compounds, in effect; bioinsecticide, biofungicide bioherbicida and plants that can replace chemicals orwith low or no residual power and reduce the impact to environment, this manuscript aims to give a comprehensiveexplanation on the importance of essential oils and their secondary metabolites in plant defense. The use of plantswith insecticidal properties, fungicide and herbicide, shows a high potential of this tool in the management of pests,diseases and weeds. For the final insertion and safe botanical products in agriculture, however, more studies arestill needed.Key words: secondary metabolites, insecticidal, fungicide and herbicide.