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African Americans respond to stigmatization: the meanings and salience of confronting, deflecting conflict, educating the ignorant and ‘managing the self’

Welburn, Jessica; Fleming, Crystal; Lamont, Michele
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
Drawing on interviews with 150 randomly sampled African Americans, we analyse how members of a stigmatized group understand their experience of stigmatization and assess appropriate responses when asked about the best approach to deal with stigmatization and about responses to specific incidents. Combining in-depth interviews with a systematic coding of the data, we make original contributions to the previous literature by identifying the relative salience of modalities and tools for responding. We also examine closely through qualitative data the two most salient modalities of response, ‘confronting’ and ‘deflating’ conflict, the most salient tools, teaching out-group members about African Americans, and ‘the management of the self’, a rationale for deflating conflict that is largely overlooked in previous studies. We find that ‘confronting’ is the more popular modality for responding to stigmatization among African Americans.; African and African American Studies; Sociology

Racial differences between African-American and white women in insulin resistance and visceral adiposity are associated with differences in apoCIII containing apoAI and apoB lipoproteins

Wang, Liyun; Sacks, Frank M; Furtado, Jeremy D; Ricks, Madia; Courville, Amber B; Sumner, Anne E
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.65%
Background: African-Americans have higher HDL, less visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and lower triglyceride (TG) and apoCIII concentrations than whites, despite being more insulin-resistant. We studied in African-American and white women the influences of insulin resistance and VAT on the apoAI concentrations of two HDL subspecies, one that contains apoCIII that is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and one that does not have apoCIII that is associated with decreased CHD; and on the apoCIII concentrations of HDL and of the apoB lipoproteins. Methods: The participants were 32 women (14 African-Americans, 18 white) of similar age (39 ± 12 vs. 42 ± 11y). Mean BMI was 34 kg/m2 in the African-Americans compared to 30 in the whites. A standard diet (33% fat, 52% carbohydrate, 15% protein) was provided for 7 days followed by a test meal (40% fat, 40% carbohydrate, 20% protein) on Day 8. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated from the minimal model. Results: After controlling for SI, African-Americans have a higher mean apoAI level in HDL with apoCIII compared with whites (12.9 ± 2.8 and 10.9 ± 2.9 mg/dL, respectively, P = 0.05). SI was associated with higher apoAI in HDL with apoCIII, whereas VAT was not associated with this HDL subspecies. This pattern of results was reversed for apoCIII concentrations in apoB lipoproteins. After adjusting for SI...

Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Healthy Eating Index among Haitian Americans and African Americans with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Huffman, Fatma G.; De La Cera, Mauricio; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Zarini, Gustavo C.; Exebio, Joel C.; Gundupalli, Deva; Shaban, Lamya
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
Ethnicities within Black populations have not been distinguished in most nutrition studies. We sought to examine dietary differences between African Americans (AA) and Haitian Americans (HA) with and without type 2 diabetes using the Healthy Eating Index, 2005 (HEI-05), and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). The design was cross-sectional (225 AA, 246 HA) and recruitment was by community outreach. The eating indices were calculated from data collected with the Harvard food-frequency questionnaire. African Americans had lower HEI-05 scores (−8.67, 13.1); , than HA. Haitian American females and AA males had higher AHEI than AA females and HA males, respectively, () adjusting for age and education. Participants with diabetes had higher adherence to the HEI-05 (1.78, 6.01), , and lower adherence to the AHEI (16.3, −3.19), , , than participants without diabetes. The findings underscore the importance of disaggregating ethnicities and disease state when assessing diet.

Factors of Inflammation in Haitian Americans and African Americans with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Antwi, Janet
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
Chronic low-grade inflammation has been implicated in the processes leading to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its progression. Non-Hispanic Blacks bear a disproportionate burden of T2D and are highly susceptible to inflammation. This cross-sectional study assessed and compared the serum levels of established adipocytokines; interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, and novel adipocytokines; chemerin and omentin in Haitian and African Americans with and without T2D. The relationships of these adipocytokines with metabolic syndrome (MetS), anthropometric and HOMA2 measures by ethnicity and diabetes status were also assessed. Serum levels of IL-6, CRP, leptin, chemerin and omentin were determined by the ELISA method. HOMA2 measures were calculated for insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-IS) and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Analyses of available data for 230 Haitian Americans and 241 African Americans (240 with and 231 without T2D) for the first study showed that Haitian Americans with and without MetS had lower levels of IL-6 and CRP compared to African Americans with and without MetS (P Ethnic-specific diabetes intervention and treatment programs must be designed to target Haitian Americans and African Americans as separate unique groups...

The association of depression and perceived stress with beta cell function between African and Haitian Americans with and without type 2 diabetes

Huffman, Fatma G.; Vallasciani, Maria; Vaccaro, Joan; Exebio, Joel C.; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Nayer, Ali; Ajabshir, Sahar
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
Background: Diabetes and diabetes-related complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Depressive symptoms and perceived stress have been identified as possible risk factors for beta cell dysfunction and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between depression symptoms and perceived stress with beta cell function between African and Haitian Americans with and without type 2 diabetes. Participants and Methods: Informed consent and data were available for 462 participants (231 African Americans and 231 Haitian Americans) for this cross-sectional study. A demographic questionnaire developed by the Primary Investigator was used to collect information regarding age, gender, smoking, and ethnicity. Diabetes status was determined by self-report and confirmed by fasting blood glucose. Anthropometrics (weight, and height and waist circumference) and vital signs (blood pressure) were taken. Blood samples were drawn after 8 10 hours over-night fasting to measure lipid panel, fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations. The homeostatic model assessment, version 2 (HOMA2) computer model was used to calculate beta cell function. Depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results: Moderate to severe depressive symptoms were more likely for persons with diabetes (p = 0.030). There were no differences in perceived stress between ethnicity and diabetes status (p = 0.283). General linear models for participants with and without type 2 diabetes using beta cell function as the dependent variable showed no association with depressive symptoms and perceived stress; however...

Effect of Medical Advice for Diet on Diabetes Self-Management and Glycemic Control for Haitian and African Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

Huffman, Fatma G.; Exebio, Joel C.; Vaccaro, Joan; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Dixon, Zisca
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
Adequate care of type 2 diabetes is reflected by the individual’s adherence to dietary guidance; yet, few patients are engaged in diabetes self-care at the recommended level, regardless of race/ethnicity. Few studies on the effect of dietary medical advice on diabetes self-management (DSM) and glycemic control have been conducted on Haitian and African American adults with type 2 diabetes. These relationships were assessed in total of 254 Blacks with type 2 diabetes (Haitian Americans = 129; African Americans = 125) recruited from Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida by community outreach methods. Although dietary advice received was not significantly different between the two Black ethnicities, given advice “to follow a diet” as a predictor of “using food groups” was significant for Haitian Americans, but not for African Americans. Haitian Americans who were advised to follow a diet were approximately 3 times more likely to sometimes or often use food groups (or exchange lists) in planning meals. Less than optimal glycemic control (A1C > 7.2) was inversely related to DSM for African Americans; but the relationship was not significant for Haitian Americans. A one unit increase in DSM score decreased the odds ratio point estimate of having less than optimal glycemic control (A1C > 7.2%) by a factor of 0.94 in African Americans. These results suggest that medical advice for diet plans may not be communicated effectively for DSM for some races/ethnicities. Research aimed at uncovering the enablers and barriers of diet management specific to Black ethnicities with type 2 diabetes is recommended.

Relationship of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on C-Reactive Protein and Homocysteine in Haitian and African Americans with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Huffman, Fatma G.; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Exebio, Joel C.; Ajabshir, Sahar; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Shaban, Lemia H.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.62%
Background: Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) may be protective of cardiovascular risk factors for vulnerable populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between n-3 with, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocysteine (HCY) in Black minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 406 participants: Haitian Americans (HA): n=238. African Americans (AA): n=172. Participants were recruited from a randomly generated mailing lists, local diabetes educators, community health practitioners and advertisements from 2008-2010. Sociodemographics and anthropometrics were collected and used to adjust analyses. All dietary variables were collected using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and used to quantify vitamin components. Blood was collected to measure CVD risk factors (blood lipids, HCY, and CRP). Results: African Americans had higher waist circumferences and C-reactive protein and consumed more calories as compared to Haitian Americans. Omega 3 fatty acid intake per calorie did not differ between these ethnicities, yet African Americans with low n-3 intake were three times more likely to have high C-reactive protein as compared to their counterparts [OR=3. 32 (1. 11...

Perceived Stress and Self‑rated Health of Haitian and African Americans with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Huffman, Fatma G.; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Ajabshir, Sahar; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Exebio, Joel C.; Dixon, Zisca
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
Background: Blacks have a higher incidence of diabetes and its related complications. Self-rated health (SRH) and perceived stress indicators are associated with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between SRH, perceived stress and diabetes status among two Black ethnicities. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study included 258 Haitian Americans and 249 African Americans with (n = 240) and without type 2 diabetes (n = 267) (N = 507). Recruitment was performed by community outreach. Results: Haitian-Americans were less likely to report ‘fair to poor’ health as compared to African Americans [OR=0.58 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.95), P = 0.032]; yet, Haitian Americans had greater perceived stress than African Americans (P = 0.002). Having diabetes was associated with ‘fair to poor’ SRH [OR=3.14 (95% CI: 2.09, 4.72),P < 0.001] but not perceived stress (P = 0.072). Haitian-Americans (P = 0.023), females (P = 0.003) and those participants having ‘poor or fair’ SRH (P < 0.001) were positively associated with perceived stress (Nagelkerke R2=0.151). Conclusion: Perceived stress associated with ‘poor or fair’ SRH suggests that screening for perceived stress should be considered part of routine medical care; albeit...

Ethnic Differences in Insulin Resistance, Adiponectin Levels and Abdominal Obesity: Haitian Americans and African Americans, with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Cheena, Amanpreet K.; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Exebio, Joel C.; Ajabshir, Sahar; Shaban, Lemia; Antwi, Janet; Vaccaro, Joan; Huffman, Fatma G.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/octet-stream
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.64%
Background: Metabolic outcomes of obesity and its associated disorders may not be equivalent across ethnicity and diabetes status. Aim: In this paper, we examined the association of abdominal obesity, by ethnicity and diabetes status, for indicators of glucose metabolism in Blacks. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Haitian Americans (n= 186) and African Americans (n= 148) with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Student’s t-test and Chi-squared test were used to assess differences in mean and proportion values between ethnicities with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Relationship between insulin resistance, ethnicity, diabetes status, abdominal obesity, and adiponectin levels were analyzed by analysis of covariance while controlling for confounding variables. Results:Haitian American participants were older (P = .032), had higher fasting plasma glucose (P = .036), and A1C (P = .016), but had lower levels of Hs-CRP (P < .001), insulin and HOMA2-IR and lower abdominal obesity (P = .030), than African Americans. Haitian Americans had significantly lower HOMA2-IR (P = .008) than African Americans when comparing both ethnicities with T2DM, high abdominal obesity, and adiponectin levels lower than the median ( Conclusion: The clinical significance of observed differences in insulin resistance...

Low appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) with limited mobility and poor health outcomes in middle-aged African Americans

Malmstrom, T.; Miller, D.; Herning, M.; Morley, J.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
Background - Recent efforts to provide a consensus definition propose that sarcopenia be considered a clinical syndrome associated with the loss of both skeletal muscle mass and muscle function that occurs with aging. Validation of sarcopenia definitions that include both low muscle mass and poor muscle function is needed. Methods - In the population-based African American Health (AAH) study (N = 998 at baseline/wave 1), muscle mass and mobility were evaluated in a clinical testing center in a subsample of N = 319 persons (ages 52–68) at wave 4 (2004). Muscle mass was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and mobility by a 6-min walk test and 4-m gait walk test. Height corrected appendicular skeletal mass (ASM; 9.0 ± 1.5 in n = 124 males, 8.3 ± 2.2 in n = 195 females) was computed as total lean muscle mass in arms and legs (kilograms) divided by the square of height (meters). Cross-sectional and longitudinal (6-year) associations of low ASM (bottom 25 % AAH sample; <7.96 males and <7.06 females) and low ASM with limited mobility (4-m gait walk ≤1 m/s or 6-min walk <400 m) were examined for basic activities of daily living (ADL) difficulties, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) difficulties...

Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource Study

Fox, E.R.; Young, J.H.; Li, Y.V.; Dreisbach, A.W.; Keating, B.J.; Musani, S.K.; Liu, K.; Morrison, A.C.; Ganesh, S.; Kutlar, A.; Ramachandran, V.S.; Polak, J.F.; Fabsitz, R.R.; Dries, D.L.; Farlow, D.N.; Redline, S.; Adeyemo, A.; Hirschorn, J.N.; Sun, Y.V
Fonte: Oxford University Press (OUP) Publicador: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unknown if these variants confer susceptibility in people of African ancestry. Here, we examined genome-wide and candidate gene associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium consisting of 8591 AAs. Genotypes included genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data utilizing the Affymetrix 6.0 array with imputation to 2.5 million HapMap SNPs and candidate gene SNP data utilizing a 50K cardiovascular gene-centric array (ITMAT-Broad-CARe [IBC] array). For Affymetrix data, the strongest signal for DBP was rs10474346 (P= 3.6 × 10−8) located near GPR98 and ARRDC3. For SBP, the strongest signal was rs2258119 in C21orf91 (P= 4.7 × 10−8). The top IBC association for SBP was rs2012318 (P= 6.4 × 10−6) near SLC25A42 and for DBP was rs2523586 (P= 1.3 × 10−6) near HLA-B. None of the top variants replicated in additional AA (n = 11 882) or European-American (n = 69 899) cohorts. We replicated previously reported European-American blood pressure SNPs in our AA samples (SH2B3...

Association of genetic loci with sleep apnea in European Americans and African-Americans: the Candidate Gene Association resource (CARe)

Patel, S.; Goodloe, R.; De, G.; Kowgier, M.; Weng, J.; Buxbaum, S.; Cade, B.; Fulop, T.; Gharib, S.; Gottlieb, D.; Hillman, D.; Larkin, E.; Lauderdale, D.; Li, L.; Mukherjee, S.; Palmer, L.; Zee, P.; Zhu, X.; Redline, S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to have a strong familial basis, no genetic polymorphisms influencing apnea risk have been identified in cross-cohort analyses. We utilized the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) to identify sleep apnea susceptibility loci. Using a panel of 46,449 polymorphisms from roughly 2,100 candidate genes on a customized Illumina iSelect chip, we tested for association with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) as well as moderate to severe OSA (AHI≥15) in 3,551 participants of the Cleveland Family Study and two cohorts participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Among 647 African-Americans, rs11126184 in the pleckstrin (PLEK) gene was associated with OSA while rs7030789 in the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1) gene was associated with AHI using a chip-wide significance threshold of p-value<2×10−6. Among 2,904 individuals of European ancestry, rs1409986 in the prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER3) gene was significantly associated with OSA. Consistency of effects between rs7030789 and rs1409986 in LPAR1 and PTGER3 and apnea phenotypes were observed in independent clinic-based cohorts. Novel genetic loci for apnea phenotypes were identified through the use of customized gene chips and meta-analyses of cohort data with replication in clinic-based samples. The identified SNPs all lie in genes associated with inflammation suggesting inflammation may play a role in OSA pathogenesis.; Sanjay R. Patel...

A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans

Palmer, N.D.; McDonough, C.W.; Hicks, P.J.; Roh, B.H.; Wing, M.R.; Sandy An, S.; Hester, J.M.; Cooke, J.N.; Bostrom, M.A.; Rudock, M.E.; Talbert, M.E.; Lewis, J.P.; DIAGRAM Consortium; MAGIC Consortium; Ferrara, A.; Lu, L.; Ziegler, J.T.; Sale, M.M.; Dive
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P,0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P,0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P,2.561028). SNP rs7560163 (P=7.061029, OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67–0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P...

The association of depression and perceived stress with beta cell function between African and Haitian Americans with and without type 2 diabetes

Huffman, Fatma G.; Vallasciani, Maria; Vaccaro, Joan; Exebio, Joel C.; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Nayer, Ali; Ajabshir, Sahar
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
Background: Diabetes and diabetes-related complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Depressive symptoms and perceived stress have been identified as possible risk factors for beta cell dysfunction and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between depression symptoms and perceived stress with beta cell function between African and Haitian Americans with and without type 2 diabetes. Participants and Methods: Informed consent and data were available for 462 participants (231 African Americans and 231 Haitian Americans) for this cross-sectional study. A demographic questionnaire developed by the Primary Investigator was used to collect information regarding age, gender, smoking, and ethnicity. Diabetes status was determined by self-report and confirmed by fasting blood glucose. Anthropometrics (weight, and height and waist circumference) and vital signs (blood pressure) were taken. Blood samples were drawn after 8 10 hours over-night fasting to measure lipid panel, fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations. The homeostatic model assessment, version 2 (HOMA2) computer model was used to calculate beta cell function. Depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results: Moderate to severe depressive symptoms were more likely for persons with diabetes (p = 0.030). There were no differences in perceived stress between ethnicity and diabetes status (p = 0.283). General linear models for participants with and without type 2 diabetes using beta cell function as the dependent variable showed no association with depressive symptoms and perceived stress; however...

Ethnic Differences in Insulin Resistance, Adiponectin Levels and Abdominal Obesity: Haitian Americans and African Americans, with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Cheena, Amanpreet K.; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Exebio, Joel C.; Ajabshir, Sahar; Shaban, Lemia; Antwi, Janet; Vaccaro, Joan; Huffman, Fatma G.
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.64%
Background: Metabolic outcomes of obesity and its associated disorders may not be equivalent across ethnicity and diabetes status. Aim: In this paper, we examined the association of abdominal obesity, by ethnicity and diabetes status, for indicators of glucose metabolism in Blacks. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Haitian Americans (n= 186) and African Americans (n= 148) with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Student’s t-test and Chi-squared test were used to assess differences in mean and proportion values between ethnicities with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Relationship between insulin resistance, ethnicity, diabetes status, abdominal obesity, and adiponectin levels were analyzed by analysis of covariance while controlling for confounding variables. Results:Haitian American participants were older (P = .032), had higher fasting plasma glucose (P = .036), and A1C (P = .016), but had lower levels of Hs-CRP (P < .001), insulin and HOMA2-IR and lower abdominal obesity (P = .030), than African Americans. Haitian Americans had significantly lower HOMA2-IR (P = .008) than African Americans when comparing both ethnicities with T2DM, high abdominal obesity, and adiponectin levels lower than the median ( Conclusion: The clinical significance of observed differences in insulin resistance...

Relationship of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on C-Reactive Protein and Homocysteine in Haitian and African Americans with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Huffman, Fatma G.; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Exebio, Joel C.; Ajabshir, Sahar; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Shaban, Lemia H.
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.62%
Background: Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) may be protective of cardiovascular risk factors for vulnerable populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between n-3 with, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocysteine (HCY) in Black minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 406 participants: Haitian Americans (HA): n=238. African Americans (AA): n=172. Participants were recruited from a randomly generated mailing lists, local diabetes educators, community health practitioners and advertisements from 2008-2010. Sociodemographics and anthropometrics were collected and used to adjust analyses. All dietary variables were collected using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and used to quantify vitamin components. Blood was collected to measure CVD risk factors (blood lipids, HCY, and CRP). Results: African Americans had higher waist circumferences and C-reactive protein and consumed more calories as compared to Haitian Americans. Omega 3 fatty acid intake per calorie did not differ between these ethnicities, yet African Americans with low n-3 intake were three times more likely to have high C-reactive protein as compared to their counterparts [OR=3. 32 (1. 11...

Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Healthy Eating Index among Haitian Americans and African Americans with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Huffman, Fatma G.; De La Cera, Mauricio; Vaccaro, Joan A.; Zarini, Gustavo C.; Exebio, Joel C.; Gundupalli, Deva; Shaban, Lamya
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
Ethnicities within Black populations have not been distinguished in most nutrition studies. We sought to examine dietary differences between African Americans (AA) and Haitian Americans (HA) with and without type 2 diabetes using the Healthy Eating Index, 2005 (HEI-05), and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). The design was cross-sectional (225 AA, 246 HA) and recruitment was by community outreach. The eating indices were calculated from data collected with the Harvard food-frequency questionnaire. African Americans had lower HEI-05 scores (−8.67, 13.1); , than HA. Haitian American females and AA males had higher AHEI than AA females and HA males, respectively, () adjusting for age and education. Participants with diabetes had higher adherence to the HEI-05 (1.78, 6.01), , and lower adherence to the AHEI (16.3, −3.19), , , than participants without diabetes. The findings underscore the importance of disaggregating ethnicities and disease state when assessing diet.

Effect of Medical Advice for Diet on Diabetes Self-Management and Glycemic Control for Haitian and African Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

Huffman, Fatma G.; Exebio, Joel C.; Vaccaro, Joan; Zarini, Gustavo G.; Dixon, Zisca
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
Adequate care of type 2 diabetes is reflected by the individual’s adherence to dietary guidance; yet, few patients are engaged in diabetes self-care at the recommended level, regardless of race/ethnicity. Few studies on the effect of dietary medical advice on diabetes self-management (DSM) and glycemic control have been conducted on Haitian and African American adults with type 2 diabetes. These relationships were assessed in total of 254 Blacks with type 2 diabetes (Haitian Americans = 129; African Americans = 125) recruited from Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida by community outreach methods. Although dietary advice received was not significantly different between the two Black ethnicities, given advice “to follow a diet” as a predictor of “using food groups” was significant for Haitian Americans, but not for African Americans. Haitian Americans who were advised to follow a diet were approximately 3 times more likely to sometimes or often use food groups (or exchange lists) in planning meals. Less than optimal glycemic control (A1C > 7.2) was inversely related to DSM for African Americans; but the relationship was not significant for Haitian Americans. A one unit increase in DSM score decreased the odds ratio point estimate of having less than optimal glycemic control (A1C > 7.2%) by a factor of 0.94 in African Americans. These results suggest that medical advice for diet plans may not be communicated effectively for DSM for some races/ethnicities. Research aimed at uncovering the enablers and barriers of diet management specific to Black ethnicities with type 2 diabetes is recommended.

A Pooled Analysis of Body Mass Index and Mortality among African Americans

Cohen, Sarah S.; Park, Yikyung; Signorello, Lisa B.; Patel, Alpa V.; Boggs, Deborah A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Gillanders, Elizabeth; Monroe, Kristine R.; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington; Bethea, Traci N.; Black, Amanda;
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.61%
Pooled analyses among whites and East Asians have demonstrated positive associations between all-cause mortality and body mass index (BMI), but studies of African Americans have yielded less consistent results. We examined the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in a sample of African Americans pooled from seven prospective cohort studies: NIH-AARP, 1995–2009; Adventist Health Study 2, 2002–2008; Black Women's Health Study, 1995–2009; Cancer Prevention Study II, 1982–2008; Multiethnic Cohort Study, 1993–2007; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Screening Trial, 1993–2009; Southern Community Cohort Study, 2002–2009. 239,526 African Americans (including 100,175 never smokers without baseline heart disease, stroke, or cancer), age 30–104 (mean 52) and 71% female, were followed up to 26.5 years (mean 11.7). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality were derived from multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Among healthy, never smokers (11,386 deaths), HRs (CI) for BMI 25–27.4, 27.5–29.9, 30–34.9, 35–39.9, 40–49.9, and 50–60 kg/m2 were 1.02 (0.92–1.12), 1.06 (0.95–1.18), 1.32 (1.18–1.47), 1.54 (1.29–1.83), 1.93 (1.46–2.56), and 1.93 (0.80–4.69), respectively among men and 1.06 (0.99–1.15)...

African Americans in prime time broadcast TV and BET

Mohamed, Amunoo
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Signorielli, Nancy; This study examined whether there were more empowering images of African Americans on a channel geared towards the Black audience (BET) or the broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX and CW). The study was based on a content analysis of a one week sample of programs televised on broadcast network channels (ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX, CW) and on the cable channel BET (Black Entertainment Television) in the fall of 2012 (late September/ early October). A textual analysis was used as a complementary method to understand how African Americans are depicted on BET and whether these messages reflect the cultural perspective. This group is of interest because African Americans have been found misrepresented and underrepresented in past television representations thus influencing perception about the group to adults, children and adolescents of color. Cultivation theory and social cognitive theory serve as the foundation for this study. The content analysis found more differences than similarities in the way that African Americans are portrayed in broadcast network programs as compared to BET. The qualitative (textual) analysis identified three themes in movies on BET which helped further distinguish differences between the portrayals of African Americans on BET as compared to broadcast network programs. With these results and cultivation theory and social cognitive theory in mind...