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Um modelo de autorização contextual para o controle de acesso ao prontuário eletrônico do paciente em ambientes abertos e distribuídos.; A contextual authorization model for access control of electronic patient record in open distributed environments.

Motta, Gustavo Henrique Matos Bezerra
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/02/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Os recentes avanços nas tecnologias de comunicação e computação viabilizaram o pronto acesso às informações do prontuário eletrônico do paciente (PEP). O potencial de difusão de informações clínicas resultante suscita preocupações acerca da priva-cidade do paciente e da confidencialidade de seus dados. As normas presentes na legislação dispõem que o conteúdo do prontuário deve ser sigiloso, não cabendo o acesso a ele sem a prévia autorização do paciente, salvo quando necessário para be-neficiá-lo. Este trabalho propõe o MACA, um modelo de autorização contextual para o controle de acesso baseado em papéis (CABP) que contempla requisitos de limita-ção de acesso ao PEP em ambientes abertos e distribuídos. O CABP regula o acesso dos usuários ao PEP com base nas funções (papéis) que eles exercem numa organi-zação. Uma autorização contextual usa informações ambientais disponíveis durante o acesso para decidir se um usuário tem o direito e a necessidade de acessar um re-curso do PEP. Isso confere ao MACA flexibilidade e poder expressivo para estabele-cer políticas de acesso ao PEP e políticas administrativas para o CABP que se adap-tam à diversidade ambiental e cultural das organizações de saúde. O MACA ainda permite que os componentes do PEP utilizem o CABP de forma transparente para o usuário final...

O acesso na rede pública de saúde no município de Ijuí/RS: um cenário de controvérsias; The users access to the public health system in the borough of Ijuí/RS: a controversial scenery.

Weiller, Teresinha Heck
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/11/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
O objetivo deste estudo é compreender a organização da regulação do acesso dos usuários à rede pública de saúde em um município do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, descrever a conformação da rede de atenção à saúde e analisar o acesso dos usuários na Atenção Básica e de Média Complexidade. O quadro teórico do acesso e regulação da atenção de saúde foi escolhido para subsidiar a análise do acesso na rede de atenção de saúde em Ijuí/RS. O fundamento empírico foi construído a partir de entrevistas gravadas com gestores, prestadores de serviços e um representante dos usuários, totalizando dez entrevistas, bem como a realização de focal com usuários da rede de atenção pública. Juntamente às entrevistas e grupo focal foi realizado estudo sobre o perfil dos usuários da rede pública de saúde que acessaram os serviços do Pronto-Socorro local, complementado por observações realizadas nas UCS, ESF e PS/HCI. A partir da abordagem qualitativa, apoiada na análise temática, o material empírico foi interpretado e discutido. Identificamos quatro categorias empíricas: a) rede no espaço local; b) acesso na atenção básica as várias portas de entrada; c) organização do acesso à Média Complexidade; e d) relações conflituosas na rede de atenção. A análise permitiu compreender a organização do acesso dos usuários da rede pública de saúde de Ijuí/RS aos serviços de Atenção Básica e de Média Complexidade. Verificamos na Atenção Básica a existência de fragilidades e dificuldades para receber os serviços...

As políticas de open-access. Res publica científica ou autogestão?

Cardoso, Gustavo; Caraça, João; Espanha, Rita; Triães, João; Mendonça, Sandro
Fonte: CIES, ISCTE-IUL / Celta Publicador: CIES, ISCTE-IUL / Celta
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Neste artigo os autores sugerem que a análise da publicação em Open Access deve ser entendida para além do mero aspecto técnico de um novo modelo de publicação académica. O Open Access deve ser analisado enquanto movimento social, produto de uma evolução cultural e técnico-científica ao longo das três últimas décadas. Importa discutir as políticas do Open Access, porque as implicações da sua adopção pela comunidade científica não se esgotam nela. A publicação em Open Access poderá influenciar todo o processo de produção científica, da pesquisa à publicação, além dos próprios modelos de ensino e da forma como olhamos para os média, em termos de fruição da informação. Apergunta aqui enunciada, mas não respondida ainda na sua totalidade, é a de saber se a economia política do Open Access se traduzirá na criação de uma res publica científica, no sentido de extravasar da comunidade de investigadores e influenciar a sociedade como um todo, ou se será mais uma ferramenta, que, embora produto de um movimento social, será apenas apropriada numa gestão individual da prática científica, dentro dessa comunidade de pares.; In this article, the authors suggest that the analysis of Open Access publications should be regarded not only from the merely technical point of view of a new model of academic publication. Open Access should be analysed as a socialmovement that is the product of cultural...

Options to Increase Access to Telecommunications Services in Rural and Low-Income Areas

Muente-Kunigami, Arturo; Navas-Sabater, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Recent evidence suggests that increasing overall service coverage and promoting access to telecommunications services have a high economic benefit. Overall, it is estimated that a ten percent increase in mobile telephony penetration could increase economic growth by 0.81 percent in developing countries, whereas a ten percent increase in broadband penetration could increase economic growth by 1.4 percent. In rural and low-income areas in particular, not only do basic telephony services and broadband access allow population to connect with relatives and friends, but they have also introduced a dramatic increase in productivity and in many cases have become the only way for small and medium enterprises in rural areas to access national and, in some cases, global markets. Moreover, the impact of access to telecommunications in rural areas on health, education, disaster management, and local governments has allowed better and more rapid responses, improved coordination, and more effective public management. It is therefore worthwhile to take a second look at all possible policy options...

Internet Access : Regulatory Levers for a Knowledge Economy

Mustafa, Mohammad A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Internet access depends on four critical players: First, providers of telecommunications infrastructure (bandwidth capacity) for international access to the global Internet backbone. Second, providers of national long-distance telecommunications transmission capacity (such as leased lines) to connect Internet service providers (ISPs) with one another and with international connectivity nodes. Third, providers of local loop access (narrowband and analogue, such as traditional copper wire connections, or broadband and digital, such as digital subscriber lines [DSL], cable television modems, and fixed wireless service). Fourth, ISPs, which provide Internet services to customers using these layers of networks. Expanding Internet access requires cooperative behavior by these players, and regulators have a key role in ensuring such behavior. A regulatory strategy for doing so focuses on promoting the telecommunications infrastructure, enabling viable ISPs, ensuring efficient pricing, maintaining appropriate service quality...

Financial Access 2009 : Measuring Access to Financial Services around the World

Consultative Group to Assist the Poor
Fonte: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/The World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/The World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Financial Access 2009 introduces the latest data from a survey of financial regulators in 139 countries. It presents indicators of access to savings, credit, and payment services in banks, and in regulated nonbank financial institutions. It is intended for a broad audience of policymakers, researchers, practitioners, multilateral and bilateral investors, in order to guide monetary policy, monitor systemic risks, and collect information on the values of deposits and credit. This report reviews three interventions: disclosure requirements, interest rate caps, and methods to address excessive lending that can result in consumer indebtedness. Improved transparency and disclosure allow borrowers to make informed choices and can facilitate competition in financial markets, eventually leading to lower prices and improved products. Policies to restrict interest rates or credit quantity, especially in consumer credit, seem to have limited effect but require further analysis.

Design and Appraisal of Rural Transport Infrastructure : Ensuring Basic Access for Rural Communities

Lebo, Jerry; Schelling, Dieter
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Isolation contributes to rural poverty. Without a minimum of reliable and efficient access to locations of basic social and economic activities, rural life stagnates and local development prospects remain limited. Providing and maintaining a minimum level of access, referred to in this paper as basic access, is therefore a necessary element of any rural development strategy. Overcoming isolation necessitates holistic strategies. Approaches include improved logistics to support trade and communication, the promotion of transport services and intermediaite means of transport, improved quality and location of services, and the sustaianable provision of cost-effective transport infrastrucutre. Among these, the cost-effective design and appraisal of rural transport infrastructure (RTI) is the topic of this paper. A basic access approach to the provision of RTI is presented which gives priority to the provision and maintenance of reliable, all-season access. Basic access interventions are defined as the least-cost investments which provide a minimum level of all-season passability. In a majority of cases...

Access to Financial Services : A Review of the Issues and Public Policy Objectives

Claessens, Stijn
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
This article reviews the evidence on the importance of finance for economic well-being. It provides data on the use of basic financial services by households and firms across a sample of countries, assesses the desirability of universal access, and provides an overview of the macroeconomic, legal, and regulatory obstacles to access. Despite the benefits of finance, the data show that use of financial services is far from universal in many countries, especially developing countries. Universal access to financial services has not been a public policy objective in most countries and would likely be difficult to achieve. Countries can, however, facilitate access to financial services by strengthening institutional infrastructure, liberalizing markets and facilitating greater competition, and encouraging innovative use of know-how and technology. Government interventions to directly broaden access to finance, however, are costly and fraught with risks, among others the risk of missing the targeted groups. The article concludes with recommendations for global actions aimed at improving data on access and use and suggestions on areas of further analysis to identify constraints to broadening access.

Capturing the Multi-Dimensionality of Energy Access

Bhatia, Mikul; Angelou, Nicolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
There are two initial challenges in defining and measuring energy access: the absence of a universal definition of energy access and the difficulty of measuring any definition in an accurate manner. The multi-tier approach to measuring energy access proposed in the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) Global Tracking Framework of 2013 introduces a five-tier measurement methodology based on various energy attributes, such as quantity, quality, affordability, and duration of supply. The approach makes it possible to compute a weighted index of access to energy for a given geographical area. Separate notes focus on multi-tier measurement of energy access for households, productive enterprises, and community institutions. The type of data required for a multi-tiered assessment of energy access in a given area can be obtained through surveys of actual energy availability and use among a scientific sample of all users in a given category (households, enterprises, community institutions). Survey questionnaires elicit information about each energy attribute...

Enhancing Access to Finance for Technology Entrepreneurs : Analysis of Highly Innovative, High Growth Start-Ups in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Nepal

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
The first part of the study provides contextual background to the financing gaps and associated barriers, which restrict access to finance for HI start-ups. These barriers are driven by both supply and demand sides of the financing equation. Supply side barriers include: high transaction costs associated with financing; high levels of credit risk associated with HI start-ups; high collateral required by financial institutions; non-conducive legal and regulatory environments for investment in HI start-ups; lack of start-up expertise and dedicated resources by financiers; and finance products that are not tailored to HI start-ups needs and circumstances. Demand side barriers include: reliance by HI start-ups on informal financing sources; lack of awareness on the process to apply for funding from formal financing sources; low levels of financial literacy by HI start-ups; and the fear of losing control by involving external investors. This section also contains a broad overview of the country frameworks governing the start-up sector...

Dual Credit Markets and Household Access to Finance; Evidence from a Representative Chinese Household Survey

Cull, Robert; Gan, Li; Gao, Nan; Xu, Lixin Colin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Policy Research Working Paper; Publications Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Using a new and representative data set of Chinese household finance, this paper documents household access to and costs of finance, along with their correlates. As in most developing countries, informal finance is a crucial element of household finance, and wealth tends to be associated with better access to formal and informal finance. Better financial knowledge shifts loan portfolios toward formal sources relative to informal ones. Connections to the Communist Party are associated with significantly better access to finance in rural areas but not in urban areas. A larger social network is positively associated with access to informal finance. Controlling for household characteristics, rural residents pay interest rates on loans similar to urban residents. Younger residents pay higher rates, while households on firmer economic footing face lower rates. Taking financial classes and college education is associated with higher interest rates for urban residents, suggesting perhaps that financial knowledge coincides with greater demand for credit in areas with more economic opportunity. Overall...

Kyrgyz Republic : Access to Financial Services Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
The purpose of this paper is to report on the level of access to formal financial services in the Kyrgyz Republic, assess the key obstacles to improving access, and make recommendations to overcome these obstacles. The paper is organized as follows. Sections II to IV examine the supply of financial services. Specifically, section II presents a profile of financial intermediation by banks, focusing their supply of financial services, particularly lending and deposits. Section III presents a profile of lending by Aiyl Bank, a specialized bank with a limited license, which is mandated to lend for agriculture. Section IV presents a profile of lending by non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs), including microfinance organizations (MFOs) and credit unions. Section V examines the demand side for financial services, drawing on enterprise surveys to assess firms' perceptions of their access to finance. Section VI presents a brief analysis of the impact of the events of April 2010 on access to finance. Section VII discusses key obstacles in increasing access to finance from banks and NBFIs. Section VIII concludes with policy recommendations that derive from the preceding analysis.

Access to Financial Services and the Financial Inclusion Agenda around the World : A Cross-Country Analysis with a New Data Set

Ardic, Oya Pinar; Heimann, Maximilien; Mylenko, Nataliya
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
Recent empirical evidence highlights that access to basic financial services can make a substantial positive difference in improving poor people's lives. Accordingly, financial sector reforms that promote financial inclusion are increasingly at the core of policymakers agendas. The Consultative Group to Assist the Poor and the World Bank Group, in response, launched the Financial Access project, including a cross-country database on financial inclusion topics and an annual report to inform the policy debate. Using this database, this paper (i) counts the number of unbanked adults around the world at 56 percent, (ii) analyzes the state of access to deposit and loan services as well as the extent of retail networks, and (iii) discusses the state of financial inclusion mandates around the world.

Infrastructure Gap in South Asia : Inequality of Access to Infrastructure Services

Biller, Dan; Andres, Luis; Herrera Dappe, Matias
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
The South Asia region is home to the largest pool of individuals living under the poverty line, coupled with a fast-growing population. The importance of access to basic infrastructure services on welfare and the quality of life is clear. Yet the South Asia region's rates of access to infrastructure (sanitation, electricity, telecom, and transport) are closer to those of Sub-Saharan Africa, the one exception being water, where the South Asia region is comparable to East Asia and the pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean. The challenge of increasing access to these services across the South Asia region is compounded by the unequal distribution of existing access for households. This study improves understanding of this inequality by evaluating access across the region's physical (location), poverty, and income considerations. The paper also analyzes inequality of access across time, that is, across generations. It finds that while the regressivity of infrastructure services is clearly present in South Asia, the story that emerges is heterogeneous and complex. There is no simple explanation for these inequalities...

Finance for All? Policies and Pitfalls in Expanding Access; Finanzas para todos? Politicas y trampas en la expansion del acceso

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
This book, finance for all, presents first efforts at developing indicators illustrating that financial access is quite limited around the world and identifies barriers that may be preventing small firms and poor households from using financial services. Based on this research, the report derives principles for effective government policy on broadening access. The report's conclusions confirm some traditional views and challenge others. For example, recent research provides additional evidence to support the widely-held belief that financial development promotes growth and illustrates the role of access in this process. Improved access to finance creates an environment conducive to new firm entry, innovation, and growth. However, research also shows that small firms benefit the most from financial development and greater access-both in terms of entry and seeing their growth constraints relaxed. Hence, inclusive financial systems also have consequences for the composition and competition in the enterprise sector. This report reviews and synthesizes a large body of research...

Bringing Finance to Pakistan's Poor : Access to Finance for Small Enterprises and the Underserved

Nenova, Tatiana; Thioro Niang, Cecile; Ahmad, Anjum
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
Access to financing is now widely acknowledged as a path to meaningful economic inclusion and reduction in poverty. Policy efforts to increase access to finance in Pakistan have taken time to bear fruit, but now access is indeed expanding quickly in certain financial sectors (microfinance, remittances), albeit from a very low base. Nevertheless, policy measures cannot single-handedly increase financial access; financial institutions' willingness to expand access in Pakistan has been stinted by slow technologic advances, weak legal foundations, and unsuitable financial processes and products. Poor socioeconomic conditions, gender bias, and low levels of basic education and financial literacy remain barriers, but perhaps the single strongest driver of low demand for financial access has been income. The primary purpose of this study is to measure and describe the state of financial service provision to underserved segments of the market in Pakistan, particularly those with low incomes and small enterprises, and to identify ways to improve investment and create inclusive markets that meet the needs of underserved people and enterprises.

One Goal, Two Paths : Achieving Universal Access to Modern Energy in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
The purpose of the current flagship report is to address energy access and related developmental issues in East Asia Pacific (EAP) that so far have received less attention compared to the macro energy issues of climate change and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EAP countries have two steep paths to climb to achieve universal access to modern energy: electricity and modern cooking solutions. Approximately 170 million people, or 34 million households, in EAP countries do not have electricity connections in their homes. This number is equivalent to approximately 9 percent of the Region's total population, and 30 percent of the Region's population excluding China. Moreover, approximately 6 times that number, or over 1 billion people, still lack access to modern cooking solutions. In addition, EAP is exceeded by only Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia in the number of people who lack access to electricity. However, access to both electricity and modern cooking solutions is essential to address the enduring impacts of poverty and to move the poor onto a rising development trajectory. The link between access to modern energy and development is most clearly defined by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDGs were formulated to reduce global poverty while increasing education...

Open access in Southern European countries

Abadal, Ernest (Ed.); Anglada, Lluís (Ed.); Abad, Francisca; André, Francis; Badolato, Anne-Marie; Barthet , Emilie; Cassella, Maria; Creppy, Rachel; Gargiulo, Paola; Georgiou, Panos; Gurdal, Gultekin; Lutz, Jean-François; Melero, Remedios; Moral, Ayn
Fonte: Madrid : Fundacion española para la ciencia y la tecnología, 2010. Publicador: Madrid : Fundacion española para la ciencia y la tecnología, 2010.
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
192 p.; Libro Electrónico; Presenta un “mapa” del acceso abierto en los países del Sur de Europa: Francia, España, Grecia, Italia, Portugal y Turquía, unos territorios que comparten varias características: utilizan idiomas diferentes al inglés -canal habitual para la comunicación científica-, y no tienen una industria editorial potente, entre otras. El informe va dirigido especialmente a las autoridades y gestores académicos para que se den cuenta de la importancia de impulsar acciones a favor del acceso abierto a la ciencia, así como a las editoriales (publishers), especialmente las del sector público, a los propios académicos, y a los profesionales de las bibliotecas.; CONTENTS 1 Presentation 11 2 Introduction 13 3 Open access in France 15 3.1 Introduction 15 3.2 Background 16 3.2.1 Institutional background 20 3.2.2 Historical background 3.3 Open access journals in France 3.3.1 How the list of open access journals was compiled 3.3.2 Comments 3.4 Open archives in France 3.4.1 How the list of repositories was compiled 3.4.2 Comments 3.5 Large digitization programs 3.6 Conclusions 3.7 References 4 Open access in Greece 39 4.1 Introduction 39 4.2 Scholarly publishing in Greece 40 4.2.1 Book publishing 40 4.2.2 E-books 45 4.2.3 Journals 51 4.3 OA in Greece: an overview 4.4 Open access journals 4.5 OA books 4.6 Open access in Southern European Countries Repositories & digital collections 52 4.6.1 OA institutional repositories 52 4.6.2 Digital collections 53 4.6.3 Harvesters...

Open access bibliography: liberating scholarly literature with e-prints and open access journals

Bailey Jr., Charles W.
Fonte: Washington, DC : Association of Research Libraries, 2005. Publicador: Washington, DC : Association of Research Libraries, 2005.
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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xxii, 129 p. ; 26 cm.; Libro Electrónico; The Open Access Bibliography: Liberating Scholarly Literature with E-Prints and Open Access Journals presents over 1,300 selected English-language books, conference papers (including some digital video presentations), debates, editorials, e-prints, journal and magazine articles, news articles, technical reports, and other printed and electronic sources that are useful in understanding the open access movement’s efforts to provide free access to and unfettered use of scholarly literature. Most sources have been published between 1999 and August 31, 2004; however, a limited number of key sources published prior to 1999 are also included. Where possible, links are provided to sources that are freely available on the Internet (approximately 78 percent of the bibliography’s references have such links).; Preface; Acknowledgments; Key open access concepts; i. General works; 1.1 Overviews 1.2 Analysis and Critiques 1.3 Debates and Dialogs 1.3.1 Nature Web Debate on Future E-Access to the Primary Literature 1.3.2 Nature Web Focus on Access to the Literature: The Debate Continues 1.3.3 Other 1.4 Research Studies 1.5 Other; ii. Open access statements; 2.1 Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities 2.2 Bethesda Statement on Open Access 2.3 Budapest Open Access Initiative 2.4 NEAR 2.5 OECD Final Communique 2.6 Tempe Principles 2.7 Washington D.C. Principles for Free Access to Science 2.8 Wellcome Trust Position Statement and Research Reports 2.9 World Summit on the Information Society Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action 2.10 Other; iii. Copyright arrangements for self-archiving and use; 3.1 General Works 3.2 Copyright Ownership and Rights 3.3 Creative Commons 3.4 Permissions Crisis 3.5 Research Studies; iv. open access journals; 4.1 General Works 4.2 Economic Issues 4.2.1 General Works 4.2.2 BMJ Rapid Responses about “Author Pays” May Be the New Science Publishing Model 4.3 Open Access Journal Change Agents 4.3.1 SPARC 4.4 Open Access Journal Publishers and Distributors 4.4.1 BioMed Central 4.4.2 Public Library of Science 4.4.3 PubMed Central 4.4.3.1 General Works 4.4.3.2 Science Magazine dEbate on “Building a GenBank of the Published Literature” 4.4.3.3 Science Magazine dEbate on “Is a Government Archive the Best Option?” 4.4.3.4 Science Magazine dEbate on “Just a Minute...

A human rights-based approach to poverty reduction: the role of the right of access to medicine as an element of the right of access to health care

Strauss,Z; Horsten,D
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The prevention and treatment of infectious diseases remain among the greatest challenges faced by today's developing countries. The World Health Organisation estimates that about one-third of the world's population lacks access to essential medicine, a fact which, according to the United Nations, directly contradicts the fundamental principle of health as a human right. According to the World Summit for Social Development, poor health and illness are factors that contribute to poverty, while the adverse effects of illness ensure that the poor become poorer. A lack of access to health care, amongst other rights, (including access to medicines as an element thereof) aggravates poverty. The most important provision in international law relating to the right to health is article 12 of the United Nations International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Article 12(1) of this Covenant provides a broad formulation of the right to health in international law, while article 12(2) prescribes a non-exhaustive list of steps to be taken in pursuit of the highest attainable standard of health. Article 12(2), in particular, illustrates the role that adequate access to medication plays in the right of access to health care. The United Nations Committee on Economic...