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Minimum wage in Indonesia = : Salário mínimo na Indonésia; Salário mínimo na Indonésia

Enung Yani Suryani Rukman
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
A Indonésia é um país que tem heterogeneidade em vários aspectos da vida, incluindo seus recursos, tais como fatores geográficos, sociais e econômicos. O emprego na Indonésia é um desses fatores interessantes a serem explorados. O salário mínimo é uma questão muito fundamental no emprego. Na Indonésia, a questão do salário mínimo não é apenas econômica, mas também envolve as questões políticas contidas em leis trabalhistas. Este estudo explora o salário mínimo na Indonésia durante várias épocas políticas: antes de 1980, em 1998 e 2010. Devido às limitações dos dados, estudo usa os dados selecionados que satisfazem os fins da presente pesquisa. A Indonésia ainda não tem um sistema de salário mínimo nacional. As evidências deste estudo sugerem que existem diferentes salários mínimos para cada província. Os dados analisados neste estudo avaliam o salário mínimo de quatro províncias em cada uma das regiões Oeste e Leste, e cinco províncias da região central da Indonésia, representando treze províncias fora da Indonésia de trinta e três, onde, quando combinados, abrangem mais de setenta por cento do total população. Alguns empregadores alegam que a fixação anual dos salários mínimos nas provinciais pode limitar a contratação e reduzir a força de trabalho...

The Wage Effects of Immigration and Emigration

Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar; Peri, Giovanni
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
Immigrants in Rome or Paris are more visible to the public eye than the Italian or French engineers in Silicon Valley, especially when it comes to the debate on the effects of immigration on the employment and wages of natives in high-income countries. This paper argues that such public fears, especially in European countries are misplaced; instead, more concern should be directed towards emigration. Using a new dataset on migration flows by education levels for the period 1990-2000, the results show the following: First, immigration had zero to small positive long-run effect on the average wages of natives, ranging from zero in Italy to +1.7 percent in Australia. Second, emigration had a mild to significant negative long-run effect ranging from zero for the US to -0.8 percent in the UK. Third, over the period 1990-2000, immigration generally improved the income distribution of European countries while emigration worsened it by increasing the wage gap between the high and low skilled natives. These patterns hold true using a range of parameters for the simulations...

What Explains Prevalence of Informal Employment in European Countries : The Role of Labor Institutions, Governance, Immigrants, and Growth

Hazans, Mihails
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
This paper looks into institutional and other macro determinants of prevalence of informal dependent employment, as well as informal self-employment, in European countries, using European Social Survey data on work without legal contract in on 30 countries, covering years 2004-2009. Consistently with theoretical predictions, quality of business environment has a significant negative impact on prevalence of both types of informal employment. The share of non-contracted employees is negatively affected by perceived quality of public services and positively related to economic growth. Informal self-employment is positively related to growth in Europe at large, as well as in Eastern and Southern Europe. The level of GDP per capita also has a positive impact on the prevalence of informal employment in Europe at large and within Eastern and Southern Europe, whilst an opposite effect is found in Western and Northern Europe. Other things equal, the share of non-contracted employees in the labor force across European countries increases with the minimum-to-average wage ratio...

Wage Subsidy and Labor Market Flexibility in South Africa

Go, Delfin S.; Kearney, Marna; Korman, Vijdan; Robinson, Sherman; Thierfelder, Karen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
In this paper, the authors use a highly disaggregate general equilibrium model to analyze the feasibility of a wage subsidy to unskilled workers in South Africa, isolating and estimating its potential employment effects and fiscal cost. They capture the structural characteristics of the labor market with several labor categories and substitution possibilities, linking the economy-wide results on relative prices, wages, and employment to a micro-simulation model with occupational choice probabilities in order to investigate the poverty and distributional consequences of the policy. The impact of a wage subsidy on employment, poverty, and inequality in South Africa depends greatly on the elasticities of substitution of factors of production, being very minimal if unskilled and skilled labor are complements in production. The desired results are attainable only if there is sufficient flexibility in the labor market. Although the impact in a low case scenario can be improved by supporting policies that relax the skill constraint and increase the production capacity of the economy especially towards labor-intensive sectors...

Distortions in the International Migrant Labor Market : Evidence from Filipino Migration and Wage Responses to Destination Country Economic Shocks

McKenzie, David; Theoharides, Caroline; Yang, Dean
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
The authors use an original panel dataset of migrant departures from the Philippines to identify the responsiveness of migrant numbers and wages to gross domestic product shocks in destination countries. They find a large significant elasticity of migrant numbers to gross domestic product shocks at destination, but no significant wage response. This is consistent with binding minimum wages for migrant labor. This result implies that labor market imperfections that make international migration attractive also make migrant flows more sensitive to global business cycles. Difference-in-differences analysis of a minimum wage change for maids confirms that minimum wages bind and demand is price sensitive without these distortions.

Can the Introduction of a Minimum Wage in FYR Macedonia Decrease the Gender Wage Gap?

Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
This paper relies on a simple framework to understand the gender wage gap in Macedonia, and simulates how the gender wage gap would behave after the introduction of a minimum wage. First, it presents a new - albeit simple - decomposition of the wage gap into three factors: (i) a wage level factor, which measures the extent to which the gender gap is driven by differences in wage levels among low-skilled workers of opposite sex; (ii) a skills endowment factor, which quantifies the extent to which the gender wage gap is driven by the difference in the share of high-skilled workers by gender; and (iii) returns to education, which measures the extent to which the gender gap is driven by differences by gender in returns to education. Second, the paper presents simple set of simulations that indicate that the introduction of a minimum wage in Macedonia could contribute to decrease the gender wage gap by up to 23 percent. Nevertheless, in order to significantly improve the wage gap, a rather high minimum wage may be required...

Does Tariff Liberalization Increase Wage Inequality? Some Empirical Evidence

Milanovic, Branko; Squire, Lyn
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
The objective of the paper is to answer an often asked question: If tariff rates are reduced, what will happen to wage inequality? The authors consider two types of wage inequality: between occupations (skills premium) and between industries. They use two large databases of wage inequality that have recently become available and a large data set of average tariff rates covering the period between 1980 and 2000. The authors find that tariff reduction is associated with higher inter-occupational and inter-industry inequality in poorer countries (those below the world median income) and the reverse in richer countries. However, the results for inter-occupational inequality must be treated with caution.

Does the Minimum Wage Affect Employment? Evidence from the Manufacturing Sector in Indonesia

Del Carpio, Ximena; Nguyen, Ha; Wang, Liang Choon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
Using survey data from the Indonesian manufacturing industry, this paper investigates the impact of minimum wage on employment and wages offered by Indonesian manufacturing firms from 1993 to 2006. It shows that the estimated effects of minimum wage on employment are positive within a province (i.e., with province fixed effects), but negative within a firm (i.e., with firm fixed effects), indicating the importance of using firm panel data to reduce the endogeneity bias in estimates. It finds significant heterogeneous effects of minimum-wage changes on employment. The employment effects of minimum wages are significant and negative among small firms and less educated workers, but not among large firms and workers with high school education and above. The negative employment impact is more severe for non-production workers than for production workers. The analysis also shows that the minimum wage disproportionally affects women: most of the non-production job losses are experienced by female workers. Lastly...

Trade Liberalization and Industry Wage Structure : Evidence from Brazil

Pavcnik, Nina; Blom, Andreas; Goldberg, Pinelopi; Schady, Norbert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Industry affiliation provides an important channel through which trade liberalization can affect worker earnings and wage inequality between skilled and unskilled workers. This empirical study of the impact of the 1988-94 trade liberalization in Brazil on the industry wage structure suggests that although industry affiliation is an important component of worker earnings, the structure of industry wage premiums is relatively stable over time. There is no statistical association between changes in industry wage premiums and changes in trade policy or between industry-specific skill premiums to university graduates and trade policy. Thus trade liberalization in Brazil did not significantly contribute to increased wage inequality between skilled and unskilled workers through changes in industry wage premiums. The difference between these results and those obtained for other countries (such as Colombia and Mexico) provides fruitful ground for studying the conditions under which trade reforms do not have an adverse effect on industry wage differentials

Achieving Fiscal Sustainability in Swaziland : Reestablishing Control over the Wage Bill

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
This report discusses how to establish control over the wage bill in Swaziland, which has become uncommonly large. The wage bill needs to be addressed urgently for two main reasons. The first is that it cannot be afforded any more, as the public revenue base has experienced a significant collapse that will not be reversed in the near future. The second is that wages are crowding out other type of expenditure necessary for quality service delivery. Swaziland needs to consider two sets of options: one set to put the wage bill on a track that will see it decrease permanently over time as a percentage of GDP, and one that will contract it rapidly to achieve fiscal sustainability. The two sets of options, while conceptually different, need to be considered jointly to keep government effective and efficient. The report includes a simple modeling exercise, based on the actual pay scale and positions in the civil service (and estimates for the army) which provides insights as to the drivers of the wage bill. It also evidences the need to act decisively and rapidly to make it sustainable. It is only with a mix of immediate one-off reductions in wages and positions...

Zimbabwe Public Expenditure Notes : Managing Government Wage Bill for Sustained Recovery

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
The Government of Zimbabwe (GOZ) faces difficult choices in managing the size of its civil service wage bill. The Government understands the need to watch the escalating wage bill carefully and put in place a strategy to steer it to a sustainable level as early as possible. Historical and international comparisons suggest that an overall wage bill of around 10 percent of GDP should be the medium-term target. This note illustrates that Zimbabwe could take immediate steps in 2010 and 2011 that will put it on the path of a sustainable level of wage bill in the medium-term. The focus of efforts to contain the wage bill should be on short-term measures because designing and implementing a medium-term approach to wage bill management would be too challenging in view of prevailing economic uncertainty and complex political reality. The note covers the staff employed by the Central Government, including uniformed services and staff employed by the Grant-in-Aided (GIA) institutions. The staff employed by local governments and public enterprises are excluded because direct transfers from the central budget to local government and public enterprises are rather small. (annex A has an outline of the institutional aspects of civil service in Zimbabwe). Given the paucity of information...

Minimum Wage Policy : Lessons with a Focus on the ASEAN Region

Del Carpio, Ximena; Pabon, Laura
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
This report consists of seven chapters and is divided into three parts. Part one focuses on the minimum wage policy, its historical evolution, and the current institutional context across ASEAN countries. Part two delves into the socio?economic impacts of the minimum wage policy on workers, households, firms, the economy, and the ASEAN region. Part III links the findings from each country to the ASEAN regional context and brings all the analysis together into a policy and operational discussion. Specifically, part one of the report includes this chapter (chapter one) and chapter two. The rest of chapter one summarizes the findings from all chapters in the report and presents an overview of lessons detailed in the final chapter. To provide some background and context for the remainder of the report, chapter two briefly describes the history of minimum wage policy around the world and the theoretical principles behind wage setting and its effects. Part two consists of four chapters. Chapter three, which describes how the minimum wage policy is structured and managed in each ASEAN country...

Structural Reforms and Labor Market Outcomes : International Panel Data Evidence

Hollweg, Claire H.; Lederman, Daniel; Mitra, Devashish
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
This paper explores the impact of structural reforms on a comprehensive set of macro-level labor-market outcomes, including the unemployment rate, the average wage index, and overall and female employment levels and labor force participation rates. Together these outcome variables capture the overall health of the labor market and the aggregate welfare of workers. Yet, there seems to be no other comprehensive empirical investigation in the existing literature of the impact of structural reforms at the cross-country macro level on labor-market outcomes other than the unemployment rate. Data were collected from a variety of sources, including the World Bank World Development Indicators, the International Monetary Fund International Financial Statistics, and the International Labor Organization Key Indicators of the Labor Market. The resulting dataset covers up to 88 countries, the majority being developing, for 10 years on either side of structural reforms that took place between 1960 and 2001. After documenting the average trends across countries in the labor-market outcomes up to 10 years on either side of each country s structural reform year...

Can Minimum Wages Close the Gender Wage Gap?

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Rijkers, Bob; Waxman, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Using manufacturing plant-level census data, this paper demonstrates that minimum wage increases in Indonesia reduced gender wage gaps among production workers, with heterogeneous impacts by level of education and position of the firm in the wage distribution. Paradoxically, educated women appear to have benefitted the most, particularly in the lower half of the firm average earnings distribution. By contrast, women who did not complete primary education did not benefit on average, and even lost ground in the upper end of the earnings distribution. Minimum wage increases were thus associated with exacerbated gender pay gaps among the least educated, and reduced gender gaps among the best educated production workers. Unconditional quantile regression analysis attests to wage compression and lighthouse effects. Changes in relative employment prospects were limited.

Minimum Wage Policy : Lessons with a Focus on the ASEAN Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
As developing economies continue to mature and enter the next phase of reforms, labor market issues and key policy instruments such as the minimum wage increasingly come to the forefront. Increased globalization and wider competition compel countries to make labor markets more flexible so as not to hurt competitiveness. At the same time, policymakers face pressure to rethink labor market regulations (and social safety nets) to avoid disadvantaging workers, especially the most vulnerable who are more prone to employment insecurity. Evidence of the impact of minimum wage policies in the East Asian context and in Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, more specifically remains very limited. A thorough literature search identified only a few rigorous studies of the impact of minimum wages on important welfare outcomes in ASEAN countries, and some of the evidence was narrowly focused on one sector and period or from a time when the institutional setup and management of the policy was different from today. Given the relevance of the minimum wage policy in ASEAN economies...

Trade Policy and Wage Inequality : A Structural Analysis with Occupational and Sectoral Mobility

Artuc, Erhan; McLaren, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
A number of authors have argued that a worker's occupation of employment is at least as important as the worker's industry of employment in determining whether the worker will be hurt or helped by international trade. This paper investigates the role of occupational mobility on the effects of trade shocks on wage inequality in a dynamic, structural econometric model of worker adjustment. Each worker in the model can switch either industry, occupation, or both, paying a time-varying cost to do so in a rational-expectations optimizing environment. The authors find that the costs of switching industry and occupation are both high, and of similar magnitude, but in simulations they find that a worker's industry of employment is much more important than either the worker's occupation or skill class in determining whether he or she is harmed by a trade shock.

Kyrgyz Republic Public Expenditure Review Policy Notes : Public Wage Bill

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
Restraining the growing wage bill expenditures while enhancing the performance of the public sector remains one of the government's major development priorities. Wage bill levels in the Kyrgyz Republic are high compared to the majority of Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries, constituting almost one third of government expenditures. Over the last few years, the government has undertaken important steps towards enhancing pay systems and improving competitiveness of pay in public health and education sectors accounting for almost 66 percent of the wage bill. The Kyrgyz Republic confronts the need to restrain its public wage bill as part of its mid-term fiscal strategy, as well as the need to improve the performance of the public sector. The analysis, undertaken in this policy note, suggests that the government should consider the following measures and reforms: improve predictability of the wage bill and avoid further ad hoc increase in wages; moderate and gradual consolidation of employment; any increase of the base pay elements has to be linked to modest and gradual consolidation of public sector employment...

Foreign Wage Premium, Gender and Education : Insights from Vietnam Household Surveys

Fukase, Emiko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
This paper investigates the differential impacts of foreign ownership on wages for different types of workers (in terms of educational background and gender) in Vietnam using the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys of 2002 and 2004. Whereas most previous studies have compared wage levels between foreign and domestic sectors using firm-level data (thus excluding the informal sector), one advantage of using the Living Standards Surveys in this paper is that the data allow wage comparison analyses to extend to the informal wage sector. A series of Mincerian earnings equations and worker-specific fixed effects models are estimated. Several findings emerge. First, foreign firms pay higher wages relative to their domestic counterparts after controlling for workers personal characteristics. Second, the higher the individual workers' levels of education, the larger on average are the wage premiums for those who work for foreign firms. Third, longer hours of work in foreign firm jobs relative to working in the informal wage sector are an important component of the wage premium. Finally...

Serbia - Right-Sizing the Government Wage Bill

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
Serbia's public sector wage bill constitutes a significant share of total government expenditure. At present, it is significantly higher than in most neighboring European Union (EU) member countries. This is largely due to higher average levels of compensation, rather than higher levels of staffing. While wage spending has fallen recently this is not the occasion to be sanguine about the Government's wage and employment policies. There are two reasons. First, continuing control over the wage bill is a key part of the Government's overall deficit reduction strategy. Given the Government's reluctance to raise taxes and the difficulty it confronts in reducing other major categories of expenditures (particularly pensions), restraining the wage bill is critical to fiscal sustainability. In connection with its standby arrangement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the government is committed to enacting fiscal responsibility legislation which would cap wage bill spending at eight percent of gross domestic product (GDP) over the medium term. To date...

The Place Premium : Wage Differences for Identical Workers across the US Border

Clemens, Michael A.; Montenegro, Claudio E.; Pritchett, Lant
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
This paper compares the wages of workers inside the United States to the wages of observably identical workers outside the United States-controlling for country of birth, country of education, years of education, work experience, sex, and rural-urban residence. This is made possible by new and uniquely rich microdata on the wages of over two million individual formal-sector wage-earners in 43 countries. The paper then uses five independent methods to correct these estimates for unobserved differences and introduces a selection model to estimate how migrants' wage gains depend on their position in the distribution of unobserved wage determinants. Following all adjustments for selectivity and compensating differentials, the authors estimate that the wages of a Bolivian worker of equal intrinsic productivity, willing to move, would be higher by a factor of 2.7 solely by working in the United States. While this is the median, this ratio is as high as 8.4 (for Nigeria). The paper documents that (1) for many countries...