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Tecendo o axé : uma abordagem antropológica da atual transnacionalização afro-religiosa nos paises do Cone Sul; Weaving of the “axé”:an anthropological approach to current African-brazilian religious transnationalization on southern cone countries

Bem, Daniel Francisco de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Redes de agentes afro-religiosos permitem a circulação de pessoas, objetos e ações entre o Brasil e o exterior. A partir da descrição etnográfica de contatos com pais-de-santo realizados entre 2005 e 2010 em Porto Alegre (BR), Santana do Livramento (BR) e Rivera (UY), Montevidéu (UY) e arredores, Buenos Aires (AR) e algumas cidades do conurbano e da província homônima, apresenta-se, nesta tese, o acompanhamento dos atores em seus trânsitos transnacionais e nas suas relações com as sociedades envolventes em cada cidade. Pela análise e interpretação dos dados etnográficos percebe-se que existe uma estrutura afro-religiosa compartilhada nessa região, mas que em cada caso esta apresenta diversificações locais da matriz de pensamento religioso afro-orientado. Esses “desvios estruturais” na afro-religiosidade variam em relação a outros dois pertencimentos: a nacionalidade e a identidade étnica. Além disso, a organização dos papéis rituais e sua distribuição por gênero e orientação sexual aparece como elemento importante nas cenas afro-religiosas platinas. É porque aquelas cidades, através das suas redes de agentes religiosos, estão em relação, histórica e presente, que ocorre essa tensão entre continuidade e diferenciação na estrutura afro-religiosa. Conclui-se tratar-se de um fenômeno transnacional...

Negotiating markets for health: an exploration of physicians’ engagement in dual practice in three African capital cities

Russo, Giuliano; McPake, Barbara; Fronteira, Inês; Ferrinho, Paulo
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Scarce evidence exists on the features, determinants and implications of physicians’ dual practice, especially in resource-poor settings. This study considered dual practice patterns in three African cities and the respective markets for physician services, with the objective of understanding the influence of local determinants on the practice. Forty-eight semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the three cities to understand features of the practice and the respective markets. A survey was carried out in a sample of 331 physicians to explore their characteristics and decisions to work in public and private sectors. Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were employed to explore differences in physicians’ engagement in dual practice across the three locations. Different forms of dual practice were found to exist in the three cities, with public physicians engaging in private practice outside but also inside public facilities, in regulated as well as unregulated ways. Thirty-four per cent of the respondents indicated that they worked in public practice only, and 11% that they engaged exclusively in private practice. The remaining 55% indicated that they engaged in some form of dual practice, 31% ‘outside’ public facilities...

INTRODUCTION: SUSTAINING THE LIFE OF THE POLIS

Geissler, P. Wenzel; Kelly, Ann H.; Manton, John; Prince, Ruth J.; Tousignant, Noémi
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2013 EN
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How are publics of protection and care defined in African cities today? The effects of globalization and neo-liberal policies on urban space are well documented. From London to São Paulo, denationalization, privatization, offshoring and cuts in state expenditure are creating enclaves and exclusions, resulting in fragmented, stratified social geographies (see Caldeira 2000; Ong 2006; Harvey 2006; Murray 2011). ‘Networked archipelagoes’, islands connected by transnational circulations of capital, displace other spatial relations and imaginaries. Spaces of encompassment, especially, such as ‘the nation’ or simply ‘society’ as defined by inclusion within a whole, lose practical value and intellectual purchase as referents of citizenship (Gupta and Ferguson 2002; Ferguson 2005). In African cities, where humanitarian, experimental or market logics dominate the distribution of sanitation and healthcare, this fragmentation is particularly stark (see, for example, Redfield 2006, 2012; Fassin 2007; Bredeloup et al. 2008; Nguyen 2012). Privilege and crisis interrupt older contiguities, delineating spaces and times of exception. The ‘public’ of health is defined by survival or consumption, obscuring the human as bearer of civic rights and responsibilities...

Urban Youth Bulges and Social Disorder : An Empirical Study of Asian and Sub-Saharan African Cities

Urdal, Henrik; Hoelscher, Kristian
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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By 2050, two-thirds of the world s population will live in cities, and the greatest growth in urban populations will take place in the least developed countries. This presents many governments with considerable challenges related to urban governance and the provision of services and opportunities to a burgeoning urban population. Among the concerns is that large youth bulges in urban centers could be a source of political instability and violence. Here, we assess this claim empirically using newly collected data on city-level urban social disorder, ranging from non-violent actions, such as demonstrations and strikes, to violent political actions, such as riots, terrorism, and armed conflict. The dataset covers 55 major cities in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa for 1960-2006. The study also utilizes a new United Nations Population Division dataset on urban populations by age and sex. The study further considers factors that could condition the effect of age structure, in particular the level of informal employment...

Patience and Action Pays : A Comparative Analysis of WSS Reforms in Three East African Cities

Mugisha, S.; Brown, A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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There have been significant efforts in the last 15 years to improve performance in water supply and sewerage services (WSS) operations of most cities in Africa. This has called for a number of reforms. WSS utilities in the three East African capital cities have been among the list that has undertaken such reform. Consequently, a number of legislative, institutional and managerial reforms, all aimed at creating good enabling environments to drive performance, have been undertaken. This paper outlines some of these reforms in WSS operations of the three capital cities of Kampala, Nairobi and Dar es Salaam. We present, amongst other things, the key reform drivers, reforms undertaken, achievements and underlying success factors. We conclude that there is need to synergise the use of incentives, strong leadership, managerial autonomy and accountability as important buttresses for successful reforms. In doing all this, political support and, indeed, support from other stakeholders is important. We also note that reforms need time, adequate stakeholder mapping and incorporation of significant local capacity development to be fully effective.

Cities in a Globalizing World : Governance, Performance, and Sustainability

Léautier, Frannie
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This book contributes to the empirical and theoretical analysis of the performance of cities in a globalizing world, bringing together a range of perspectives on the policy implications for urban management. It provides guidance for policymakers on ways of capitalizing on the global economy that will make the most of the cities resources and managerial infrastructure as well as guiding investment and policy for the future. The book provides examples of how conflicts can be managed between individual and collective interests, such as the extensive environmental and social consultation undertaken in the planning and implementation of the Jamuna Bridge in Bangladesh, which now joins cities that had never seen daily connection between people in markets. The authors present empirical evidence that suggests that good governance and globalization tend to improve city-level performance in both the access to services as well as the quality of delivery of services which allows cities to translate global opportunity into local value for their citizens. This research also raises difficult questions of causality: does more globalization cause better governance...

The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Integrated Urban Water Management, Background Report

Echart, Jochen; Ghebremichael, Kebreab; Khatri, Krishna; Mutikanga, Harrison; Sempewo, Jotham; Tsegaye, Seneshaw; Vairavamoorthy, Kalanithy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The primary objective of this report is to provide a coherent and comprehensive review on integrated urban water management (IUWM) approach to assist public authorities to identify and address the future challenges of urban water supply, sanitation and flood management in African cities. This report presents the existing and future challenges in Africa, the possible options for innovative technologies and approaches for their breakthrough and a way forward to achieve the objectives of IUWM. It highlights technical and institutional constraints of the IUWM in Africa. It presents the global and African best practices and trends in IUWM which are linked to urban development and which have very good lessons learnt that can be shared within and among the cities in Africa. The report consists of four chapters. Chapter two reviews the existing condition, future challenges and opportunities in Urban Water Sector (UWS) in Africa. The review covers the current situation of urban water systems and their management approaches; the major future change pressures (climate change...

A Systemic Analysis of Land Markets and Land Institutions in West African Cities : Rules and Practices--The Case of Bamako, Mali

Durand-Lasserve, Alain; Durand-Lasserve, Maylis; Selod, Harris
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper presents a new type of land market analysis relevant to cities with plural tenure systems as in West Africa. The methodology hinges on a systemic analysis of land delivery channels, which helps to show how land is initially made available for circulation, how tenure can be formalized incrementally, and the different means whereby households can access land. The analysis is applied to the area of Bamako in Mali, where information was collected through (i) interviews with key informants, (ii) a literature review on land policies, public allocations, and customary transfers of land, (iii) a press review on land disputes, and (iv) a survey of more than 1,600 land transfers of un-built plots that occurred between 2009 and 2012. The analysis finds that land is mostly accessed through an informal customary channel, whereby peri-urban land is transformed from agricultural to residential use, and through a public channel, which involves the administrative allocation of residential plots to households. The integrated analysis of land markets and land institutions stresses the complexity of procedures and the extra-legality of practices that strongly affect the functioning of formal and informal markets and make access to land costly and insecure...

Scoping Study : Urban Mobility in Three Cities--Addis Ababa, Dar es Salaam, and Nairobi

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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A comprehensive investigative study was implemented in 2002, on the status, and development of urban mobility in three Sub-Saharan African cities - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Nairobi, Kenya; and, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Its purpose was to gather information in terms of size, regional spread, and availability data, that would allow identification of issues affecting urban mobility in the related cities, and prepare action plans, that would lead to policy reforms. This report focuses on the findings of such study, stipulating a keen awareness in each city, that many of the urban transport problems arise because of lack of leadership, and coordination, not just because of poor funding, which is of course a problem, and, further highlights the inability of organizational structures to respond in a coherent, and focused manner. The report concludes that the only way to derive significant improvements in the performance of the urban transport sector, is to reorganize the way in which urban transport is planned...

Economics of South African Townships : Special Focus on Diepsloot

Mahajan, Sandeep
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Group Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank Group
EN_US
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36.27%
Countries everywhere are divided into two distinct spatial realms: one urban, one rural. Classic models of development predict faster growth in the urban sector, causing rapid migration from rural areas to cities, lifting average incomes in both places. The process continues until the marginal productivity of labor is equalized across the two realms. The pattern of rising urbanization accompanying economic growth has become one of the most visible and self-evident empirical facts of development across the world, with almost 200,000 people making the rural-to-urban trek every day, according to the United Nations. Cities across the world are powering growth, development, and modernization. The study then takes a close look at Diepsloot, a large township in the Johannesburg Metropolitan Area, to bring out more vividly the economic realities and choices of township residents. Although atypical in many ways, by the virtue of being newer, poorer, and more informal, with a bigger concentration of migrants (many of them foreign nationals)...

Land Delivery Systems in West African Cities : The Example of Bamako, Mali

Durand-Lasserve, Alain; Durand-Lasserve, Maÿlis; Selod, Harris
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank; and Agence Française de Développement Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank; and Agence Française de Développement
EN_US
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46.11%
Urban and peri-urban land markets in rapidly expanding West African cities operate within and across different coexisting tenure regimes and involve complex procedures to obtain or make land available for housing. Because a structured framework lacks for the analysis of such systems, this book proposes a systemic approach and applies it to Bamako and its surrounding areas. The framework revolves around the description of land delivery channels: starting from the status of tenure when the land is first placed in circulation for residential use, it identifies the processes whereby tenure can be improved, the types of transactions that take place along the way, and interactions between land delivery channels.

Levees of Hope: African American steamboat workers, cities, and slave escapes on the antebellum mississipi, journal of urban history.

Buchanan, T.
Fonte: Sage Publications Inc Publicador: Sage Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
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The Mississippi River system was an important site of African American resistance to slavery. This article illustrates that slaves used the western steamboat economy to run away from their masters, a history that has been neglected by historians. Western cities, and the commercial working class that grew with them, were crucial to these escape networks. The labor mobility of the river, and the freedoms that came with it, were a dramatic extension of the relative freedoms of urban slavery. Runaway slaves knew that cities offered the hope of contact with a broader pan-Mississippi African American community that could allow them to ride the decks of steamboats to freedom.; Thomas C. Buchanan; © 2004 SAGE Publications

The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Diagnostic of Urban Water Management in 31 Cities in Africa, Companion Volume

Closas, Alvar; Naughton, Meleesa; Jacobsen, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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By 2030, Africa's urban population will double, and the difficulties African cities currently face in providing sustainable water services will be exacerbated. 'The future of water in African cities: why waste water?' argues that the traditional approach of one source, one system, and one discharge cannot close the water gap. A more integrated, sustainable, and flexible approach, which takes into account new concepts such as water fit to a purpose, is needed in African cities. The book provides examples of cities in Africa and beyond that have already implemented Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) approaches both in terms of technical and institutional solutions. Case studies explore the ways in which IUWM can help meet future water demand in African cities. Recent work carried out by Bahri (2012) on IUWM for the Global Water Partnership has also emphasized the necessity to examine the challenges posed by urban sprawl for urban planners and to recognize the need for coordinate, response, and sustainable resource management across sectors...

The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Integrating Urban Planning and Water Management in Sub-Saharan Africa, Background Report

Bloch, Robin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper is one of a series of analytical studies commissioned by the World Bank's Africa Region and Water Anchor which are intended to identify and address the future challenges of urban water supply, sanitation and flood management in Sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) cities and towns. Following the terms of reference for the assignment, and as indicated by its title, the paper is directed at understanding and describing the linkages and interdependencies between water management and water security on the one hand, and urbanization, urban planning and development on the other. The paper is structured in six sections. Section one presents an overview of urbanization trends in SSA. This is followed by a discussion in Section two of what can be seen as the corollary of the unprecedented urban population growth now occurring and projected for SSA, large-scale urban expansion, involving potentially massive increases in urban land cover. This expansion has implications, also discussed in section two, for the internal structuring of African cities and towns...

The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water?

Jacobsen, Michael; Webster, Michael; Vairavamoorthy, Kalanithy
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.4%
The overall goal of this book is to change the way urban policy makers think about urban water management, planning, and project design in Africa. African cities are growing quickly, and their current water management systems cannot keep up with growing demand. It will take a concerted effort on the part of decision makers across sectors and institutions to find a way to provide sustainable water services to African city dwellers. This book argues that these complex challenges require innovative solutions and a management system that can work across institutional, sectoral, and geographic boundaries. A survey conducted for this analysis shows that African city leaders and utility operators are looking for ways to include a broader range of issues, such as water resources management, flood and drought preparation, rainwater harvesting, and solid waste management, than previously addressed in their water management plans. This book argues that integrated urban water management (IUWM) will help policy makers in African cities consider a wider range of solutions...

Financing Africa's Cities : The Imperative of Local Investment

Paulais, Thierry
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
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36.37%
African countries confront vast economic, social, and environmental challenges. Although urban issues bear upon many of these challenges, they have remained a secondary priority for governments and the international community. The growing gap between infrastructure and services already built and those needed demands a drastic change in the scale of urban financing. This book aims to begin that reexamination. It offers a broad methodological perspective and several operational avenues to bolster and modernize the financing that cities urgently require. The financing of urban investments involves several aspects of local government fiscal matters: public finance, administrative law, taxation, monitoring and controlling of subsovereign debt, urban administration and governance, and so on. It also involves other sectors, such as land management, land development, and housing. This book defines its geographic scope as two concentric circles within Africa, as described below. It also draws on other regions: the most developed or emerging countries outside the African continent that can furnish examples illuminating or adaptable to, the African context. This volume is organized into five chapters and an appendix containing eight case studies. Chapter one addresses the fundamentals. Chapter two analyzes urbanization and sectoral policies across the African continent. Chapter three is dedicated to Africa's decentralization...

Decentralization and Local Democracy in the World : First Global Report by United Cities and Local Governments 2008

United Cities and Local Government; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: United Cities and Local Government and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: United Cities and Local Government and the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This overall picture of decentralization and local democracy in African countries shows significant progress at the strictly institutional level. No country now publicly opposes the implementation of decentralization policies. Local governments exist in all countries, and elections are held to elect local authorities. The extent of such progress must, however, be set against a number of persistent obstacles that continue to hinder a real progression of decentralization in Africa. Difficulties remain within states concerning the transfer of financial resources needed to match the devolved responsibilities. Local governments also face difficulties in increasing their own resources (aside from state-transfers and grants) at a faster pace. Ensuring the availability of qualified human resources at the local level and improving public access to local services are also fundamental issues of concern.

Land and Urban Policies for Poverty Reduction : Proceedings of the Third International Urban Research Symposium Held in Brasilia, April 2005, Volume 1

Freire, Mila; Lima, Ricardo; Cira, Dean; Ferguson, Bruce; Kessides, Christine; Mota, Jose Aroudo; Motta, Diana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC and Institute for Applied Economic Research, Brasilia Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC and Institute for Applied Economic Research, Brasilia
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The first paper of this section (Durand-Laserve) documents how increasing pressures on urban land and the 'commodification' of shelter and settlement has increased 'market evictions' of families holding intermediate tide to property, although international declarations and pressures have contributed to reducing 'forced evictions.' The second paper (Mooya and Cloete) uses the tools of the New Institutional Economics to analyze the argument in Hernando DeSoto's path-breaking book, The Mystery of Capital, that full legal tide is the key to turning 'dead capital' in the form of informal property held by many low-income families into an economic asset and to detonating broad-based economic growth. The paper concludes that intermediate forms of tenure can have the virtues of full legal tide if properly constructed, and then examines the case of Namibia in this context. The third paper (Fernandes) documents and assesses the recent efforts of the Brazilian federal Ministry of Cities to develop a comprehensive approach for regularizing title throughout that country. In the fourth paper...

Land and Urban Policies for Poverty Reduction : Proceedings of the Third International Urban Research Symposium Held in Brasilia, April 2005, Volume 2

Freire, Mila; Lima, Ricardo; Cira, Dean; Ferguson, Bruce; Kessides, Christine; Mota, Jose Aroudo; Motta, Diana
Fonte: World Bank, Brasilia Publicador: World Bank, Brasilia
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
The first paper of this section (Durand-Laserve) documents how increasing pressures on urban land and the 'commodification' of shelter and settlement has increased 'market evictions' of families holding intermediate tide to property, although international declarations and pressures have contributed to reducing 'forced evictions.' The second paper (Mooya and Cloete) uses the tools of the New Institutional Economics to analyze the argument in Hernando DeSoto's path-breaking book, The Mystery of Capital, that full legal tide is the key to turning 'dead capital' in the form of informal property held by many low-income families into an economic asset and to detonating broad-based economic growth. The paper concludes that intermediate forms of tenure can have the virtues of full legal tide if properly constructed, and then examines the case of Namibia in this context. The third paper (Fernandes) documents and assesses the recent efforts of the Brazilian federal Ministry of Cities to develop a comprehensive approach for regularizing title throughout that country. In the fourth paper...

GLOBALIZING THE INFORMAL CITY: NEOLIBERALISM AND URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN ACCRA, GHANA

Habib, ABDUL ALIM
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Over the last decade, and particularly the last five years, state officials in Ghana’s capital city, Accra, have intensified their resolve to ‘modernize’ the city and make it a competitive destination for global investments. In the same period, exercises by city authorities to remove or at least suppress practices of ordinary residents in the informal sector have become more frequent and intensified. Groups such as street hawkers, market women, and slum dwellers have become the main target of periodic ‘decongestion exercises’. In this dissertation I investigate how the policies and practices associated with the ‘globalizing’ and ‘modernizing’ ambition of the state intersect with the interests of the majority of urban residents whose everyday social and economic practices are concentrated in the informal sector, a sector deemed to be deleterious to the desired image for the city. I argue that contemporary city-making in Ghana is driven mainly by a combination of economic, nationalist and individual interests. In examining how cultural and social locations such as gender and ethnicity mediate the relationship between the state and residents, I demonstrate how contemporary forms of neoliberal urban governance shape, and are being shaped by...