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Temperature analysis on fire resistance experiments of partially encased beams

Piloto, P.A.G.; Ramos Gavilán, A.B.; Mesquita, L.M.R.
Fonte: WIT Press Publicador: WIT Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Twelve fire resistance tests, grouped in four series, were developed using partially encased beams (PEB) without concrete slab, for different load level and shear connection. PEB were built with standard hot rolled IPE100 profile and reinforced concrete between flanges. Fire resistance was determined for standard ISO834 nominal heating curve, using small fire resistance furnace and portal frame. Temperature was measured in three different sections along PEB length, for three different materials (steel, concrete and reinforcement). Average temperature in each section and material was compared to the average over length temperature. Each series presented similar results, with good reproducibility. Special focus was given to critical temperature. The maximum temperature difference between sections S1, S2, S3 and the average element length temperature is smaller than 3.2 % for test series 1. For test series 2, 3 and 4 the maximum temperature difference is smaller than 5.1%, 6.3% and 11.2%, respectively. Temperature is not uniform in cross-section. After the initial heating stage, temperature revealed a constant difference of approximately 150ºC between temperatures measured inside and outside, defining two main temperature evolutions. Temperatures measured outside revealed always higher temperature level.

Temperature assessment on fire resistance experiments of partially encased beams

Piloto, P.A.G.; Gavilán, Ana; Mesquita, L.M.R.
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Twelve fire resistance tests, grouped in four series, were developed using partially encased beams (PEBs) without concrete slab, for different load levels and shear condition. PEBs were built with standard hot rolled IPE100 profile and reinforced concrete between flanges. Fire resistance was determined for standard ISO834 nominal fire curve, using small fire resistance furnace and portal frame. Temperature was measured in three different sections along PEB length (S1, S2, S3), for three different materials (steel, concrete and reinforcement). Average temperature in each section and material was compared with the average temperature over length. Each series presented similar results, with good reproducibility. Special focus was given to critical temperature. The maximum temperature difference between sections and the average temperature of element length is smaller than 3.2%, 5.1%, 6.3% and 11.2%, for test series 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Temperature is not uniform in cross-section. After the initial heating stage, temperature revealed a constant difference of approximately 150°C between temperatures measured inside and outside, defining two main temperature evolutions. Temperatures measured outside revealed always higher temperature level.

Variação da temperatura intramuscular durante e após a aplicação cutânea de frio e calor superficial.; Variation of the intramuscular temperature during and after cutaneous application of cold andsuperficial heat

Gomes, Elizabete Dias Flauzino Gaspar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2001 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
A utilização do frio e calor superficial, com propósitos terapêuticos é antiga, e seus efeitos ainda apresentam inúmeras controvérsias. Este experimento objetivou determinar as variações de temperatura em planos musculares profundos durante e após aplicação de frio e calor superficial na região cutânea adjacente.Foram usados 5 cães mestiços submetidos à implantação cirúrgica (músculo longo do tronco) de sensor térmico (PT100), em profundidade de 3 cm. Foi aplicado frio na pele adjacente, durante 30 min, em 3 dias consecutivos, em área delimitada,usando bolsa de gelo triturado, verificando temperatura a cada 5 min durante a aplicação e 30 min após cessar a aplicação. No 4º dia (pós-operatório) foram iniciadas as aplicações de calor superficial, durante 20 min (bolsa de gel a 55ºC), por 3 dias, verificando temperatura a cada 5 min durante a aplicação e mais 20 min após cessar a aplicação. Os dados de temperatura x tempo foram analisados descritivamente. Durante a aplicação de frio houve uma queda rápida da temperatura na interface com variação média de 23ºC, com tempo médio de alcance da temperatura mínima em 24 min. A região intramuscular apresentou variação lenta (média de 4,30ºC)...

Clima e mortalidade: uma abordagem observacional ecológica na cidade de São Paulo; Climate and mortality: ecological observational approach in Sao Paulo

Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/01/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
INTRODUÇÃO: Em um cenário de mudanças climáticas, o delineamento da associação e dos mecanismos de efeito entre fatores de risco ambientais, como temperatura e poluição, e saúde tornou-se foco de diversos estudos epidemiológicos. À medida que a exposição à poluição e às condições meteorológicas ocorre de forma simultânea, além do efeito isolado, devemos buscar compreender a interação entre tais fatores, observando se atuam como modificadores de efeito. O presente estudo caracterizou o efeito da temperatura e da poluição do ar, isolado e sinérgico, na mortalidade, a partir de dados secundários. MÉ- TODOS: Três tipos de metodologias foram aplicadas para avaliar a associação isolada da temperatura média e da concentração média diária de poluentes (MP10, NO2, O3) na mortalidade de indivíduos acima dos 40 anos por doenças cardiovasculares e na mortalidade de indivíduos acima dos 60 anos por doenças respiratórias, na cidade de São Paulo - Brasil entre 1998 e 2008. As estimativas de risco relativo produzidas em análises case-crossover com pareamento temporal bidirecional e com pareamento pelo fator confundidor, i.e. temperatura média ou poluente, foram comparadas aos resultados de uma análise tradicional de séries temporais. Para avaliar o efeito sinérgico entre os fatores de risco...

Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

Pinheiro,Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva,Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz,Joel; Zanobetti,Antonella
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) on the mortality of individuals > 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped...

On the average temperature of airless spherical bodies and the magnitude of Earth’s atmospheric thermal effect

Volokin, Den; ReLlez, Lark
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
The presence of atmosphere can appreciably warm a planet’s surface above the temperature of an airless environment. Known as a natural Greenhouse Effect (GE), this near-surface Atmospheric Thermal Enhancement (ATE) as named herein is presently entirely attributed to the absorption of up-welling long-wave radiation by greenhouse gases. Often quoted as 33 K for Earth, GE is estimated as a difference between planet’s observed mean surface temperature and an effective radiating temperature calculated from the globally averaged absorbed solar flux using the Stefan-Boltzmann (SB) radiation law. This approach equates a planet’s average temperature in the absence of greenhouse gases or atmosphere to an effective emission temperature assuming ATE ≡ GE. The SB law is also routinely employed to estimating the mean temperatures of airless bodies. We demonstrate that this formula as applied to spherical objects is mathematically incorrect owing to Hölder’s inequality between integrals and leads to biased results such as a significant underestimation of Earth’s ATE. We derive a new expression for the mean physical temperature of airless bodies based on an analytic integration of the SB law over a sphere that accounts for effects of regolith heat storage and cosmic background radiation on nighttime temperatures. Upon verifying our model against Moon surface temperature data provided by the NASA Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment...

Influence of Temperature on Reproduction, Development, and Intrinsic Rate of Increase of Russian Wheat Aphid, Greenbug, and Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

Michels, G. J.; Behle, R. W.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
The effects of constant (1O°C) and fluctuating (5-15°C and I-19°C) temperature regimes on the reproduction, development, and intrinsic rate of increase of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), greenbug, Schizaphis graminum Rondani, and the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi Fitch, were studied in the laboratory at an average-temperature regime (1O°C) that is common in the spring when all three of these aphids are found in small grain fields in the Texas Panhandle. Significant differences in nymphal development and total lifespan were observed among species within a temperature regime and among temperature regimes for a species. Natality was highest for D. noxia and R. padi at 5-15°C; S. graminum natality was highest at I-19°C. Estimates of the intrinsic rate of increase (rm,) for the three aphid species were highest at I-19°C (0.188 for D. noxia, 0.144 for S. graminum, and 0.200 and for R. padi).

A numerical study of the influence of temperature fluctuations in the thermal radiation field

Santos, Elizaldo Domingues dos; Galar??a, Marcelo Moraes; Mossi, Anderson Chaves; Petry, Adriane Prisco; Fran??a, Francis Henrique Ramos
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
The present paper performs a numerical study of the influence of fluctuations on the temperature field over the thermal radiation field with the purpose to simulate the effect of Turbulence-Radiation Interactions (TRI). To evaluate the behavior of the divergence of the radiant heat flux for a flame in a cylindrical cavity, four temperature profiles are imposed: na average temperature profile and other three with 10%, 20% and 30% of turbulence intensity. The radiative transfer equation is solved using the discrete ordinates method (DOM) and the participating medium is treated as a gray gas. The results demonstrate that the fluctuations of temperature profiles increase significantly the mean divergence of the radiant heat flux in comparison with the average temperature profile, reaching to approximately 20% for the profile with 30% of turbulence intensity.

Temperatura na secagem e condi????es de armazenamento sobre propriedades da soja para consumo e produ????o de biodiesel; Drying temperature and storage conditions in the soybean properties for to consume and biofuel production.

OLIVEIRA, Maur??cio de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Ci??ncia e Tecnologia Agroindustrial; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Ci??ncia e Tecnologia Agroindustrial; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
This experiment were studied the effects of five grains temperatures in the drying, storage environment (controlled and uncontrolled), during 12 months of storage in physical, chemical and physic-chemical characteristics of grains and soybean oil to the production of edible oil and biofuel. The grains were evaluate: moisture degree, volumetric weight, oil content and protein and crude soybean oil were evaluate: acidity index, peroxide index, saponification index, of iodine index and chromatographic profile of fatty acids. The grains were dried in prototype of stationary dryer in the Laboratory of Post-Harvest, Industrialization and Grains Quality, with axial flow air of 7.02 m3.min1.ton-1, in five grains temperatures of: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100?? C, with the total height layer of grains of 60 cm. After the drying, at 4, 8 and 12 months the grains and crude soybean oil were submitted to quality evaluate the grains: moisture degree, volumetric weight, oil content and protein and crude soybean oil were evaluate: acidity index, peroxide index, saponification index, of iodine index and chromatographic profile of fatty acids, the two environmental conditions of storage: controlled (average temperature 17??C and 65% relative humidity) and uncontrolled (average temperature 21??C and 83% relative humidity). With the work was ended that: a) The increase in grains temperature in the drying causes more immediate damage than latent. b) The time storage amending the grain stability with higher intensity in dried in the most drastic conditions and stored without environmental control for a longer time; c) The increase in grains temperature in the drying decrease the hygroscopicity...

A OSCILA????O DECADAL DO PAC??FICO (ODP) E SUA INFLU??NCIA NAS TEMPERATURAS M??XIMAS E M??NIMAS DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL; A Oscila????o Decadal do Pac??fico (ODP) e sua influ??ncia nas temperaturas m??ximas e m??nimas do Rio Grande do Sul

OMENA, Jo??o Carlos Ribeiro
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Meteorologia; Programa de P??s-gradua????o em Meteorologia; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Meteorologia; Programa de P??s-gradua????o em Meteorologia; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The Rio Grande do Sul is a State with characteristics in agriculture, that the basis of its economy. In addition, the State also receives many tourists in the region of tumuc and coast. These factors suffer influence of temperature and that a study is necessary to state that the economy is not affected. It is known that there is an ocean influence in meteorological variables and emphasizes that the Pacific Ocean is the largest of the oceans. The sea surface temperatures (SST) of the Pacific Ocean, have a configuration with long-term variations, similar to El Ni??o, called the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and it was discovered that the PDO influences in precipitation in the State (Rebello, 2006). Objective is to study the possible influences of PDO maximum and minimum temperature. For this data used the maximum and minimum temperature from 1925 to 2008 surface stations INMET homogeneous temperature zones and PDO index. Anomaly calculations were made of average temperature minimum and average maximum for each station and their respective monthly averages. With these results calculated the PDO index percentile and the average maximum temperature anomalies and minimal. The percentile served to separate bands ranges below normal, up to 40%...

Climate Change and Sea Level Rise : A Review of the Scientific Evidence

Dasgupta, Susmita; Meisner, Craig
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Sea-level rise (SLR) due to climate change is a serious global threat: the scientific evidence is now overwhelming. The rate of global sea level rise was faster from 1993 to 2003, about 3.1 mm per year, as compared to the average rate of 1.8 mm per year from 1961 to 2003 (IPCC, 2007); and significantly higher than the average rate of 0.1 to 0.2 mm/yr increase recorded by geological data over the last 3,000 years. Anthropogenic warming and SLR will continue for centuries due to the time scales associated with climate processes and feedbacks, even if greenhouse gas concentrations were to be stabilized. This paper reviews the scientific literature to date on climate change and sea level rise. There appears to be a consensus across studies that global sea level is projected to rise during the 21st century at a greater rate than during the period 1961 to 2003 and unanimous agreement that SLR will not be geographically uniform. Ocean thermal expansion is projected to contribute significantly, and land ice will increasingly lose mass at an accelerated rate. But most controversial are the mass balance loss estimates of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets and what the yet un-quantified dynamic processes will imply in terms of SLR. Recent evidence on the vulnerability of Greenland and west Antarctic ice sheets to climate warming raises the alarming possibility of SLR by one meter or more by the end of the 21st century.

Tympanic temperature measurements: Are they reliable in the critically ill? A clinical study of measures of agreement

Moran, J.; Peter, J.; Solomon, P.; Grealy, B.; Smith, T.; Ashforth, W.; Wake, M.; Peake, S.; Peisach, A.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
OBJECTIVE: Accurate measurement of temperature is vital in the intensive care setting. A prospective trial was performed to compare the accuracy of tympanic, urinary, and axillary temperatures with that of pulmonary artery (PA) core temperature measurements. DESIGN: A total of 110 patients were enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Multidisciplinary intensive care unit of a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: The cohort was (mean +/- sd) 65 +/- 16 yrs of age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 25 +/- 9, 58% of the patients were men, and 76% were mechanically ventilated. The accuracy of tympanic (averaged over both ears), axillary (averaged over both sides), and urinary temperatures was referenced (as mean difference, Delta degrees centigrade) to PA temperatures as standard in 6,703 recordings. Lin concordance correlation (pc) and Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement (degrees centigrade) described the relationship between paired measurements. Regression analysis (linear mixed model) assessed covariate confounding with respect to temperature modes and reliability formulated as an intraclass correlation coefficient. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Concordance of PA temperatures with tympanic...

Modelos lineales de temperatura corporal en el paciente postquirúrgico; Body temperature linear models in postsurgical patients

Izquierdo Monge, María Dolores; Beltrán Guerra, Isabel; Manuel Santos, José; Ortega Calvo, Manuel
Fonte: Murcia: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia Publicador: Murcia: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Introducción y objetivos: La hipotermia no intencionada es una situación ante la cual la enfermería ha de estar entrenada para su reconocimiento y control. Nuestros objetivos han sido: evaluar la proporción de pacientes que llegaban en situación de hipotermia (temperatura <36ºC) y estudiar el comportamiento de la temperatura corporal en la Unidad de Recuperación Postanestésica (URPA). Material y métodos: La medición se llevó a cabo mediante un termómetro timpánico electrónico infrarrojo. El contraste de medias aritméticas se realizó mediante pruebas T. Cuando las variables contenían más de dos categorías se empleó la ANOVA de un factor. Se construyeron modelos con regresión lineal y logística. Resultados: El 85,26% de los pacientes presentaron hipotermia. La temperatura media de ingreso de los pacientes tratados con anestesia combinada fue significativamente más baja que la de los tratados con local o general. Tanto en los modelos univariantes como en los multivariantes con regresión lineal, la temperatura medida a los 90 minutos fue la que más se correlacionó con la temperatura al alta (coeficiente de determinación R2 = 0.69; p<0.001). Discusión: Hemos encontrado una proporción elevada de pacientes con hipotermia (temperatura corporal menor de 36ºC) a su ingreso en la URPA (85...

Beyond average temperature: distribution of wintering birds at multiple scales

Villén Pérez, Sara
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Tesis doctoral inédita. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Ecología. Fecha de lectura: 03-12-2013; To disentangle the subtleties of the relationship between the thermal environment and the distribution of wintering birds, at multiple spatial scales. Specifically, to analyze the relative influence of temperature on species distributions, its interaction with various thermal and non-thermal factors, and the context-dependence of these relationships (i.e., species, season and geographical location). Location Iberian Peninsula and Guadarrama Mountain range (central Spain). Methods I use observational and experimental field approaches to control for habitat structure, topography, food abundance and predation risk, from forest patches to landscape, regional and peninsular scales. Fieldwork is carried out with woodland passerines inhabiting mountain oakwoods of Quercus pyrenaica, and subtle variations in temperature and wind are precisely measured with data loggers. Main results and conclusions Wintering birds respond to natural variations in temperature at multiple scales, selecting the warmest forest patches to forage and the warmest mountain areas and peninsular regions to overwinter. However...

Temperature analysis on fire resistance experiments of partially encased beams

Piloto, P.A.G.; Gavilan, Ana; Mesquita, L.M.R.
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Twelve fire resistance teslS, grouped in four series, were developed using partially encased beams (PEB) WitllOut concrete slob, for different load levei and shear connection. PEB were built witll standard bot rolled IPEJOO profile and reinforced concrete between flanges. Fire resistance was determined for standard 1S0834 nominal beating curve, using small fire resistance fumace and portal trame. Temperature was measured in Ihree differenl sections along PEB lengtll, for three differenl materiais (steel, concrete and reinforcemenl). Average temperature in each section and material was compared lo lhe average over length lemperature. Each series presented similar resuHs, wilh good reproducibility. Special focus was given to crilical temperature. The maximum temperature difference between sections SI, S2, S3 and lhe averoge elemen! lengtll temperature is smaller than 3.2% for tesl scries 1. For test series 2, 3 and 4 lhe maxirnum lemperature difference is smaller Ihan 5.1 %, 6.3% and 11.2%, respectively. Temperature is no! uniform in cross-section. Afler the ini!ial heating stag;e, temperature revealed a constan! difference ofapproximately IS0'C between temperatures measured inside and outside, defining two main temperature evolutions. Temperatures measured outside revealed a1ways higher temperature leveI.

Projections of temperature-attributable premature deaths in 209 U.S. cities using a cluster-based Poisson approach

Schwartz, Joel D.; Lee, Mihye; Kinney, Patrick L.; Yang, Suijia; Mills, David; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Jones, Russell; Streeter, Richard; Juliana, Alexis St.; Peers, Jennifer; Horton, Radley M.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Background: A warming climate will affect future temperature-attributable premature deaths. This analysis is the first to project these deaths at a near national scale for the United States using city and month-specific temperature-mortality relationships. Methods: We used Poisson regressions to model temperature-attributable premature mortality as a function of daily average temperature in 209 U.S. cities by month. We used climate data to group cities into clusters and applied an Empirical Bayes adjustment to improve model stability and calculate cluster-based month-specific temperature-mortality functions. Using data from two climate models, we calculated future daily average temperatures in each city under Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0. Holding population constant at 2010 levels, we combined the temperature data and cluster-based temperature-mortality functions to project city-specific temperature-attributable premature deaths for multiple future years which correspond to a single reporting year. Results within the reporting periods are then averaged to account for potential climate variability and reported as a change from a 1990 baseline in the future reporting years of 2030, 2050 and 2100. Results: We found temperature-mortality relationships that vary by location and time of year. In general...

Identification of an average temperature and a dynamical pressure in a multitemperature mixture of fluids

Gouin, Henri; Ruggeri, Tommaso
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/07/2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
We present a classical approach of a mixture of compressible fluids when each constituent has its own temperature. The introduction of an average temperature together with the entropy principle dictates the classical Fick law for diffusion and also novel constitutive equations associated with the difference of temperatures between the components. The constitutive equations fit with results recently obtained through Maxwellian iteration procedure in extended thermodynamics theory of multitemperature mixtures. The differences of temperatures between the constituents imply the existence of a new dynamical pressure even if the fluids have a zero bulk viscosity. The nonequilibrium dynamical pressure can be measured and may be convenient in several physical situations as for example in cosmological circumstances where - as many authors assert - a dynamical pressure played a major role in the evolution of the early universe.; Comment: 16 pages

Projected Average Summer Air Temperature Increases and the Implications for Philadelphia's Surface Drinking Water Supply

Rockwell, Julia
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 05/12/2014 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
Water managers are faced with numerous uncertainties that need to be addressed in the development of long-term planning initiatives and large-scale investment decisions. One of the primary and perhaps most far-reaching of these uncertainties is climate change. The objective of this project is to utilize one aspect of projected climate change impacts, increasing average summer air temperature, to understand potential impacts to surface drinking water supply temperatures in the Schuylkill River at Philadelphia, PA. The project consists of three major components. As an initial step, climate model output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) was evaluated for the Northeast US and Philadelphia by mapping and analyzing Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) files for near-surface air temperatures in Matlab. The evaluation of climate model output included model validation for six selected CMIP5 Global Climate Models (GCMs), as well as future projections using the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) climate scenario. Secondly, this project aimed to develop a statistical relationship between air and surface water temperatures in Philadelphia using publicly available data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Daymet. Following the aforementioned empirical analyses...

Efeitos isolados e sinérgicos do MP10 e da temperatura média na mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares e respiratórias; Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2014 ENG; POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
OBJETIVO Analisar o efeito da poluição do ar e da temperatura na mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares e respiratórias. MÉTODOS Foram analisados os efeitos da temperatura e do material particulado com diâmetro aerodinâmico < 10 micrômetros (MP10), isolado e sinérgico, na mortalidade de indivíduos >; 40 anos por doenças cardiovasculares e na mortalidade de indivíduos >; 60 anos por doenças respiratórias em São Paulo, SP, entre 1998 e 2008. Três tipos de metodologias foram aplicadas para avaliar a associação isolada: análise de séries temporais com regressão de Poisson, análise case-crossover com pareamento temporal bidirecional e análise case-crossover com pareamento pelo fator confundidor, i.e., temperatura média ou poluente. Foi interpretada a representação gráfica da superfície resposta, gerada por termo de interação entre tais fatores adicionado à regressão de Poisson, para avaliar o efeito sinérgico entre os fatores de risco. RESULTADOS Não foram observadas diferenças entre os resultados das análises case-crossover e de séries temporais. Estimou-se mudança percentual no risco relativo para mortalidade cardiovascular e respiratória de 0,85% (0,45;1,25) e 1,60% (0,74;2,46), respectivamente...

Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

Pinheiro,Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva,Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz,Joel; Zanobetti,Antonella
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
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OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) on the mortality of individuals > 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped...