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Estimativa e classificação da compactação do solo pelo tráfego de máquinas agrícolas através da modelagem nebulosa. ; Prediction and classification of soil compaction due to agricultural machine traffic using fuzzy modeling.

Araújo, Augusto Guilherme de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/11/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.51%
A mecanização agrícola é um dos principais componentes tecnológicos responsáveis pelo avanço na produção agrícola brasileira, nos últimos anos, contudo, sua utilização aumenta o risco de impactos ambientais negativos relacionados à degradação dos solos, notadamente à compactação excessiva pelo tráfego de máquinas. A adoção recente de sistemas conservacionistas de manejo do solo, nas culturas anuais, gerou ainda mais preocupação quanto aos efeitos negativos da mecanização. Pesquisas nesse tema visam, em geral, estimar a influência do tráfego sobre as propriedades físicas do solo e identificar classes de compactação restritivas ao desenvolvimento das plantas, com o propósito de fornecer subsídios para evitar a compactação excessiva. O objetivo do trabalho foi propor e avaliar uma metodologia para aplicação da modelagem nebulosa na estimativa e classificação da compactação do solo pelo tráfego, baseada no conhecimento especialista e em dados experimentais. A utilização de modelos simples e confiáveis no planejamento das operações mecanizadas é fundamental para aumentar a sustentabilidade ambiental da atividade. A partir de dados experimentais, foram identificados modelos para estimativa da densidade aparente...

Estudo sobre os efeitos do cobre e zinco no crescimento da plântula de "Aechmea blanchetiana" (BAKER) L. B. Smith cultivada "in vitro". Aplicação da análise por ativação com nêutrons; A study on copper and zinc effects in the growth of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) LB Smith seedlings cultivated in vitro. Application of neutron activation analysis

Zampieri, Maria Cristina Tessari
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/11/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.35%
Os metais são componentes da biosfera, ocorrendo naturalmente no solo e nas plantas, contudo como consequência de ações antrópicas, os seus níveis vêm se aumentado muito, dependendo da região. O cobre (Cu) e zinco (Zn) são elementos essenciais para o crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas, mas em excesso são tóxicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial das plantas em absorver os metais Cu e Zn e os efeitos que estes ocasionam nas plântulas cultivadas in vitro. Os resultados deste estudo poderão contribuir principalmente em pesquisas agrícolas e nas da área do meio ambiente. A planta investigada neste trabalho foi a Aechmea blanchetiana, pertence à família Bromeliaceae, e que pode ser terrestre ou epífita e é amplamente utilizada como planta ornamental. Na parte experimental, o cultivo das plântulas e a exposição das plântulas em diferentes concentrações de Cu ou Zn, foram realizados no Instituto de Botânica (IBt) de São Paulo. Após a germinação das sementes as plântulas foram transferidas para crescimento e expostas em meios de cultivo contendo diferentes concentrações de Cu ou de Zn. Após este período de cultivo in vitro, as plântulas foram analisadas por meio da morfometria, anatomia e análise por ativação com nêutrons. O controle de qualidade dos resultados da análise por ativação avaliado por meio das análises dos materiais de referência certificados mostrou boa precisão e exatidão dos dados para os diversos elementos determinados. As concentrações mais altas de Cu utilizadas na exposição da espécie foram as que causaram maiores variações estruturais nos parâmetros morfométricos e anatômicos...

Prediction of genotypic values of maize for the agricultural frontier region in northeastern Maranhão, Brazil

Arnhold,Emmanuel; Mora,Freddy; Pacheco,Cleso Antônio Patto; Carvalho,Hélio Wilson Lemos de
Fonte: Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology Publicador: Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.5%
Agricultural research, mainly focused on the evaluation of maize cultivars along agricultural frontiers, are scarce. This study assessed 128 maize genotypes in the agricultural frontier region of the State of Maranhão, between 2008 and 2009. The experiment was arranged in a lattice design with two replications. The genotypes were evaluated for grain yield in a mixed model, with fixed intercept and experimental effects. The random effects were genotype, genetic class (single-, double or triple-cross hybrid and variety), and incomplete block/replication/ environment. The genotype effect was significant by the likelihood ratio test in all models, highlighting the genotypic values of the single-cross hybrids DKB177, AG8088 and DKB390, the triple-cross PL6882, the double-cross BM502 and of the open-pollinated variety SHS3031.

Toxicity of endogenous and environmental estrogens: what is the role of elemental interactions?

Stancel, G M; Boettger-Tong, H L; Chiappetta, C; Hyder, S M; Kirkland, J L; Murthy, L; Loose-Mitchell, D S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.35%
Many naturally occurring and man-made chemicals present in the environment possess estrogenic activity. Examples include plant and fungal products, pesticides, plasticizers, and other agricultural and industrial chemicals. These environmental estrogens as well as endogenous ovarian estrogens are thought to initiate their physiological actions in target tissues largely via interactions with a nuclear receptor system. The resultant estrogen-receptor complex in turn affects transcription via its interactions with nucleotide sequences known as estrogen response elements (EREs) present in the regulatory regions of hormone responsive genes. A "consensus" ERE sequence GGTCAnnnTGACC was originally identified in the vitellogenin genes of birds and amphibians, but it is now clear that most naturally occurring EREs differ from this sequence in one or more bases. We and others have obtained both in vivo and in vitro data suggesting a differential interaction of receptor complexes containing different ligands with the multiple EREs present in mammalian systems. This raises the possibility that the toxicity of environmental estrogens may arise in part from a differential pattern of ERE activation by environmental compounds relative to endogenous ovarian estrogens. The experimental basis for such a paradigm and its toxicological implications are discussed in this paper.

Effects of Winter Cover Crops Residue Returning on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microbial Community in Double-Cropping Rice Fields

Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.37%
Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice–rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice–rice–Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice–rice–rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice–rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The β-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively...

Interplay between Parasitism and Host Ontogenic Resistance in the Epidemiology of the Soil-Borne Plant Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani

Simon, Thomas E.; Le Cointe, Ronan; Delarue, Patrick; Morlière, Stéphanie; Montfort, Françoise; Hervé, Maxime R.; Poggi, Sylvain
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.4%
Spread of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens is mainly driven by the amount of resources the pathogen is able to capture and exploit should it behave either as a saprotroph or a parasite. Despite their importance in understanding the fungal spread in agricultural ecosystems, experimental data related to exploitation of infected host plants by the pathogen remain scarce. Using Rhizoctonia solani / Raphanus sativus as a model pathosystem, we have obtained evidence on the link between ontogenic resistance of a tuberizing host and (i) its susceptibility to the pathogen and (ii) after infection, the ability of the fungus to spread in soil. Based on a highly replicable experimental system, we first show that infection success strongly depends on the host phenological stage. The nature of the disease symptoms abruptly changes depending on whether infection occurred before or after host tuberization, switching from damping-off to necrosis respectively. Our investigations also demonstrate that fungal spread in soil still depends on the host phenological stage at the moment of infection. High, medium, or low spread occurred when infection was respectively before, during, or after the tuberization process. Implications for crop protection are discussed.

Learning Through Noticing: Theory and Experimental Evidence in Farming

Hanna, Rema N.; Mullainatha, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua
Fonte: HKS Faculty Research Working Paper Series Publicador: HKS Faculty Research Working Paper Series
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.41%
Existing learning models attribute failures to learn to a lack of data. We model a different barrier. Given the large number of dimensions one could focus on when using a technology, people may fail to learn because they failed to notice important features of the data they possess. We conduct a field experiment with seaweed farmers to test a model of “learning through noticing”. We find evidence of a failure to notice: On some dimensions, farmers do not even know the value of their own input. Interestingly, trials show that these dimensions are the ones that farmers fail to optimize. Furthermore, consistent with the model, we find that simply having access to the experimental data does not induce learning. Instead, farmers change behavior only when presented with summaries that highlight the overlooked dimensions. We also draw out the implications of learning through noticing for technology adoption, agricultural extension, and the meaning of human capital.

Developing a global soy blueprint for a safe secure and sustainable supply: proceedings.

WORLD SOYBEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE, 8., 2009, Beijing.
Fonte: Beijing: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences: Institute of Crop Science, 2009. WSRC 2009. Publicador: Beijing: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences: Institute of Crop Science, 2009. WSRC 2009.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: 1 CD-ROM.
EN
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Plenary sessions: The Argentine agroindustrial soy complex. Towards doubling soy protein intake in the Indian platter: what can the soy industry, policy makers and the civil society do? European soybean production and market: current situation and future trends. The status of soybean production and utilization in Southern Africa. A new approach of soybean improvement: hybrid soybean. New techniques induced from traditional soybean products and new technology of soybean process. The application of soybean for health and nutrition improvement of Chinese people. Progress of soybean disease research in a scenario of global changes and future challenges. The role and function of futures market in soybean industry development. Oral presentations: Germplasm: Genetic bases for effective in situ conservation of wild soybean (Glycine soja) germplasm. Gap analysis for soybean as an aid to complementary genetic conservation. Gene flow from GM soybean to wild soybean under field conditions: its implication in conservation. Collection, conservation, and evaluation of soybean germplasm. Conservation and management of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genetic resources at National Gene Bank, New Delhi, India. Tolerance of soybean (Glycine max) germplasm from Southeast Asia to flooding stress. Nutritional...

Agronomic characteristics, isoflavone content and Kunitz trypsin inhibitorof vegetable soybean genotypes.

CASTOLDI, R.; CHARLO, H. C. de O.; VARGAS, P. F.; BRAZ, L. T.; CARRÃO-PANIZZI, M. C.
Fonte: Horticultura Brasileira, Brasília, DF, v. 29, n. 2, p. 222-227, abr./jun. 2011. Publicador: Horticultura Brasileira, Brasília, DF, v. 29, n. 2, p. 222-227, abr./jun. 2011.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.4%
Five vegetable soybean genotypes were evaluated for agronomic characteristics, functional and antinutritional properties. The experiments were conducted in the field, in the School of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block design with five treatments (genotypes) and four replications. The genotypes JLM003, JLM004, JLM010, JLM024 and JLM030 were evaluated in the following caharacteristics: number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, fresh weight of pods per plant (g), fresh weight of 100 seeds (g), estimated total yield of immature seeds (kg ha-1), moisture content, proteins, lipids, ash, carbohydrates, isoflavones and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. In the assessment of the major agronomic traits, in the conditions of this study, the genotype JLM010 was the most recommended for the region of Jaboticabal. This genotype showed better agronomic characteristics of production as a vegetable, producing 136.04 g of fresh weight of pods per plant, 92.52 g of fresh weight/100 seeds and 11.12 t/ha of total immature seeds, and better functional properties. Características agronômicas, teor de isoflavonas e inibidor de tripsina Kunitz em genótipos de soja-hortaliça: Cinco genótipos de soja-hortaliça foram avaliados quanto às características agronômicas...

Prediction of genotypic values of maize for the agricultural frontier region in northeastern Maranhão, Brazil.

ARNHOLD, E.; MORA, F.; PACHECO, C. A. P.; CARVALHO, H. W. L. de.
Fonte: Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, Viçosa, MG, v. 12, n. 2, p. 151-155, 2012. Publicador: Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, Viçosa, MG, v. 12, n. 2, p. 151-155, 2012.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.5%
Agricultural research, mainly focused on the evaluation of maize cultivars along agricultural frontiers, are scarce. This study assessed 128 maize genotypes in the agricultural frontier region of the State of Maranhão, between 2008 and 2009. The experiment was arranged in a lattice design with two replications. The genotypes were evaluated for grain yield in a mixed model, with fixed intercept and experimental effects. The random effects were genotype, genetic class (single-, double or triple-cross hybrid and variety), and incomplete block/replication/ environment. The genotype effect was significant by the likelihood ratio test in all models, highlighting the genotypic values of the single-cross hybrids DKB177, AG8088 and DKB390, the triple-cross PL6882, the double-cross BM502 and of the open-pollinated variety SHS3031.; 2012

Desenvolvimento de um modelo de educa????o ambiental agr??cola no centro experimental central e jardim bot??nico, do instituto agron??mico (IAC).

Brusse, Felipe Pedroso de Lima; Barbosa, Wilson; Veiga, Renato Ferraz de Arruda
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.61%
Desenvolveu-se no Centro Experimental Central e Jardim Bot??nico (CEC&JB), do Instituto Agron??mico (IAC), Campinas-SP, um modelo de Educa????o Ambiental Agr??cola com linguagem apropriada a alunos do ensino fundamental. De forma pr??tica e objetiva, mostraram-se os resultados das pesquisas cient??ficas do IAC e as vantagens das boas pr??ticas agr??colas, visando ?? sustentabilidade ambiental. Ap??s levantamento de literatura, optou-se por um modelo de integra????o escola e campos experimentais agr??colas. O modelo foi composto pelas etapas: a) aulas te??rico-pr??ticas em classe; b) visita????o aos campos agr??colas; e, c) retorno ?? escola para avalia????o. Todas as etapas e os materiais produzidos foram filmados e avaliados pela equipe do projeto que resultar?? na edi????o de um v??deo institucional modelo, para aplica????o no programa de educa????o ambiental agr??cola do CEC&JB. O modelo aplicado aos alunos das escolas selecionadas foi considerado altamente positivo, pois ocorreu maior aproxima????o e interesse dos alunos ao ambiente rural regional, aumentando a sensibilidade dos envolvidos para quest??es da sustentabilidade ambiental na agricultura. Essa experi??ncia ser?? mantida pelas escolas do projeto e aperfei??oada pelo CEC&JB em novos estudos de educa????o ambiental agr??cola...

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Fonte: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Publicador: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.43%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

Mali - Indigenous Knowledge : Blending the New and the Old; Mali : les savoirs locaux, combiner l'ancien et le nouveau

Easton, Peter; Belloncle, Guy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.38%
Based on research from an evaluation of functional adult literacy during the late 70s, focused on peanut-growing in the western region of Mali, results demonstrated that while literacy programs only attained its full quantitative objectives in just a few localities, the vast majority of participating communities, had nonetheless managed to produce a nucleus of literate people. These people, in charge of marketing commercial crops, including monitoring tax bills, soon enhanced the magnitude of literacy's uses in the rural environment. However, indigenous knowledge, which is social in nature, and culturally transmitted, comes forth in social situations, where groups of people resolve their perceptions, or communicate their wisdom across generations. The note thus focuses on the efforts by the Bank, and the Ministry of Education in supporting methods, and new directions for non-formal basic education, premised on the notion that literacy should be a starting point for training, relevant to rural development. The training had five closely related elements: technical content; hands-on developmental work; field inquiry or local needs assessment; comparison with indigenous knowledge; and...

Occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium species under wheat crop in zero tillage

Silvestro, Luciana Belén; Stenglein, Sebastian Alberto; Forján, Horacio; Arambarri, Angelica Margarita; Manso, Lucrecia; Moreno, Maria Virginia
Fonte: Spanish National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology Publicador: Spanish National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.4%
The presence of Fusarium species in cultivated soils is commonly associated with plant debris and plant roots. Fusarium species are also soil saprophytes. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium spp. at different soil depths in a zero tillage system after the wheat was harvested. Soil samples were obtained at three depths (0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm) from five crop rotations: I, conservationist agriculture (wheatsorghum- soybean); II, mixed agriculture/livestock with pastures, without using winter or summer forages (wheatsorghum- soybean-canola-pastures); III, winter agriculture in depth limited soils (wheat-canola-barley-late soybean); IV, mixed with annual forage (wheat-oat/Vicia-sunflower); V, intensive agriculture (wheat-barley-canola, with alternation of soybean or late soybean). One hundred twenty two isolates of Fusarium were obtained and identified as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. oxysporum, F. scirpi and F. solani. The most prevalent species was F. oxysporum, which was observed in all sequences and depths. The Tukey?s test showed that the relative frequency of F. oxysporum under intensive agricultural management was higher than in mixed traditional ones. The first 5 cm of soil showed statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) with respect to 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths. The ANOVA test for the relative frequency of the other species as F. equiseti...

Anales de la Estación Experimental de Aula Dei. Vol. 21, n. 3, 1995. Especial 50 Aniversario.

CSIC - Estación Experimental de Aula Dei (EEAD)
Fonte: CSIC - Estación Experimental de Aula Dei (EEAD) Publicador: CSIC - Estación Experimental de Aula Dei (EEAD)
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 5143442 bytes; application/pdf
ENG; SPA
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45.48%
Este volumen conmemora el 50 Aniversario de la Estación Experimental de Aula Dei de Zaragoza, uno de los Institutos del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) que desarrollan trabajos en el campo de las ciencias agrarias. El volumen contiene el texto de varias conferencias de las Jornadas Científicas que se llevaron a cabo en el Campus de Aula Dei durante los días 4 y 5 de octubre de 1994 para celebrar dicho aniversario. El volumen también incluye diversos textos escritos al efecto por personal científico del Instituto, que representan una buena muestra de los trabajos que se desarrollan en la actualidad en el mismo. El volumen incluye asimismo un capítulo de introducción, que explica las circunstancias que llevaron a la creación del Instituto, así como los cambios organizativos durante las cinco décadas siguientes de existencia del mismo. Este capítulo complementa los dos volúmenes publicados previamente en la misma serie, que han tratado de recoger las actividades científicas documentadas del Instituto durante los períodos 1944-1988 (An. Estac. Exp. Aula Dei, vol. 21, n. 1) y 1989-1993 (An. Estac. Exp. Aula Dei, vol. 21, n. 2).; This volume commemorates the 50th anniversary of the Aula Dei Experimental Station...

A physiological basis to crop improvement and agronomic development

Ukozehasi, Celestin
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Plant Sciences; School of the Biological Sciences; Wolfson College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Plant Sciences; School of the Biological Sciences; Wolfson College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
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45.49%
Despite of the documented impacts of the so-called green revolution, food security in the world faces new challenges in terms of population growth, increases in no-agricultural land use (urbanization), and climate change. Trends in food security show that the world community is operating within two limits of food system: (i) the quantity of food that can be produced under a given climate; and (ii) the quantity of food needed by a growing and changing population. Therefore, taking food security successfully into the future requires novel approaches to boost agricultural productivity in order to balance food supply and demand without expanding the agricultural land. To date, progress in wheat yield has been largely the result of the development of dwarf varieties through introgression of reduced height (Rht) genes. The height reductions arising from the presence of these genes increased yield by alteration of partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen in favour of the spike. However, increased partitioning through additional reductions in plant height is not likely; as comparative studies indicate that wheat yield is reduced when plants are shortened beyond a threshold, and most of the modern cultivars have reached the optimal height. Therefore...

PROBLEMA E HIPÓTESE NA PESQUISA EXPERIMENTAL AGRiCOLA UNIVERSITÁRIA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO; PROBLEM AND HYPOTHESIS IN POSTGRADUATE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

Nojimoto, Toshio
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2004 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.6%
O artigo analisa a pesquisa experimental agrícola desenvolvida em programas de pós-graduação de universidades públicas dos Estados de São Paulo c Minas Gerais. Os autores mostram que teses e dissertações não se orientam por problemas de pesquisa e hipóteses de trabalho, mas pelo próprio experimento e seus resultados. Partindo de objetivos gerais e imprecisos, as teses e dissertações constroem, a partir de um único experimento com duas ou três variáveis inde-pendentes 09, inúmeras variáveis dependentes (Yi = produção, tamanho, peso. comprimento, composição química. ...) e vários modelos para verificar o efeito de X em Y (Y = f (X)), apresentando muitos resultados, com escasso poder de demonstração. Por isso, implicam redundáncia e originam contradições c para-doxos: proposições falsas ou sem comprovação, erros estatísticos, experimen-tos inadequados e argumentos confusos ou falsos.; The article analyses experimental research theses developed in post graduation programs of agricultural science in public universities of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. The author´s show those theses are not guided by problems and hypothesis, but by experiment itself and its results. Starting from general and vague objectives...

The freedom to tinker: patent law and experimental use

Rimmer, Matthew
Fonte: Ashgate Publishing Ltd Publicador: Ashgate Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.5%
This article considers the origins and the development of the defence of experimental use in patent law - the 'freedom to tinker'. It explores the impact of such an exemption upon a number of important industries - such as agriculture, biotechnology and pharmaceutical drugs. This article takes a comparative approach in its analysis of patent law and experimental use. It highlights the competing norms, and lack of harmonisation between a number of jurisdictions, including the United States, the European Union and Australia. Section 2 provides a critique of the development of the common law defence of experimental use in the US. It considers a series of precedents - including Roche Products, Inc. v Bolar Pharmaceuticals, Madey v Duke University, Integra Lifesciences I Ltd v Merck KgaA, and Applera v MJ Research. Section 3 explores the operation of patent law and experimental use in European jurisdictions. It looks at a number of significant precedents in the UK, the Netherlands, France, Italy and Germany. Section 4 considers the policy debate in a number of forums over the defence of experimental use in Australia. It examines the controversy over Genetic Technologies Limited asking research organisations to obtain a licence in respect of its patents associated with non-coding DNA and genomic mapping. It also considers the inquiries of the Australian Law Reform Commission and the Advisory Council on Intellectual Property...

YIELD OF CORN IN AREA OF CROP X PASTURE INTEGRATION UNDER THE SYSTEM OF NO TILLAGE, IN PRESENCE AND ABSENCE OF WHITE CLOVER, GRAZING AND NITROGEN; RENDIMENTO DE MILHO EM ÁREA DE INTEGRAÇÃO LAVOURA-PECUÁRIA SOB O SISTEMA DE PLANTIO DIRETO, EM PRESENÇA E AUSÊNCIA DE TREVO BRANCO, PASTEJO E NITROGÊNIO

ASSMANN, Tangriani Simioni
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/06/2005 ENG
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A field experiment was carried out, during the 1999 and 2000 growing season, at the Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária [Agrarian Foundation for Agricultural and Cattle Research] (FAPA), in Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Brazil, with the objective to verify the influence of the residual nitrogen fertilization on maize crop, on no tillage system, in presence and absence of white clover and grazing. The experimental design was the complete randomized blocks with tree replications. The treatments were arranged in split-plot model. During the previous Winter season four N levels (N-TI = 0, 100, 200 e 300 kg.ha-1 de N), were applied to the main plots, and the combination of presence and absence of white clover and grazing (CT = clover presence; ST = clover absence; CP = grazing presence, and SP = grazing absence), to the sub-plots. At the Summer season in each sub-plot prepared during the previous Winter season five N cover levels (N-TV = 0, 60, 120, 180 e 240 kg.ha-1 de N), were applied and corn cultivated. Eighteen days after the animals were removed out of the plots, the best technical re-growth efficiency of Winter plants was obtained with 231 kg.ha-1 de N (N-TI). The areas CP/N-TI showed tendency to present better corn production. The areas without N-TI yielded more in the SP subplots. The plots that received 300 kg.ha-1 de N N-TV did not show corn response to the N-TV...

Drivers of disease emergence and spread: Is wildlife to blame?

Kock,Richard
Fonte: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research Publicador: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The global focus on wildlife as a major contributor to emerging pathogens and infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans and domestic animals is not based on field, experimental or dedicated research, but mostly on limited surveys of literature, opinion and the assumption that biodiversity harbours pathogens. The perceived and direct impacts of wildlife, from being a reservoir of certain human and livestock pathogens and as a risk to health, are frequently overstated when compared to the Global burden of disease statistics available from WHO, OIE and FAO. However organisms that evolve in wildlife species can and do spill-over into human landscapes and humans and domestic animal population and, where these organisms adapt to surviving and spreading amongst livestock and humans, these emerging infections can have significant consequences. Drivers for the spill-over of pathogens or evolution of organisms from wildlife reservoirs to become pathogens of humans and domestic animals are varied but almost without exception poorly researched. The changing demographics, spatial distribution and movements, associated landscape modifications (especially agricultural) and behavioural changes involving human and domestic animal populations are probably the core drivers of the apparent increasing trend in emergence of new pathogens and infectious diseases over recent decades.