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Evolução e determinantes da população rural e do emprego rural não-agropecuário no estado de Santa Catarina: período de 1991 a 2000; Evolution and determinants of the rural population and non-agricultural rural employment in the state of Santa Catarina - 1991 a 2000

Santos Filho, Jonas Irineu dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
O comportamento do emprego no meio rural vêm se modificando ao longo do tempo. Pode-se perceber que o rural não é mais unicamente agropecuário. Existem atividades nãoagrícolas realizadas no meio rural vinculadas ou não à agropecuária, gerando o fenômeno conhecido como pluriatividade. O diagnóstico deste fenômeno para o Brasil já foi executado pelo projeto RURBANO. Entretanto, ainda existe uma lacuna na literatura nacional referente à utilização de modelos econométricos visando identificar os seus fatores determinantes. Além disto, estudos que tenham tentado entender como a vizinhança e os atributos do contexto em torno do município afetam o emprego não-agropecuário por pessoas residentes no meio rural ainda não foram efetuados. Neste contexto, o presente estudo analisa as questões relacionadas ao emprego rural, com ênfase nas atividades que não pertencem diretamente à produção agropecuária para o estado de Santa Catarina. São enfocados os aspectos econômicos, sociais e locacionais que possam explicar a evolução do emprego rural no estado. A escolha de Santa Catarina, para o estudo de caso, deve-se a algumas características peculiares deste estado, as quais são: apresentar uma economia altamente diversificada...

Diferenciais de salários nas atividades agrícolas brasileiras: aspectos estruturais e determinantes regionais; Wages differentials in Brazilian agricultural activities: structural features and regional determinants

Mori, Juliana Sampaio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/05/2008 PT
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O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os diferenciais de salários das pessoas empregadas em atividades classificadas como agrícola pelo IBGE, com base nos dados individuais da PNAD de 2005. Busca-se verificar as diferenças de salários para uma mesma atividade agrícola, e entre as diversas atividades agrícolas, de forma a identificar quais são as variáveis que determinam o comportamento dos salários nessas atividades, tais como cor, sexo, educação, idade, região geográfica, entre outros. Além disso, estima-se o efeito de interações entre as regiões e as atividades agrícolas, bem como o efeito de interações entre o nível de escolaridade e a região de referência. As equações de salários ajustadas para os quatro primeiros modelos, os quais permitem mostrar os diferenciais de salários entre as diversas atividades agrícolas, mostram que os efeitos das interações entre escolaridade e região e das interações entre as regiões e atividades agrícolas pouco afetam as estimativas dos coeficientes das variáveis idade, número de horas trabalhadas na semana, sexo, posição na ocupação, categoria do emprego e cor. A variável cor, por sua vez, não tem um efeito relevante na explicação dos diferenciais de salários nas atividades agrícolas...

Reallocating Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission in EU15 Countries

Serrão, Amilcar J
Fonte: AgEcon Search - University of Minnesota - Agricultural Applied Economics Association Publicador: AgEcon Search - University of Minnesota - Agricultural Applied Economics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
This research work uses an alternative approach for modeling agricultural greenhouse gas emissions as an undesirable output, based on the zero sum gains DEA model (ZSG-DEA BCC model). This approach reallocates agricultural greenhouse gas emissions among EU15 countries. The reallocation analysis of greenhouse gas emissions permits countries that increase their emissions negotiate the emissions reduction with the others. This negotiation process might create a quota trade system for agricultural activity.

Measuring Eco-efficiency of Agricultural Activity in European Countries: A Malmquist Index Approach

Serrão, Amilcar J
Fonte: AgEcon Search - University of Minnesota - Agricultural Applied Economics Association Publicador: AgEcon Search - University of Minnesota - Agricultural Applied Economics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
This paper develops an environmental performance index by applying the benefit of the doubt weighting and the Malmquist index concepts using Kuosmanen and Kortelainen’s approaches. The main difference between these approaches and other methods is that environmental performance is based on the definition of the eco-efficiency as the ratio of economic value added to the environmental damage index. The overall environmental performance index is also decomposed into two components representing changes due to technological progress (or regress) and due to changes in relative eco-efficiency. The dynamic environmental performance analysis is applied to 15 European agricultures from 1990 to 2004. Model results show that technical progress mostly explain overall environmental performance growth, while relative eco-efficiency changes have been minor for most European agricultures for the sample period.

The Role of Area-Yield Crop Insurance Program face to the Mid-Term Review of Common Agricultural Policy

Serrão, Amilcar J
Fonte: AgEcon Search - University of Minnesota - Agricultural Applied Economics Association Publicador: AgEcon Search - University of Minnesota - Agricultural Applied Economics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
The mid-term review of Common Agricultural Policy increases the complexity of the decision-making process of farmers. The subsidies are substituted for a single decoupled income payment. The farmers decide what crops and livestock will produce based on climate, soils conditions and agricultural market signals and not based on subsidies granted to each one of the crop and livestock activities. The area-yield crop insurance program might have an important role on increasing production and facing natural catastrophes. This paper studies the introduction of the area-yield crop insurance program to reduce the risk originating from the variability of farmers’ income and to compare this alternative with other agricultural policy alternatives in the context of the mid-term review of Common Agricultural Policy. The comparison of the introduction of the area-yield crop insurance program with other agricultural policy alternatives is made through an approach using concepts of the Cumulative Prospect Theory, because besides defining that the results are appraised in agreement with changes in relation to the initial wealth, this theory treats in a differentiated way gains and losses. A discrete sequential stochastic programming model with five states of nature is developed to study agricultural policy alternatives. The objective function is constituted by a set of functions (the value function and the probability weighting function) differentiated for gains and losses...

The effects of non-agricultural activities on income distribution in rural Brazil

Neder,Henrique D.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
The growth of non-agricultural activity since the 1980s has reconfigured the economic and social dynamic in Brazil’s rural areas. Our paper intends to describe the impact of this growth on income distribution in rural Brazil. We made use of a method of decomposition of two indicators of income distribution applied to1992 and 1999 Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) data: the variation coefficient and the Gini index. It was observed that non-agricultural activities have increased the concentration of rural income and that this phenomenon is more prominent in Region I (states of Brazil’s Northeast and the state of Tocantins) and Region IV (states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul and the Distrito Federal). It was found that the income concentrating effect of each non-agricultural activity branch (commerce, transformation industry, administration, service) differed by region. In Region I, income from the "Social/Public Administration and Other Activities branch " (a PNAD designation) presents a coefficient of relative concentration greater than a unit, which indicates that income from this activities branch acts to increase the concentration of non-agricultural income in this region. In Region IV, income from industrial activities and from Social/ Public Administration and Other Activities both present coefficients of relative concentration greater than a unit; therefore...

Chemicals, birth defects and stillbirths in New Brunswick: associations with agricultural activity.

White, F M; Cohen, F G; Sherman, G; McCurdy, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/01/1988 EN
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45.98%
We describe a series of investigations that were conducted in support of the Task Force on Chemicals in the Environment and Human Reproductive Problems in New Brunswick. Geographic and temporal analyses and case-control studies, with the use of vital statistics, hospital records, the Canadian Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System and chemical databases, revealed no association between pesticides used in forestry and reproductive problems. Evidence of an association between the potential exposure to agricultural chemicals and three major anomalies combined as well as spina bifida without hydrocephalus was found. More plausible was an association between stillbirths and such exposure during the second trimester of pregnancy. This finding, along with the cyclic patterns of stillbirth in the agricultural Saint John River basin and the somewhat higher stillbirth rates in New Brunswick than in adjacent provinces or in Canada as a whole, suggests that further attention should focus on possible associations between agricultural activity and stillbirths.

Agricultural Insurance in Latin America : Developing the Market

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
The study focuses on how agricultural insurance can complement and enhance agricultural risk management in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC). The overall objective of this study is to provide the key elements for a strategy to increase the penetration of agricultural insurance in the region. The study is organized into five chapters, including this introduction. Chapter two provides an overview of the agricultural sector in LAC, including a description of the main farming systems and an assessment of the main perils affecting production. Chapter three describes the current provision of agricultural insurance, describing the evolution of agricultural insurance, providing the current market figures, assessing the availability of agricultural insurance products, describing government support to agricultural insurance, and estimating the current levels of penetration. Chapter four focuses on the challenges in attempting to increase coverage and penetration. It assesses the current gaps in the provision of agricultural insurance...

Are Low Food Prices Pro-Poor? Net Food Buyers and Sellers in Low-Income Countries

Aksoy, M. Ataman; Isik-Dikmelik, Aylin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
There is a general consensus that most of the poor in developing countries are net food buyers and food price increases are bad for the poor. This could be expected of urban poor, but it is also often attributed to the rural poor. Recent food price increases have increased the importance of this issue, and the possible policy responses to these price increases. This paper examines the characteristics of net food sellers and buyers in nine low-income countries. Although the largest share of poor households are found to be net food buyers, almost 50 percent of net food buyers are marginal net food buyers who would not be significantly affected by food price increases. Only three of the nine countries examined exhibited a substantial proportion of vulnerable households. The average incomes (as measured by expenditure) of net food buyers were found to be higher than net food sellers in eight of the nine countries examined. Thus, food price increases, ceteris paribus, would transfer income from generally higher income net food buyers to poorer net food sellers. The analysis also finds that the occupations and income sources of net sellers and buyers in rural areas are significantly different. In rural areas where food production is the main activity and where there are limited non-food activities...

Nonfarm Activity and Rural Income Inequality : A Case Study of Two Provinces in China

Zhu, Nong; Luo, Xubei
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
Nonfarm activity plays an increasingly important role in rural household income. Based on data from the Living Standards Measurement Study in the provinces of Hebei and Liaoning, the authors study the distribution of nonfarm income in rural China. First, they assume nonfarm income as an exogenous transfer to total income to decompose the Gini index. Second, they assume nonfarm income as a potential substitute for farm income to take household choices into account and simulate household income. The results show that nonfarm activity reduces rural income inequality by raising the income of poor households to a larger extent than that of rich households. Improving rural infrastructure and implementing universal basic education are critical to build up the capacity of households (in particular, poor households) to participate in nonfarm activity. Strengthening the links between farm activity and nonfarm activity is essential to optimize the contribution of nonfarm activity to pro-poor rural economic development.

Food and Agricultural Policy in Russia : Progress to Date and the Road Forward

Csaki, Csaba; Nash, John; Matusevich, Vera; Kray, Holger
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
The overall finding of this report is that much agricultural policy is made at the regional level, and here the explicit price, and trade policy distortions are significantly worse than at the federal level. The result is patchwork of inconsistent policies, that has fragmented the Russian national market. The most serious policy issues at the federal level, are in the legal framework, the continued state domination of some markets, and, the administration of limited subsidies, in ways that undermine market development. A major problem is that large farms face soft budget constraints, with tolerance of non-payment of debt, resulting in an increasing debt burden, little incentive for true restructuring, and an uneven playing field with respect to the private sector. The government recently addressed the issue of farm insolvency, through the Resolution on Agricultural Debt Restructuring, and, a fundamental approach to this problem is being elaborated in the draft Law on Financial Rehabilitation of Agricultural Enterprises. But the key to giving enterprises an incentive to participate in real restructuring...

Support for Agricultural Restructuring Project : The Financial and Economic Competitiveness of Rice and Selected Feed Crops in Northern and Southern Vietnam

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
One area of weakness in current agricultural policy work in Vietnam is the lack of a clear understanding of both the private profitability of farmers for different crop activities and the social profitability of such activities. Agricultural performance is thus gauged in physical terms (i.e. yields and the volume of aggregate output) rather than in financial or economic terms. This has hampered efforts to compare and contrast the impacts and effectiveness of alternative policy and program measures. Comparative metrics for different crops and farm management systems have been lacking. The main objectives of this paper are: (i) to describe the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) methodology and how to interpret key financial and economic indicators; (ii) to document the underlying assumptions used for the analysis; and (iii) to provide a summary and brief interpretation of the main quantitative results and outcome of selected sensitivity tests. As a step towards improved sector planning, this paper utilizes the PAM to analyze various farm management systems for rice...

Rural Development in Haiti

Coello, Barbara; Oseni, Gbemisola; Savrimootoo, Tanya; Weiss, Eli
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
The objective of this report is to examine the linkages between rural economic activity, food insecurity and poverty in Haiti as a means of determining the barriers to rural development. The analysis draws on a newly available set of house-hold level living standards measurement data collected in 2012 (ECVMAS). About 70.7 percent of all rural households are poor, and education levels are low with an average of 2.8 years of education for the household head. Agriculture dominates economic activity (78 percent of all households are involved in agricultural activities), although almost 25 percent of the agricultural households supplement their agricultural income by engaging also in some type of nonfarm activity. Overall nonfarm activity participation (including households that engage in agricultural activities and households that do not) is reported at 46 percent. Nonfarm activities can be related to agriculture upstream (input supply) or downstream (value-adding and processing), or they can be unrelated to the sector (retailing). This report identifies the main factors of production that correlate with increased productivity in the agricultural sector and examines the determinants of nonfarm participation...

Sustainable Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Dissemination (SMARTD) : A Strategic Framework

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Revitalizing agriculture is critical for rural Indonesia's economic prosperity. Historically, Indonesia's dramatic poverty reduction was driven by progress in agriculture and agriculture continues to be a potent driver of growth and poverty alleviation. Agricultural sector growth strongly induces non-agricultural sector growth in rural areas, particularly through demand for locally produced and services. Agricultural sector productivity growth (along with price changes) has remained the most important way out of poverty. To shift agriculture along these dimensions, Indonesia needs to transition from its current and ineffective public stance, growing subsidies and selective output protection, to a more aggressive provision of public goods and services that build support systems for farmers to achieve continuous productivity gains. This will require an enabling agriculture policy environment, significant improvement in the delivery of services, agricultural research and extension in particular, and supporting enabling investments...

Sustainable Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Dissemination (SMARTD) : A Strategic Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Revitalizing agriculture is critical for rural Indonesia's economic prosperity. Historically, Indonesia's dramatic poverty reduction was driven by progress in agriculture and agriculture continues to be a potent driver of growth and poverty alleviation. Agricultural sector growth strongly induces non-agricultural sector growth in rural areas, particularly through demand for locally produced and services. Agricultural sector productivity growth (along with price changes) has remained the most important way out of poverty. To shift agriculture along these dimensions, Indonesia needs to transition from its current and ineffective public stance, growing subsidies and selective output protection, to a more aggressive provision of public goods and services that build support systems for farmers to achieve continuous productivity gains. This will require an enabling agriculture policy environment, significant improvement in the delivery of services, agricultural research and extension in particular, and supporting enabling investments...

Liberia : Gender-Aware Programs and Women's Roles in Agricultural Value Chains

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.05%
This Policy Memorandum provides policy advice to the government of Liberia (GOL) in an effort to mainstream gender issues in policies, programs, and projects supporting agricultural production and value-chain development. It is organized as follows. Section I reviews women's roles in Liberian agriculture and agricultural value chains, drawing on a variety of data sources, including the 2007 Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire Survey (CWIQ) and the two rounds of the Comprehensive Food Security and Nutrition Survey (CFSNS, 2006 and 2008). It also gives an overview of the agricultural sector in Liberia. Section II uses the same sources to analyze key constraints faced by women as agricultural producers and in value-adding activities, as well as key crop-specific issues in cassava, rice, and tree crops. Section III reviews the engagement of the GOL in gender-aware agriculture programs and recommends some key general principles to support gender-aware interventions, and specific recommendations aimed at supporting women as agricultural producers and increasing access to...

Política tributária, nível de atividade econômica e bem-estar: lições de um modelo de equilíbrio geral inter-regional; Tax policy, economical activity level and welfare: lessons of a interregional general equilibrium model

Santos, Cárliton Vieira dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/03/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Este trabalho analisa os impactos sobre a economia brasileira, em nível nacional e regional, de três diferentes políticas no campo da tributação indireta: a redução dos tributos indiretos sobre os principais produtos alimentícios consumidos pelas famílias, a redução dos tributos indiretos sobre os principais insumos empregados na atividade agropecuária e a redução de tributos indiretos sobre todos os bens e serviços no Estado de São Paulo. A análise foi realizada por meio de exercícios de simulação com o uso de um modelo aplicado de equilíbrio geral inter-regional estático, do tipo bottom-up, que foi denominado TERM-BR (The Enourmous Regional model for Brazilian Economy). Ele especifica 42 setores produtivos e 27 regiões (os 26 estados e o Distrito Federal) e foi calibrado para o ano de 2001. As simulações de redução dos tributos indiretos sobre alimentos (Experimento 1) e de redução dos tributos indiretos sobre insumos agropecuários (Experimento 2) tiveram pouco impacto para o Brasil como um todo. Em termos regionais, seus resultados sinalizaram aumento no nível de atividade econômica, no emprego, no salário real, no consumo das famílias e no investimento nas regiões mais pobres do País: Norte e Nordeste. Ambas as simulações revelaram ainda que políticas como estas têm o potencial de melhorar o bem-estar dos grupos de rendas mais baixas...

Um sistema de informação para a análise multi-dimensional da actividade agrícola. Aplicação em diversos casos do panorama agrícola nacional; An information system for the multi-dimensional analysis of the agricultural activity - application in several cases of the national agricultural sector

Tristany, Miguel Nuno Guedes
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Doutoramento em Engenharia Agronómica - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; In a globalised world that refuses progressively the externalization of any type of cost, especially environmental cost, it's urgent to look at the agricultural sector with a broad perspective, incorporating new decision variables and means of analysis. The agricultural activity is asked with increasing insistence to adapt to new tasks, respecting all types of demands directed to its production systems. This thesis involved the compilation of information on a broad spectrum of activities, resources and products, and the creation of a model that would allow a multi-dimensional analysis of the agricultural activities at national level, in order to respond to a possibly wide range of questions about economic and environmental performance, numerically or spatially. The case-studies presented, aimed at demonstrating the usefulness of the system in this multi-dimensional approach to agriculture, are four: analysis of suitability to irrigation of the Portuguese territory; technical and economical evaluation of land consolidation projects; the production of agricultural residues at national level; suitability of the Alqueva perimeter for several bioenergetic crops.

Myriophyllum aquaticum as a biomonitor of water heavy metal input related to agricultural activities in the Xanaes River (Córdoba, Argentina)

Harguinteguy, Carlos Alfredo; Schreiber, Sebastian Rene; Pignata, Maria Luisa
Fonte: Elsevier Science Bv Publicador: Elsevier Science Bv
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The aim of the present study was to assess the temporal variation of the heavy metal content (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surface water and sediments in relation to agricultural practices in the Xanaes River (Córdoba, Argentina). A second objective was to analyze possible relationships between the input of heavy metals on surface water and sediment, heavy metal accumulation and physiological changes in the aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum. Samples were taken from the river at two contrasting sites (between April 2010 and August 2010): (1) a pristine area (mountain site), and (2) an area with intensive agricultural activity located at 60 km down river (agricultural site). The total concentration of heavy metals in surface water was higher in samples collected at the agricultural site but in sediments only the Mn concentration was higher than at the mountain site. The Fe and Mn concentrations in surface water at the agricultural site exceeded the recommended values for Argentinean Legislation of 300 g L−1 for Fe and 100 g L−1 for Mn. The accumulations of Zn and Mn in M. aquaticum were higher at the agricultural site and more elevated than the Zn and Mn concentrations in sediments at the same sites and sampling times. At the agricultural site...

Paraiba State, Brazil; Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

Arias, Diego; Caballero, Jorge
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agriculture Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This report is comprised of two volumes: (i) volume one: risk assessment; and (ii) volume two: risk management strategy. Volume one continues with chapter one, which characterizes the recent performance of the agriculture sector, including agro-climatic and market conditions. It also identifies the productive systems used for this analysis. Chapter two describes the main risks in the agricultural sector, capturing market, production, and enabling environment risks along the value chains involved in the selected productive system typologies. Chapter three presents the estimations of the aggregate impacts of unmanaged agricultural risk on agricultural losses and production volatility. Chapter four identifies risk profiles for different stakeholders, underlying the different types of risk impacts, and then highlights a vulnerability framework. Finally, chapter five presents a prioritization of risks and proposes a preliminary set of priority risk management measures. A short list of potential solution actions is offered as the starting point for a more in-depth solution analysis to be undertaken during the second phase of the risk assessment. Volume two is composed of four chapters. Chapter one provides a brief discussion on the agricultural risk profile and risk management options (solutions) in Paraiba and an inventory of current programs...