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Involvement of GABAergic mechanisms of the dorsal periaqueductal gray and inferior colliculus on unconditioned fear

REIMER, Adriano Edgar; OLIVEIRA, Amanda Ribeiro de; BRANDÃO, Marcus Lira
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de JaneiroUniversidade de BrasíliaUniversidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de JaneiroUniversidade de BrasíliaUniversidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.03%
The fact that the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) and inferior colliculus (IC), together with superior colliculus, medial hypothalamus and amygdala, constitute the brain aversion system has been well-established. Stepwise increases in the intensity of electrical stimulation of dPAG or IC cause freezing and escape responses, which are followed by a freezing behavior that lasts after the interruption of the stimulation. Freezing and escape are unconditioned defensive behaviors derived from the stimulation of the output centers for the defense reaction, whereas the post-stimulation freezing is the behavioral counterpart of the processing of aversive information. Although GABA-A mechanisms of the midbrain tectum exert a tonic inhibitory influence on the neural substrates of unconditioned fear, their influence on the processing of aversive information is not completely understood. Thus, the present study examines the effects of injections of the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol (1 and 2 nmol/0.2 µL) or the glutamic acid decarboxylase blocker semicarbazide (5 and 7.5 µg/0.2 µL) into dPAG or IC of Wistar rats on freezing and escape thresholds determined by electrical stimulation of these same structures and on post-stimulation freezing. Intra-dPAG injections of muscimol increased and semicarbazide decreased the freezing and escape thresholds of electrical stimulation of the dPAG. Only semicarbazide enhanced the dPAG post-stimulation freezing. Intra-IC injections of muscimol significantly increased aversive thresholds...

Glutamatergic neurotransmission mediated by NMDA receptors in the inferior colliculus can modulate haloperidol-induced catalepsy

MELO, L. L.; SANTOS, P.; MEDEIROS, P.; MELLO, R. O.; FERRARI, E. A. M.; BRANDAO, M. L.; MAISONNETTE, S. S.; FRANCISCO, A.; COIMBRA, N. C.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.07%
The inferior colliculus (IC) is primarily involved in the processing of auditory information, but it is distinguished from other auditory nuclei in the brainstem by its connections with structures of the motor system. Functional evidence relating the IC to motor behavior derives from experiments showing that activation of the IC by electrical stimulation or excitatory amino acid microinjection causes freezing, escape-like behavior, and immobility. However, the nature of this immobility is still unclear. The present study examined the influence of excitatory amino acid-mediated mechanisms in the IC on the catalepsy induced by the dopamine receptor blocker haloperidol administered systemically (1 or 0.5 mg/kg) in rats. Haloperidol-induced catalepsy was challenged with prior intracollicular microinjections of glutamate NMDA receptor antagonists, MK-801 (15 or 30 mmol/0.5 mu l) and AP7 (10 or 20 nmol/0.5 mu l), or of the NMDA receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, 20 or 30 nmol/0.5 mu l). The results showed that intracollicular microinjection of MK-801 and AP7 previous to systemic injections of haloperidol significantly attenuated the catalepsy, as indicated by a reduced latency to step down from a horizontal bar. Accordingly, intracollicular microinjection of NMDA increased the latency to step down the bar. These findings suggest that glutamate-mediated mechanisms in the neural circuits at the IC level influence haloperidol-induced catalepsy and participate in the regulation of motor activity. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.; Foundation for the Support of Research of the State of Sao Paulo (FAPESP)[proc. 2007/0174-1]; Brazilian National Council for Research (CNPq)[proc. 470119/2004-7]; CNPq[proc. 300227/2004-3]

The unconditioned fear produced by morphine withdrawal is regulated by mu- and kappa-opioid receptors in the midbrain tectum

ROSS, Jana De; AVILA, Milton A. V.; RUGGIERO, Rafael N.; NOBRE, Manoel J.; BRANDAO, Marcus L.; CASTILHO, Vanessa M.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.02%
We have recently shown that morphine withdrawal sensitizes the neural substrates of fear in the midbrain tectum structures-the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) and inferior colliculus (IC). In the present study, we investigated the role of mu- and kappa-opioid receptors in the mediation of these effects. Periadolescent rats chronically treated with morphine (10 mg/kg; s.c.) twice daily for 10 days were implanted with an electrode glued to a guide-cannula into the dPAG or the IC. Forty-eight hours after the interruption of this treatment, the effects of intra-dPAG or intra-IC microinjections of [D-Ala(2) N-Me-Phe(4) Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO; 0.6 and 1 nmol/0.2 mu l) - a selective mu-receptor agonist - or nor-binaltorphimine (BNI; 2.5 and 5 mu g/0.2 mu l) - a selective K-receptor antagonist with tardive action - on the freezing and escape thresholds determined by electrical stimulation of the dPAG and the IC were examined. For both structures, morphine withdrawal produced pro-aversive effects. DAMGO and BNI had antiaversive effects when injected into the dPAG and IC of non-dependent rats. In morphine-withdrawn rats, only BNI continued to promote antiaversive effects in both structures. Whereas DAMGO lost its antiaversive efficacy when injected into the dPAG...

Effects of microinjections of apomorphine and haloperidol into the inferior colliculus on the latent inhibition of the conditioned emotional response

MELO, Liana L.; PEREIRA, Ellen C. H. M.; PAGINI, Cassia H.; COIMBRA, Norberto C.; BRANDAO, Marcus L.; FERRARI, Elenice A. M.
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.02%
Electrical or chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus (IC) induces fear-like behaviors. More recently, consistent evidence has shown that electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the IC supports Pavlovian conditioning and latent inhibition (Li). LI is characterized by retardation in conditioning and also by an impaired ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli, after a non-reinforced pre-exposure to the conditioned stimulus. LI has been proposed as a behavioral model of cognitive abnormalities seen in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether dopaminergic mechanisms in the IC are involved in LI of the conditioned emotional response (CER). To induce LI, a group of rats was pre-exposed (PE) to six tones in two sessions, while rats that were not pre-exposed (NPE) had two sessions without tone presentations. The conditioning consisted of two tone presentations to the animal, followed immediately by a foot shock. PE and NPE rats received IC microinjections of physiological saline, the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine (9.0 mu g/0.5 mu L/side), or the dopaminergic antagonist haloperidol (0.5 mu g/0.5 mu L/side) before both pre-exposure and conditioning. During the test, the PE rats that received saline or haloperidol had a lower suppression of the licking response compared to NPE rats that received vehicle or haloperidol...

Selective involvement of GABAergic mechanisms of the dorsal periaqueductal gray and inferior colliculus on the memory of the contextual fear as assessed by the fear potentiated startle test

REIMER, Adriano E.; OLIVEIRA, Amanda R.; BRANDAO, Marcus L.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.02%
The inferior colliculus (IC) together with the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), the amygdala and the medial hypothalamus make part of the brain aversion system, which has mainly been related to the organization of unconditioned fear. However, the involvement of the IC and dPAG in the conditioned fear is still unclear. It is certain that GABA has a regulatory role on the aversive states generated and elaborated in these midbrain structures. In this study, we evaluated the effects of injections of the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol (1.0 and 2.0 nmol/0.2 mu L) into the IC or dPAG on the freezing and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) responses of rats submitted to a context fear conditioning. Intra-IC injections of muscimol did not cause any significant effect on the FPS or conditioned freezing but enhanced the startle reflex in non-conditioned animals. In contrast, intra-dPAG injections of muscimol caused significant reduction in FPS and conditioned freezing without changing the startle reflex in non-conditioned animals. Thus, intra-dPAG injections of muscimol produced the expected inhibitory effects on the anxiety-related responses, the FPS and the freezing whereas these injections into the IC produced quite opposite effects suggesting that descending inhibitory pathways from the IC...

Papel dos receptores dopaminérgicos D1 e D2 do colículo inferior na expressão de respostas incondicionadas e condicionadas de medo; Role of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors of the inferior colliculus in the expression of unconditioned and conditioned fear responses

Colombo, Ana Caroline
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.14%
O colículo inferior (CI) é uma estrutura envolvida primariamente com o processamento da informação acústica, porém participa também na integração dos aspectos sensoriais, autonômicos e comportamentais da reação de defesa frente a situações de ameaça. Além disso, essa estrutura apresenta alta concentração de receptores dopaminérgicos, sendo a dopamina um dos neuromoduladores mais ativos em mecanismos subjacentes a estados de medo e ansiedade. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o papel dos receptores dopaminérgicos (D1 e D2) do CI na expressão de respostas defensivas incondicionadas ou condicionadas. Para tanto, ratos Wistar machos (±270g, n=186) passaram por cirurgia estereotáxica para implante bilateral de cânulas-guia direcionadas ao CI. Esses animais receberam administração intra-CI de quimpirole (agonista D2), sulpirida (antagonista D2), SKF 38393 (agonista D1) ou SCH 23390 (antagonista D1), em diferentes doses, e foram submetidos aos testes do labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE) e ao campo aberto. Uma dose de sulpirida foi avaliada também no teste do sobressalto potencializado pelo medo (SPM). Quanto à avaliação das respostas defensivas no teste do LCE, foi observado que apenas a sulpirida diminuiu as entradas e o tempo despendido nos braços abertos...

Glutamatergic neurotransmission mediated by NMDA receptors in the inferior colliculus can modulate haloperidol-induced catalepsy

MELO, L. L.; SANTOS, P.; MEDEIROS, P.; MELLO, R. O.; FERRARI, E. A. M.; BRANDAO, M. L.; MAISONNETTE, S. S.; FRANCISCO, A.; COIMBRA, N. C.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.07%
The inferior colliculus (IC) is primarily involved in the processing of auditory information, but it is distinguished from other auditory nuclei in the brainstem by its connections with structures of the motor system. Functional evidence relating the IC to motor behavior derives from experiments showing that activation of the IC by electrical stimulation or excitatory amino acid microinjection causes freezing, escape-like behavior, and immobility. However, the nature of this immobility is still unclear. The present study examined the influence of excitatory amino acid-mediated mechanisms in the IC on the catalepsy induced by the dopamine receptor blocker haloperidol administered systemically (1 or 0.5 mg/kg) in rats. Haloperidol-induced catalepsy was challenged with prior intracollicular microinjections of glutamate NMDA receptor antagonists, MK-801 (15 or 30 mmol/0.5 mu l) and AP7 (10 or 20 nmol/0.5 mu l), or of the NMDA receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, 20 or 30 nmol/0.5 mu l). The results showed that intracollicular microinjection of MK-801 and AP7 previous to systemic injections of haloperidol significantly attenuated the catalepsy, as indicated by a reduced latency to step down from a horizontal bar. Accordingly, intracollicular microinjection of NMDA increased the latency to step down the bar. These findings suggest that glutamate-mediated mechanisms in the neural circuits at the IC level influence haloperidol-induced catalepsy and participate in the regulation of motor activity. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

Involvement of GABAergic mechanisms of the dorsal periaqueductal gray and inferior colliculus on unconditioned fear

Reimer,Adriano Edgar; Oliveira,Amanda Ribeiro de; Brandão,Marcus Lira
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.03%
The fact that the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) and inferior colliculus (IC), together with superior colliculus, medial hypothalamus and amygdala, constitute the brain aversion system has been well-established. Stepwise increases in the intensity of electrical stimulation of dPAG or IC cause freezing and escape responses, which are followed by a freezing behavior that lasts after the interruption of the stimulation. Freezing and escape are unconditioned defensive behaviors derived from the stimulation of the output centers for the defense reaction, whereas the post-stimulation freezing is the behavioral counterpart of the processing of aversive information. Although GABA-A mechanisms of the midbrain tectum exert a tonic inhibitory influence on the neural substrates of unconditioned fear, their influence on the processing of aversive information is not completely understood. Thus, the present study examines the effects of injections of the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol (1 and 2 nmol/0.2 µL) or the glutamic acid decarboxylase blocker semicarbazide (5 and 7.5 µg/0.2 µL) into dPAG or IC of Wistar rats on freezing and escape thresholds determined by electrical stimulation of these same structures and on post-stimulation freezing. Intra-dPAG injections of muscimol increased and semicarbazide decreased the freezing and escape thresholds of electrical stimulation of the dPAG. Only semicarbazide enhanced the dPAG post-stimulation freezing. Intra-IC injections of muscimol significantly increased aversive thresholds...

Conflicting Processes in the Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion: Behavioral and Molecular Aspects of Latency, Apparent Stagnation, and Spontaneous Recovery

Berman, Diego E.; Hazvi, Shoshi; Stehberg, Jimmy; Bahar, Amir; Dudai, Yadin
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.76%
The study of experimental extinction and of the spontaneous recovery of the extinguished memory could cast light on neurobiological mechanisms by which internal representations compete to control behavior. In this work, we use a combination of behavioral and molecular methods to dissect subprocesses of experimental extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Extinction of CTA becomes apparent only 90 min after the extinction trial. This latency is insensitive to muscarinic and β-adrenergic modulation and to protein synthesis inhibition in the insular cortex (IC). Immediately afterwards, however, the extinguishing trace becomes sensitive to β-adrenergic blockade and protein synthesis inhibition. The subsequent kinetics and magnitude of extinction depend on whether a spaced or massed extinction protocol is used. A massed protocol is highly effective in the short run, but results in apparent stagnation of extinction in the long-run, which conceals fast spontaneous recovery of the preextinguished trace. This recovery can be truncated by a β-adrenergic agonist or a cAMP analog in the insular cortex, suggesting that spontaneous overtaking of the behavioral control by the original association is regulated at least in part by β-adrenergic input...

Contribuição para o estudo da biologia das anémonas do género Actinia linnaeus, 1767 na costa europeia

Santos, Emília Margarida Cadeireiro dos
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário; A presente dissertação foca -se na biologia das anémonas -do-mar do género Actinia Linnaeus 1767, um grupo com ampla heterogeneidade morfológica e biogeográfica. Embora seja bastante comum, ainda existem dúvidas acerca da sua biologia, ecologia e taxonomia. A fim de contribuir para o conhecimento da biologia deste género, começou -se por utilizar uma técnica molecular para identificar as espécies deste género presentes na Península Ibérica. Adicionalmente, determinou-se a relação genética existente entre os adultos e os pólipos incubados em anémonas deste género presentes na costa Portuguesa, de modo a averiguar o tipo de reprodução utilizada por estas anémonas. Finalmente, estudou -se a presença e frequência de comportamentos agonísticos das anémonas da espécie A. fragacea Tugwell, 1856. O primeiro estudo permitiu validar a presença de três espécies do género Actinia na Península Ibérica: A. equina (Linnaeus, 1758) , A. schmidti Monteiro, Solé -Cava & Thorpe, 1997 e A. fragacea. A relação entre adultos e pólipos por eles incubados sugere fortemente que o tipo de reprodução associada à viviparidade é assexuada. Para o estudo do comportamento em A. fragacea foram realizados 24 testes...