Microssistemas eletromecânicos ou Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), representam uma classe de dispositivos que combinam funções mecânicas e eletrônicas em escala micrométrica. Através do uso de técnicas de microfabricação, adaptadas da indústria de semicondutores, é realizada a integração entre estruturas móveis, sensores, atuadores e eletrônica, tornando possível a implementação de sistemas completos miniaturizados. Acelerômetros eletrostáticos estão entre os dispositivos MEMS mais comercializados hoje em dia, com venda anual em todo o mundo superior a 100 milhões de unidades e crescente a cada ano. Eles são geralmente fabricados utilizando-se três lâminas de silício espessas, coladas uma sobre a outra. A camada intermediária é obtida por processos de corrosão e consiste de uma grande massa de prova suspensa por uma ou mais vigas. Ela é separada das lâminas superior e inferior por um pequeno espaço vazio (gap), dando origem a dois conjuntos de capacitores de placas paralelas. A flexibilidade das vigas permite que a massa se mova proporcionalmente à aceleração externa e o seu deslocamento é estimado pela variação da capacitância do conjunto. O projeto destes sensores é uma tarefa complexa...
Feedback control systems have been used to move the muscles and joints of the limbs of paraplegic patients. The feedback signal, related to the knee joint angle, can be obtained by using an electrogoniometer. However, the use of accelerometers can help the measurements due the facility of adhering these devices to the skin. Accelerometers are also very suitable for these applications due their small dimensions and weight. In this paper a new method for designing a control system that can vary the knee joint angle using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is presented, as well as a simulation with parameters values available in the literature. The nonlinear control system was represented by a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and the feedback signals were obtained by using accelerometers. The design method considered all plant nonlinearities and was efficient and reliable to control the leg position of a paraplegic patient with the angle of the knee ranging from 0° to 30°, considering electric stimulation at the quadriceps muscle. The proposed method is viable and offers a new alternative for designing control systems of the knee joint angle using more comfortable sensors for the patients.
A distributed set of accelerometers based on the minimum number of 12 accelerometers allows for computation of the magnitude of angular rate without using the integration operation. However, it is not easy to extract the magnitude of angular rate in the presence of the accelerometer noises, and even worse, it is difficult to determine the direction of a rotation because the angular rate is present in its quadratic form within the inertial measurement system equations. In this paper, an extended Kalman filter scheme to correctly estimate both the direction and magnitude of the angular rate through fusion of the angular acceleration and quadratic form of the angular rate is proposed. We also provide observability analysis for the general distributed accelerometers-based inertial measurement unit, and show that the angular rate can be correctly estimated by general nonlinear state estimators such as an extended Kalman filter, except under certain extreme conditions.
High sensing resolution is required in sensing of surgical instrument motion in micromanipulation tasks. Accelerometers can be employed to sense physiological motion of the instrument during micromanipulation. Various configurations of accelerometer placement had been introduced in the past to sense motion of a rigid-body such as a surgical instrument. Placement (location and orientation) of accelerometers fixed in the instrument plays a significant role in achieving high sensing resolution. However, there is no literature or work on the effect of placement of accelerometers on sensing resolution. In this paper, an approach of placement of accelerometers within an available space to obtain highest possible sensing resolution in sensing of rigid-body motion in micromanipulation tasks is proposed. Superiority of the proposed placement approach is shown in sensing of a microsurgical instrument angular motion by comparing sensing resolutions achieved as a result of employing the configuration following the proposed approach and the existing configurations. Apart from achieving high sensing resolution, and design simplicity, the proposed placement approach also provides flexibility in placing accelerometers; hence it is especially useful in applications with limited available space to mount accelerometers.
Gap asymmetry in differential capacitors is the primary source of the zero bias output of force-balanced micro accelerometers. It is also used to evaluate the applicability of differential structures in MEMS manufacturing. Therefore, determining the asymmetry level has considerable significance for the design of MEMS devices. This paper proposes an experimental-theoretical method for predicting gap asymmetry in differential sensing capacitors of micro accelerometers. The method involves three processes: first, bi-directional measurement, which can sharply reduce the influence of the feedback circuit on bias output, is proposed. Experiments are then carried out on a centrifuge to obtain the input and output data of an accelerometer. Second, the analytical input-output relationship of the accelerometer with gap asymmetry and circuit error is theoretically derived. Finally, the prediction methodology combines the measurement results and analytical derivation to identify the asymmetric error of 30 accelerometers fabricated by DRIE. Results indicate that the level of asymmetry induced by fabrication uncertainty is about ±5 × 10−2, and that the absolute error is about ±0.2 μm under a 4 μm gap.
This paper presents an improved iterative nonlinear calibration method in the gravitational field for both low-grade and high-grade triaxial accelerometers. This calibration method assumes the probability density function of a Gaussian distribution for the raw outputs of triaxial accelerometers. A nonlinear criterion function is derived as the maximum likelihood estimation for the calibration parameters and inclination vectors, which is solved by the iterative estimation. First, the calibration parameters, including the scale factors, misalignments, biases and squared coefficients are estimated by the linear least squares method according to the multi-position raw outputs of triaxial accelerometers and the initial inclination vectors. Second, the sequence quadric program method is utilized to solve the nonlinear constrained optimization to update the inclination vectors according to the estimated calibration parameters and raw outputs of the triaxial accelerometers. The initial inclination vectors are supplied by normalizing raw outputs of triaxial accelerometers at different positions without any a priori knowledge. To overcome the imperfections of models, the optimal observation scheme is designed according to some maximum sensitivity principle. Simulation and experiments show good estimation accuracy for calibration parameters and inclination vectors.
Several methods exist for the assessment of balance. In the clinical setting, they are often assessed through qualitative tests. In the laboratory, instrumentation can quantitatively and more accurately measure balance. To date, force platforms remain one of the most commonly used tools in balance assessment. They are, however, costly and cumbersome, making them impractical in clinical settings and field studies. Utilization of accelerometers in balance assessment has been studied but has not yet become a laboratory standard due to the unknown accuracy of this method. If proven accurate, the use of accelerometers in laboratory and clinical environments would be ideal because they are inexpensive, noninvasive, and easy to transport. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of accelerometers as an inclinometer to the use of a force platform in the assessment of postural stability. A triaxial accelerometer was placed on the trunk of five subjects. The subjects stood barefoot on a force platform under various conditions which affect balance: all sensory systems intact; impaired visual feedback; impaired proprioceptive feedback; and impaired visual and proprioceptive feedback. During each trial, trunk acceleration and ground reaction forces and moments were collected. Force plate data was used to plot the path of the center of pressure and acceleration data was used to plot a projected path of the trunk acceleration. Behavioral similarities were seen in both methods of balance assessment. Therefore...
This article describes an investigation to determine the optimal placement of accelerometers for the purpose of detecting a range of everyday activities. The paper investigates the effect of combining data from accelerometers placed at various bodily locations on the accuracy of activity detection. Eight healthy males participated within the study. Data were collected from six wireless tri-axial accelerometers placed at the chest, wrist, lower back, hip, thigh and foot. Activities included walking, running on a motorized treadmill, sitting, lying, standing and walking up and down stairs. The Support Vector Machine provided the most accurate detection of activities of all the machine learning algorithms investigated. Although data from all locations provided similar levels of accuracy, the hip was the best single location to record data for activity detection using a Support Vector Machine, providing small but significantly better accuracy than the other investigated locations. Increasing the number of sensing locations from one to two or more statistically increased the accuracy of classification. There was no significant difference in accuracy when using two or more sensors. It was noted, however, that the difference in activity detection using single or multiple accelerometers may be more pronounced when trying to detect finer grain activities. Future work shall therefore investigate the effects of accelerometer placement on a larger range of these activities.
Recent interest in sedentary behavior and technological advances expanded use of watch-size accelerometers for continuous monitoring of physical activity (PA) over extended periods (e.g., 24 h/day for 1 week) in studies conducted in natural living environment. This approach necessitates the development of new methods separating bedtime rest and activity periods from the accelerometer recordings. The goal of this study was to develop a decision tree with acceptable accuracy for separating bedtime rest from activity in youth using accelerometer placed on waist or wrist. Minute-by-minute accelerometry data were collected from 81 youth (10–18 years old, 47 females) during a monitored 24-h stay in a whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with a force platform covering the floor to detect movement. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the accelerometer cut points for rest and activity. To examine the classification differences, the accelerometer bedtime rest and activity classified by the algorithm in the development group (n = 41) were compared with actual bedtime rest and activity classification obtained from the room calorimeter-measured metabolic rate and movement data. The selected optimal bedtime rest cut points were 20 and 250 counts/min for the waist- and the wrist-worn accelerometer...
Single, hip-mounted accelerometers can provide accurate measurements of energy expenditure (EE) in some settings, but are unable to accurately estimate the energy cost of many non-ambulatory activities. A multi-sensor network may be able to overcome the limitations of a single accelerometer. Thus, the purpose of our study was to compare the abilities of a wireless network of accelerometers and a hip-mounted accelerometer for the prediction of EE. Thirty adult participants engaged in 14 different sedentary, ambulatory, lifestyle and exercise activities for five minutes each while wearing a portable metabolic analyzer, a hip-mounted accelerometer (AG) and a wireless network of three accelerometers (WN) worn on the right wrist, thigh and ankle. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were created separately for the AG and WN for the EE prediction. Pearson correlations (r) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated to compare criterion-measured EE to predicted EE from the ANNs. Overall, correlations were higher (r = 0.95 vs. r = 0.88, p < 0.0001) and RMSE was lower (1.34 vs. 1.97 metabolic equivalents (METs), p < 0.0001) for the WN than the AG. In conclusion, the WN outperformed the AG for measuring EE, providing evidence that the WN can provide highly accurate estimates of EE in adults participating in a wide range of activities.
This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC), and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray) or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate) on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP) rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds...
Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.
L’obésité et la sédentarité sont considérées comme des problèmes importants de santé publique. L’augmentation de l’activité physique est une des stratégies recommandées pour obtenir un bilan énergétique positif dans les interventions de perte de poids. Deux accéléromètres, le Sensewear Armband (SWA) et l’Actical (ACT), sont des outils simples à utiliser en recherche clinique, mais à notre connaissance, aucune étude n’a évalué leur capacité à détecter des hausses de la dépense énergétique. De plus, très peu d’études, avec des résultats par ailleurs contradictoires, ont été effectuées afin de déterminer la fiabilité de ces accéléromètres pour la mesure de la dépense énergétique au repos et au cours d’une activité physique au vélo stationnaire. Ainsi, les objectifs de cette étude étaient: 1) évaluer, pendant 3 journées consécutives, la reproductibilité des valeurs de la dépense énergétique obtenues avec le SWA et l’ACT, au repos et au cours d’une activité physique de 45 minutes sur un vélo stationnaire, 2) déterminer la capacité de ces accéléromètres à détecter des hausses de 5% et 10 % de la dépense énergétique totale (DET) au moyen de la modification d’une activité physique au tapis roulant pendant 45 minutes. Cette étude transversale effectuée auprès de 20 sujets en santé...
peer-reviewed; To review articles utilising accelerometers and gyroscopes to measure running gait and assess various methodology utilised when doing so. To identify research- and coaching-orientated parameters which have been previously investigated and offer evidence based recommendations as to future methodology employed when investigating these parameters. Electronic databases were searched using key-related terminology such as accelerometer(s) and gyroscope(s) and/or running gait. Articles returned were then visually inspected and subjected to an inclusion and exclusion criteria after which citations were inspected for further relevance. A total of 38 articles were then included in the review. Accelerometers, gyroscopes plus combined units have been successfully utilised in the generation of research-orientated parameters such as head/tibial acceleration, vertical parameters and angular velocity and also coach-orientated parameters such as stride parameters and gait pattern. Placement of sensors closest to the area of interest along with the use of bi/tri- axial accelerometers appear to provide the most accurate results. Accelerometers and gyroscopes have proven to provide accurate and reliable results in running gait measurement. The temporal and spatial running parameters require sensor placement close to the area of interest and the use of bi/triaxial sensors. Post data analysis is critical for generating valid results.
As distance running continues to increase in popularity, so too does the number of people suffering from Running Related Injuries (RRI) (Abt et al. 2011). While identification of parameters related to RRI have commonly been identified in laboratory settings, ecologically sound testing methods are required in applied research. As inertial sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and combined units are low cost, portable and lightweight they may be able to generate the necessary information for applied research. While the use of inertial sensors in walking gait analysis has been widely documented, their application to longitudinal running gait analysis is extremely limited.
Longitudinal Running Gait Analysis and Inertial Sensors – Why?
An increased risk of RRI onset has long been identified with increasing absolute mileage ran per week (Walter et al. 1989). Yeung and Yeung (2001) found that in a review of the literature, increased exposure to higher training loads, whether it be running duration, frequency or distance, increases the risk of RRI. It is therefore acceptable to reason that longitudinal studies would unveil a significant wealth of information related to RRI, compared to studies undertaking acute trials. Combined with this...
Este trabalho apresenta o projeto e desenvolvimento de dois sistemas de calibração de acelerômetros. O primeiro sistema foi desenvolvido a partir de um sistema interferométrico laser Hewlett-Packard (HP 5529A), utilizado como padrão de referência absoluta. Este sistema foi projetado com o propósito de calibrar acelerômetros-padrão de comparação e acelerômetros-padrão de transferência. O segundo sistema de calibração utiliza como padrão de referência acelerômetros-padrão de comparação. Este segundo sistema foi projetado com o objetivo de calibrar acelerômetros de uso corriqueiro. Desta forma, o conjunto formado pelos dois sistemas de calibração podem ser rastreáveis até os padrões primários, nacionais e internacionais. Para cada um dos sistemas de calibração são apresentadas discussões relativas às suas características construtivas, aos testes de operação e às avaliações sobre os desempenhos alcançados.; This work presents the design and development of two accelerometer calibration systems. The first system was developed from a Hewlett-Packard laser interferometric system (HP 5529A), taken as an absolute reference standard. This system was designed to allow calibration of comparison standard accelerometers and transfer standard accelerometers. The second calibration system...
L’augmentation de la dépense énergétique (DE) par une augmentation de l'activité physique (AP) participe au maintien et à l’amélioration de la santé. La mesure à grande échelle de la DE totale (DET) en général et AP en particulier se heurte à des difficultés pratiques de recueil de données, de validité et aux coûts. Bien que dans la littérature de nombreux accéléromètres permettent d’estimer la DET, il y a encore des limites quant à la mesure de l’intensité de l’AP, élément qui influence l’état de la balance énergétique et le bénéfice pour la santé de l’AP. De plus, peu de comparaisons entre les différents accéléromètres sont disponibles. La présente étude avait pour but d’évaluer la capacité de deux accéléromètres (Actical et Sensewear Armband) pour estimer la DET en comparaison avec la technique de l’eau doublement marquée (EDM) ; d’évaluer la concordance entre les accéléromètres dans la mesure de la DE au repos (DER) en comparaison avec la technique de la calorimétrie indirecte (CI) et d’évaluer la DE liée à l’AP en comparaison avec la technique de la CI. Les résultats montrent qu’il y a une très bonne corrélation entre la CI et les accéléromètres dans la mesure de la DER(r > 0.80...
Despite the widespread installation of accelerometers in almost all mobile
phones and wearable devices, activity recognition using accelerometers is still
immature due to the poor recognition accuracy of existing recognition methods
and the scarcity of labeled training data. We consider the problem of human
activity recognition using triaxial accelerometers and deep learning paradigms.
This paper shows that deep activity recognition models (a) provide better
recognition accuracy of human activities, (b) avoid the expensive design of
handcrafted features in existing systems, and (c) utilize the massive unlabeled
acceleration samples for unsupervised feature extraction. Moreover, a hybrid
approach of deep learning and hidden Markov models (DL-HMM) is presented for
sequential activity recognition. This hybrid approach integrates the
hierarchical representations of deep activity recognition models with the
stochastic modeling of temporal sequences in the hidden Markov models. We show
substantial recognition improvement on real world datasets over
state-of-the-art methods of human activity recognition using triaxial
Beemer, Ryan D.; Murali, Madhuri; Biscontin, Giovanna; Aubeny, Charles
Fonte: ASCEPublicador: ASCE
Tipo: Article; accepted version
Relevância na Pesquisa
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from ASCE via http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/9780784479087.240; Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors have become a common part of everyday life and can be found in a number of consumer electronics. Specifically, MEMS accelerometers have become widespread because of their low cost, due to mass production techniques, and ability to sense constant acceleration. This ability allows devices, such as cellular phones, to measure their rotation relative to Earth's gravity. These properties also make MEMS accelerometers an option for measuring the rotation of geo-structures, such as foundations, in the field or in scale model geotechnical centrifuge tests. MEMS accelerometers appear to be especially beneficial for measuring orientation in centrifuge experiments because they are not limited by the design constraints of traditional tilt sensors: a single constant acceleration vector (Earth's gravity). This paper presents the theory behind using single-axis MEMS accelerometers to measure the orientation of an object on a plane of reactive centrifugal acceleration and Earth's gravity within a geotechnical centrifuge. The paper specifically addresses cross-axis sensitivity which can significantly impact measurements and is typically excluded from simpler theories.; The authors acknowledge the National Science Foundation...
While originally developed to deploy air bags for the automotive industry, Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based accelerometers have found their way into everything from video game controllers to cells phones. As prices drop and capabilities improve, it is expected that the use of accelerometers will further expand in the coming years. Accelerometers currently have the second highest MEMS sales volume, trailing only pressure sensors . In this work several single and three-axis accelerometers are designed, fabricated, and tested under a variety of conditions.
The designed accelerometers are all based off of the piezoresistive effect, where the value of a resistor changes with applied mechanical stress . When accelerated, the inertia of a suspended proof mass causes stress on piezoresistors placed on support arms. The corresponding changes in these resistor values are then converted to an output voltage using a Wheatstone bridge. To sense acceleration independently in all three axes, structures with three distinct modes of vibration and three sets of Wheatstone bridges are used.
Devices were fabricated at the Semiconductor and Microsystems Fabrication Laboratory (SMFL), located at RIT. A modified version of the RIT bulk MEMS process was used...