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Crop Production and Road Connectivity in Sub-Saharan Africa : A Spatial Analysis

Dorosh, Paul; Wang, Hyoung-Gun; You, Liang; Schmidt, Emily
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
This study examines the relationship between transport infrastructure and agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa using new data obtained from geographic information systems (GIS). First, the authors analyze the impact of road connectivity on crop production and choice of technology. Second, they explore the impact of investments that reduce road travel times. Finally, they show how this type of analysis can be used to compare cost-benefit ratios for alternative road investments in terms of agricultural output per dollar invested. The authors find that agricultural production is highly correlated with proximity (as measured by travel time) to urban markets. Likewise, adoption of high-productive/high-input technology is negatively correlated with travel time to urban centers. There is therefore substantial scope for increasing agricultural production in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in more remote areas. Total crop production relative to potential production is 45 percent for areas within four hours travel time from a city of 100...

General Equilibrium Effects of Land Market Restrictions on Labor Market : Evidence from Wages in Sri Lanka

Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
Taking advantage of a historical quasi-experiment in Sri Lanka, this paper provides evidence on the effects of land market restrictions on wages and its spatial pattern. The empirical specification is derived from a general equilibrium model that predicts that the adverse effects of land market restrictions on wages will be less in remote locations. For identification, the study exploits the effects of historical malaria prevalence on the incidence of land restrictions through its effects on "crown land". During the 16th to early 20th centuries, areas severely affected by malaria were abandoned by households and the land was taken over by the government. These lands that were later distributed through resettlement programs are subject to sales, rental, and mortgage restrictions. The variations in the amount of crown land resulting from different intensity of historical malaria provide a source of exogenous variations in the incidence of land restrictions in a sub-district. The results show that land restrictions reduce wages substantially...

An Analysis of Various Policy Instruments to Reduce Congestion, Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Beijing

Anas, Alex; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zheng, Siqi
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
Using a nested multinomial logit model of car ownership and personal travel in Beijing circa 2005, this paper compares the effectiveness of different policy instruments to reduce traffic congestion and CO2 emissions. The study shows that a congestion toll is more efficient than a fuel tax in reducing traffic congestion, whereas a fuel tax is more effective as a policy instrument for reducing gasoline consumption and emissions. An improvement in car efficiency would also reduce congestion, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions significantly; however, this policy benefits only richer households that own a car. Low-income households do better under the fuel tax policy than under the efficiency improvement and congestion toll policies. The congestion toll and fuel tax require the travel cost per mile to more than triple. The responsiveness of aggregate fuel and CO2 are, approximately, a 1 percent drop for each 10 percent rise in the money cost of a car trip.

Pricing Externalities from Passenger Transportation in Mexico City

Parry, Ian W. H.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
The Mexico City Metropolitan Area has been suffering severely from transportation externalities such as accidents, air pollution, and traffic congestion. This study examines pricing instruments to reduce these externalities using an analytical and numerical model. The study shows that the optimal levels of a gasoline tax and a congestion toll on automobiles could generate social benefits, measured in terms of welfare gain, of US$132 and US$109 per capita, respectively, through the reduction of externalities. The largest component of the welfare gains comes from reduced congestion, followed by local air pollution reduction. The optimal toll and tax would, however, double the cost of driving and could be politically sensitive. Still, more than half of those welfare gains could be obtained through a more modest tax or toll, equivalent to $1 per gallon of gasoline. The welfare gains from reforming the pricing of public transportation are small relative to those from reforming the taxation of automobiles. Although the choice among travel modes depends on specific circumstances...

Impacts of Policy Instruments to Reduce Congestion and Emissions from Urban Transportation : The Case of São Paulo, Brazil

Anas, Alex; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
This study examines impacts on net social benefits or economic welfare of alternative policy instruments for reducing traffic congestion and atmospheric emissions in São Paulo, Brazil. The study shows that expanding road networks, subsidizing public transit, and improving automobile fuel economy may not be as effective as suggested by economic theories because these policies could cause significant rebound effects. Although pricing instruments such as congestion tolls and fuel taxes would certainly reduce congestion and emissions, the optimal level of these instruments would steeply increase the monetary cost of travel per trip and are therefore politically difficult to implement. However, a noticeable finding is that even smaller tolls, which are more likely to be politically acceptable, have substantial benefits in terms of reducing congestion and emissions. Among the various policy instruments examined in the study, the most socially preferable policy option for São Paulo would be to introduce a mix of congestion toll and fuel taxes on automobiles and use the revenues to improve public transit systems.

Introducing Behavioral Change in Transportation into Energy/Economy/Environment Models

Schafer, Andreas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
Transportation is vital to economic and social development, but at the same time generates undesired consequences on local, regional, and global scales. One of the largest challenges is the mitigation of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, to which this sector already contributes one-quarter globally and one-third in the United States. Technology measures are the prerequisite for drastically mitigating energy use and all emission species, but they are not sufficient. The resulting need for complementing technology measures with behavioral change policies contrasts sharply with the analyses carried out by virtually all energy / economy / environment (E3) models, given their focus on pure technology-based solutions. This paper addresses the challenges for E3 models to simulate behavioral changes in transportation. A survey of 13 major models concludes that especially hybrid energy models would already be capable of simulating some behavioral change policies, most notably the imposition of the full marginal societal costs of transportation. Another survey of major macroscopic transportation models finds that key specifications required for simulating behavioral change have already been implemented and tested...

A Framework for Urban Transport Benchmarking

Henning, Theuns; Essakali, Mohammed Dalil; Oh, Jung Eun
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
This report summarizes the findings of a study aimed at exploring key elements of a benchmarking framework for urban transport. Unlike many industries where benchmarking has proven to be successful and straightforward, the multitude of the actors and interactions involved in urban transport systems may make benchmarking a complex endeavor. It was therefore important to analyze what has been done so far, propose basic benchmarking elements and test them, and identify lessons for a simple and sustainable urban transport benchmarking framework. A major component of this study was to investigate (a) the availability of data for benchmarking and (b) the value of benchmarking on the basis of limited data. The study therefore proposes a benchmarking framework for urban transport, focusing on the performance of public transport. Because the design of a benchmarking framework depends on the objectives sought from it, the study focused on the performance of public transport systems from the policymaker s perspective. The study included pilot application of the proposed framework in five cities from three continents Beijing...

Greater Cairo : A Proposed Urban Transport Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
The objective of the urban transport strategy note (UTSN) is to provide an assessment of the urban transport system in Greater Cairo (GC), identify what now appear to be the most pressing urban transport problems, and framework for urgent policy actions and investment priorities that would be the basis of a formal transport strategy to be adopted and implemented by the authorities of the metropolitan area of Cairo. This note is essentially based on a thorough review of the 2002 Urban Transportation Master Plan for GC and a rapid analysis of the current conditions and performance of the urban transport system. This note includes nine chapters. The first chapter provides a quick overview of the current situation of the UT in GC. In chapter two, present the main guiding principles and key components of the proposed strategy to prepare the ground for the following chapters. Chapter three to nine elaborate on the issues and policy recommendations for each of the components of the strategy: organization and operation of public transport systems (chapter three)...

Review of the Urban Transport Sector in the Russian Federation : Transition to Long-Term Sustainability

Oh, JungEun; Gwilliam, Kenneth
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Russian cities are undergoing critical economic and social changes that affect the performance and condition of their urban transport systems. While the population of most large cities in Russia (over one million residents) has remained relatively unchanged over the last decade, the average income of the urban dwellers has sharply increased. The number of private cars per capita has increased rapidly, generating a demand for urban mobility which is increasingly difficult to meet. This review of the urban transport sector in the Russian Federation (the Review, hereafter) aims to assess the current condition and performance of urban transport systems in medium-to-large size Russian cities and to identify key issues and underlying causes. The review principally covers software of urban transport in the secondary cities of Russia, including institutional arrangements, legal and regulatory issues, operation of public transport systems, traffic management, and parking, and less extensively hardware aspects, such as construction of road network.

Regional Economic Impact Analysis of High Speed Rail in China : Step by Step Guide

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
This report reflects a two-stage work flow designed to fulfill the research objectives: stage one defined the methodology, and stages two tested this methodology and transferred the know-how to the China Railway Corporation and its consultants through case studies. Chapter two summarizes the theoretical framework within which regional economic impacts are discussed and quantified. Chapter three reviews current regional economic impact analyses in China. Chapter four summarizes the approach to practical regional impact assessment in other countries and reviews the relevance of the main methods in the Chinese context. Chapter five summarizes the work that has been carried out by the World Bank to date in estimating regional impacts in China. Chapter six develops a practical approach to quantifying the regional economic impacts of future HSR in China, including methods for data collection, surveys and interviews. Chapter seven presents the implementation of the methodology in the case studies and the interpretation of quantified model results. Chapter eight summarizes the conclusions and the recommendations for further work. In addition...

Guatemala : Elements of a Transport and Logistics Strategy

Dumitrescu, Anca C.; Smith, Graham; Osborne, Theresa K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
This document has been produced by the World Bank to support the Government of Guatemala as it improves its transport and logistics sector management in pursuit of enhanced country competitiveness. It identifies and defines elements of a National Transport and Logistics Strategy (NTLS) through the development of a methodology which analyzes bottlenecks and related costs along the main logistics corridors. It does so with a view to (a) mobilizing support in the trading community (essentially private sector) for logistic service improvements, (b) identifying the need for broader public-sector reforms in transport which indirectly impact logistics performance, and (c) helping the Government to set sector priorities and hence to prioritize public investment. At the same time, it points out where improved data and monitoring of performance are needed in order to better quantify economic costs, diagnose key logistics issues, and track improved performance. It thereby proposes, as part of the set of recommended activities...

Malaysia Economic Monitor, June 2015

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
After a strong finish in 2014, growth moderated in early 2015. Malaysia’s economy expanded by 6.0 percent in 2014, accelerating to 7.3 percent q/q saar in Q42014 due to resilient domestic demand and a pick-up of exports. Growth moderated to 4.7 percent q/q saar in Q1 2015 on account of weaker external demand, but domestic demand remained strong. To transform the planning and delivery of urban transport, Malaysia may consider prioritizing the following reforms: (a) Establish lead transport agencies at the conurbation level that spearhead an integrated approach towards the planning and delivery of urban transport across different modes; (b) identify and implement sustainable financing mechanisms for the lead agency. Introducing local taxes on fuel would not only result in environmental gains and trim the fiscal deficit (by RM10-19 billion), but also fund transport (for example, 24 percent of Vancouver’s transit system is funded by municipal gas taxes). Reviewing impediments to transit-oriented development will be another option...

Rise of the Anatolian Tigers

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Turkey’s demographic and economic transformation has been one of the world’s most dramatic, with urban growth and economic growth proceeding hand in hand. Distinguishing Turkey from many other developing countries has been the pace, scale, and geographical diversity of its spatial and economic transformation. Fast-growing secondary cities bring added challenges that define Turkey’s second-generation urban agenda. New and differentiated service standards will need to be established across both dense urban built-up areas and small villages and rural settlements within the newly-expanded metropolitan municipality administrative area. These developments make planning, connecting, and financing important policy principles for Turkey’s second-generation urban development agenda. This policy brief frames a second-generation urban development agenda to support Turkey’s transition from upper middle income to high income.

Private Participation in the Road Sector in Brazil : Recent Evolution and Next Steps; Participacao privada no setor rodoviario no Brasil Evolucao recente e proximos passos : adrien veron e jacques cellier

Véron, Adrien; Cellier, Jacques
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Today, Brazil has the second longest highway network under private concessions in the world. This paper analyzes Brazil's experience under the two first phases of the federal road concession program, and highlights some of the program's strengths and areas for further development. Despite the unfolding world financial and economic crisis, the potential for further private participation in the sector appears very good. This paper essentially argues that it may be time for Brazil to revamp its current models for private participation in the sector, which may soon reach their limit in terms of being able to meet efficiently the needs of a growing economy. In summary, Brazil could: 1) diversify its toll road model to allow for more innovative public-private partnership structures; 2) update its toll regulatory and contractual framework to overcome some of the design problems that have led to relatively inefficient tolling; 3) consolidate the institutional framework for road concessions to give a stabilized basis for further developments; 4) develop a policy framework adapted to the current Brazilian environment...

Cairo Traffic Congestion Study : Final Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
The Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area (GCMA), with more than 19 million inhabitants, is host to more than one-fifth of Egypt's population. The GCMA is also an important contributor to the Egyptian economy in terms of GDP and jobs. The population of the GCMA is expected to further increase to 24 million by 2027, and correspondingly its importance to the economy will also increase. Traffic congestion is a serious problem in the GCMA with large and adverse effects on both the quality of life and the economy. In addition to the time wasted standing still in traffic, time that could be put to more productive uses, congestion results in unnecessary fuel consumption, causes additional wear and tear on vehicles, increases harmful emissions lowering air quality, increases the costs of transport for business, and makes the GCMA an unattractive location for businesses and industry. These adverse effects have very real and large monetary and nonmonetary costs not only for the economy of the GCMA, but given its size...

What Drives the High Price of Road Freight Transport in Central America?

Osborne, Theresa; Pachon, Maria Claudia; Araya, Gonzalo Enrique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
In Central America, like many other developing regions, high transport costs are cited as an important impediment to trade and economic growth. Prices for road freight transport, a key mode of transport comprising a significant share of total transport costs for both intra, and extra, regional trade, are particularly high. Averaging 17 US cents per ton-kilometer on main trading routes, these rates stand out even relative to other inefficient developing country markets (e.g., central and west Africa). However, the policy and other factors associated with increased prices have not been well understood. Using data from a survey of trucking companies operating on the region's main trade corridors, this paper analyzes the primary drivers affecting firms' cost of providing service, as well as the effect of market structure and competition on markups and prices. We find that whereas improved cost efficiencies could reduce prices by 3 cents per ton?kilometer, increased competition on national routes, those entirely within a nation's borders...

High Food Prices, Latin American and the Caribbean Responses to a New Normal; El alto precio de los alimentos, respuestas de ALC a una nueva normalidad

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Yet the current situation differs from 2007-2008 in critical respects. First, recent international price increases are more widespread across agricultural commodities than in 2008, when price spikes were led by few grains such as wheat and rice. Second, natural resources are affecting food production: land and water constraints are more binding than in the past and weather induced production shortfalls are more of a factor now than it was 2008. Climate change also adds to this uncertainty, particularly since a larger share of grain exports are being produced in areas more exposed to climate variability. Third, long term structural changes in the markets are more clearly a major factor this time, as demand for feed and income-elastic foods under sustained and widespread income growth in emerging countries is increasing steadily. Fourth, the global stocks/use ratio for major cereals, which used to hover in the range of 30-35 percent in the 1980s and 1990s, has been around 20 percent after 2003 due largely to long-term policy changes in high-income countries; and stocks of some critical players are now at all-time lows. Global markets are currently experiencing the second sharp spike in food prices in the last four years. While no one has a crystal ball to predict with confidence the future prices of food products...

Transport Activity Measurement Toolkit for On-Road Vehicles : Practitioners' Guide

Rogers, John A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
Although urbanization is frequently cited as a major cause of greenhouse gas and local air pollution emissions growth, it could be better understood as one of the crucial links between climate and development. Urbanization is a major driver of development, and once in cities, people tend to increase their mobility dramatically, driving an increase in greenhouse gas and other emissions from transport. The demand for transport is not limited only to urban environments. As each economy becomes richer, its demand for passenger and freight mobility increases. This increase in car usage coupled with a tendency to have a lower number of passengers per car, has been sufficient to offset the improvements gained in vehicle fuel efficiency. The increasing transport demand, if not accompanied by adequate growth in infrastructure and facilities, leads to rising congestion, time loss, and air quality deterioration that can stifle economic growth and quality of life. Finding the delicate balance of policy options to achieve long-term improvements in on-road transport and reduce the impact of its externalities is critical and needs to be tailored to each locale. This requires measurements both to design the interventions and evaluate their impacts. This transport activity measurement toolkit (TAMT) has been developed specifically to simplify this measurement process by providing standardized software...

What Drives the High Price of Road Freight Transport in Central America?

Osborne, Theresa; Pachon, Maria Claudia; Araya, Gonzalo Enrique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
In Central America, like many other developing regions, high transport costs are cited as an impediment to trade and economic growth. Prices for road freight transport -- a key mode of transport comprising a significant share of total transport costs for intra- and extra-regional trade, are particularly high. Averaging 17 cents per ton-kilometer on main trading routes, these rates stand out even relative to other inefficient developing country markets (e.g., central and west Africa). However, the policy and other factors associated with increased prices have not been well understood. This paper uses data from a survey of trucking companies operating on the region's main trade corridors to analyze the determinants of firms' costs of providing service, as well as the effect of market structure and competition on prices. The analysis finds that whereas improved cost efficiencies could reduce prices by 3 cents per ton-kilometer, increased competition on national routes -- those entirely within a nation's borders -- would reduce prices by significantly more. Although there are many trucking companies...

STC: Coarse-Grained Vehicular Data Based Travel Speed Sensing by Leveraging Spatial-Temporal Correlation

Shao, Lu; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Changjun
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
As an important information for traffic condition evaluation, trip planning, transportation management, etc., average travel speed for a road means the average speed of vehicles travelling through this road in a given time duration. Traditional ways for collecting travel-speed oriented traffic data always depend on dedicated sensors and supporting infrastructures, and are therefore financial costly. Differently, vehicular crowdsensing as an infrastructure-free way, can be used to collect data including real-time locations and velocities of vehicles for road travel speed estimation, which is a quite low-cost way. However, vehicular crowdsensing data is always coarse-grained. This coarseness can lead to the incompleteness of travel speeds. Aiming to handle this problem as well as estimate travel speed accurately, in this paper, we propose an approach named STC that exploits the spatial-temporal correlation among travel speeds for roads by introducing the time-lagged cross correlation function. The time lagging factor describes the time consumption of traffic feature diffusion along roads. To properly calculate cross correlation, we novelly make the determination of the time lagging factor self-adaptive by recording the locations of vehicles at different roads. Then...