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Escore de cálcio coronariano prediz estenose e eventos na insuficiência renal crônica pré-transplante; Coronary calcium score as predictor of stenosis and events in pretransplant renal chronic failure; Score de calcio coronario predice estenosis y eventos en la insuficiencia renal crónica pre trasplante

ROSÁRIO, Miguel Abraão; LIMA, José Jayme de; PARGA, José R.; ÁVILA, Luiz F.; GOWDAK, Luis H.; LEMOS, Pedro A.; ROCHITTE, Carlos E.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
FUNDAMENTO: A doença arterial coronariana (DAC) é a principal causa de óbito em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica (IRC). Os exames não invasivos tradicionais para detecção de DAC e predição de eventos têm apresentado resultados insuficientes nesse grupo. A avaliação do escore de cálcio coronariano (ECC) por tomografia computadorizada tem comprovado valor prognóstico na população sem doença renal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a acurácia do ECC para detectar DAC obstrutiva e prever eventos cardiovasculares em candidatos a transplante renal comparada à angiografia coronariana invasiva (ACI) quantitativa. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 97 pacientes com IRC e idade > 35anos. Foi considerada DAC obstrutiva a presença de estenose >50% ou >70% pela ACI. Dados descritivos, concordância, testes diagnósticos, Kaplan-Meier e análise multivariada foram utilizados. RESULTADOS: O escore de Agatston médio foi de 580,6 ± 1.102,2; os valores mínimos e máximos foram 0 e 7.994, e mediana de 176. Apenas 14 pacientes tinham escore de cálcio de zero. Não houve diferenças entre as etnias e a maior presença de cálcio regional associou-se a maior probabilidade de estenose coronária no mesmo segmento. O escore de cálcio de Agatston apresentou boa acurácia para o diagnóstico de estenose...

Probabilidade de sobrevida: comparação dos resultados do trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) com sua nova versão (NTRISS); Survival probability: comparison of the results of trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) and its new version (NTRISS)

Domingues, Cristiane de Alencar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) é um índice que permite calcular probabilidade de sobrevida de pacientes traumatizados. Para seu cálculo são necessárias as informações: idade; tipo de trauma - penetrante ou contuso; valor do Revised Trauma Score (RTS); e pontuação do Injury Severity Score (ISS). Em 1997 foi realizada uma revisão do ISS com o intuito de melhorar sua acurácia na determinação da gravidade do trauma. Essa revisão resultou em mudança no cálculo desse índice e, consequentemente, em uma nova versão, o New Injury Severity Score (NISS). Resultados de estudos têm indicado que o NISS se iguala ou supera o ISS na previsão de mortalidade. Procurou-se neste estudo verificar se a substituição do ISS pelo NISS, na fórmula original do TRISS, melhora sua estimação de sobrevida. Trata-se de pesquisa retrospectiva realizada no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. A população foi constituída por 533 pacientes traumatizados atendidos e internados no Pronto-Socorro deste hospital pelo período de um ano. Foi realizada análise descritiva das características das vítimas e calculadas as medidas de posição para as variáveis contínuas. Para verificar qual o melhor indicador (TRISS ou NTRISS) para probabilidade de sobrevida e o melhor ponto de corte...

Avaliação de escore corporal em equinos através da ultrassonografia; Evaluation of body condition score in horses by ultrasonography

Martins, Roberto Alexandre Díaz Toledo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/12/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
Atualmente, a avaliação do treinamento e da nutrição dos cavalos de esporte, vem sendo amplamente estudada , no intuito de atingir o máximo desempenho dos cavalos de esporte nas competições. A composição corpórea muscular e de deposição de gordura, assim como em humanos, é um dos melhores indicativos deste desempenho. O escore de condição corporal (ECC) é um indicador subjetivo do estado corpóreo em equinos, baseado exclusivamente no depósito de gordura .A ultrassonografia tem demonstrado ser uma ferramenta de grande valor nesta avaliação.Com o objetivo de estudar a relação do escore corporal com medidas de espessura de gordura e músculos obtidas através da ultrassonografia em três raças distintas , utilizou-se 14 equinos Puro Sangue Inglês(PSI), 7 equinos Quarto de Milha(QM) e 10 equinos Puro Sangue Árabe(PSA) , com idade média de 3,5± 0,5 anos e peso médio de 471 quilos. Os animais foram avaliados por ultrassonografia em três regiões paralelas a coluna vertebral: espessura da gordura lombar(EGL), espessura do músculo glúteo(EMG) e espessura da gordura na cauda(EGC).As mensurações foram realizadas a cada 30 dias ,durante 60 dias. Os resultados mostraram um comportamento diferente entre as raças...

Desenvolvimento de protocolo de avaliação, por determinação de escore, das alterações encontradas nas doenças articulares em equinos e sua correlação com evolução após tratamento; Development of a score protocol for articular diseases evaluation in horses and its correlation with post therapy results

Silva, Marilene Machado
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/06/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
O presente estudo teve por objetivo classificar, em tabelas de pontuação, as lesões articulares encontradas em equinos submetidos à artroscopia e correlacionar os escores com sua evolução após tratamento. Foram analisadas, de forma prospectiva, articulações tibiotársicas e metacarpo/metatarsofalangeanas de equinos de esporte encaminhados ao HOVET-USP. Cada articulação foi pontuada em tabelas de escore relacionadas a anamnese, e exames físico, ultrassonográfico, radiográfico e artroscópico. As pontuações foram somadas, determinando-se um escore por exame para cada articulação. A pontuação das imagens radiográficas e artroscópicas foram realizadas por estudo encoberto de três e quatro avaliadores, respectivamente. O proprietário ou médico veterinário responsável pelo animal respondeu a questionário relacionado à evolução do quadro e este foi correlacionado aos escores alcançados pela articulação, determinando-se o prognóstico para os escores. Foram avaliadas 78 articulações tibiotársicas e 48 metacarpo/metatarsofalangeanas. As pontuações mais frequentes na anamnese(>50%) foram as relacionadas ao início do quadro ou animais encaminhados por achados radiográficos ao exame pré-venda. Ao exame físico mais de 50% das articulações apresentaram claudicação...

Supplementation of dairy cows with propylene glycol during the periparturient period: effects on body condition score, milk yield, first estrus post-partum, beta-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and glucose concentrations

Fonseca,Luís Fernando Laranja da; Rodrigues,Paulo Henrique Mazza; Santos,Marcos Veiga dos; Lima,André Pinto; Lucci,Carlos de Sousa
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of propylene glycol (PPG) supplementation to periparturient cows on: milk yield, changes in body condition score (BCS), days to first oestrus after calving, and on the beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterefied fatty acids (NEFA) and glucose concentrations. Twenty-three Holstein cows were distributed into two treatments: a) 300 mL of PPG (group treatment, 11 cows), b) 300 mL of water (group control, 12 cows), administered via drench in periparturient period. BCS was evaluated on days -10, 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 relative to calving date. There was no effect of treatment or time on milk yield, although the interaction of time*treatment was significant and during the 4th and 5th week of lactation, milk yield was significant higher in treatment group. Days to first oestrus of PPG and control group were on average 40.2 and 45.2 respectively (P>0.05). There was no effect of treatment on body condition score (BCS) from calving to sixty days post partum. There was no effect of treatment or interaction of time*treatment on plasma parameters (BHBA, NEFA and glucose) but there was an effect of time on glucose and NEFA. However, based on an analysis of covariance, using BCS as the covariate...

Dealing with Limited Overlap in Estimation of Average Treatment Effects

Hotz, V. Joseph; Crump, Richard K.; Imbens, Guido; Mitnik, Oscar A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
Estimation of average treatment effects under unconfounded or ignorable treatment assignment is often hampered by lack of overlap in the covariate distributions between treatment groups. This lack of overlap can lead to imprecise estimates, and can make commonly used estimators sensitive to the choice of specification. In such cases researchers have often used ad hoc methods for trimming the sample. We develop a systematic approach to addressing lack of overlap. We characterize optimal subsamples for which the average treatment effect can be estimated most precisely. Under some conditions, the optimal selection rules depend solely on the propensity score. For a wide range of distributions, a good approximation to the optimal rule is provided by the simple rule of thumb to discard all units with estimated propensity scores outside the range [0.1,0.9].; Economics

The Performance of Decentralized School Systems : Evidence from Fe y Alegría in Venezuela

Allcott, Hunt; Ortega, Daniel E.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
This program evaluation estimates the effects on standardized test scores of graduating from the Fe y Alegría private school system in Venezuela. The authors find an Average Treatment Effect on the order of 0.1 standard deviations (approximately 16 percent of the average score), using a control group of public school students. These effects are significantly larger for households at the bottom of the distribution, and smaller for those at the top. The authors posit that the better performance of the Fe y Alegría system stems from their labor contract flexibility and decentralized administrative structure.

More Time is Better : An Evaluation of the Full-time School Program in Uruguay

Cerdan-Infantes, Pedro; Vermeersch, Christel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
This paper estimates the impact of the full-time school program in Uruguay on standardized test scores of 6th grade students. The program lengthened the school day from a half day to a full day, and provided additional inputs to schools to make this possible, such as additional teachers and construction of classrooms. The program was not randomly placed, but targeted poor urban schools. Using propensity score matching, the authors construct a comparable group of schools, and show that students in very disadvantaged schools improved in their test scores by 0.07 of a standard deviation per year of participation in the full-time program in mathematics, and 0.04 in language. While the program is expensive, it may, if well targeted, help address inequalities in education in Uruguay, at an increase in cost per student not larger than the current deficit in spending between Uruguay and the rest of the region.

Service Delivery Indicators : Senegal

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
The indicators, which were piloted in Senegal, provide a set of metrics to benchmark the performance of schools and health clinics in Africa. The indicators can be used to track progress within and across countries over time, and aim to enhance active monitoring of service delivery to increase public accountability and good governance. The service delivery indicators project takes as its starting point the literature on how to boost education and health outcomes in developing countries. This literature shows robust evidence that the type of individuals attracted to specific tasks at different levels of the service delivery hierarchy, as well as the set of incentives they face to actually exert effort, are positively and significantly related to education and health outcomes. To evaluate the feasibility of the indicators, pilot surveys in primary education and health care were implemented in Senegal in 2010. The results from the pilot studies demonstrate that the indicators methodology is capable of providing the necessary information to construct harmonized indicators on the quality of service delivery...

Service Delivery Indicators : Tanzania

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
The indicators, which were piloted in Tanzania, provide a set of metrics to benchmark the performance of schools and health clinics in Africa. The indicators can be used to track progress within and across countries over time, and aim to enhance active monitoring of service delivery to increase public accountability and good governance. The service delivery indicators project takes as its starting point the literature on how to boost education and health outcomes in developing countries. This literature shows robust evidence that the type of individuals attracted to specific tasks at different levels of the service delivery hierarchy, as well as the set of incentives they face to actually exert effort, are positively and significantly related to education and health outcomes. To evaluate the feasibility of the indicators, pilot surveys in primary education and health care were implemented in Tanzania in 2010. The results from the pilot studies demonstrate that the indicators methodology is capable of providing the necessary information to construct harmonized indicators on the quality of service delivery...

Using the Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition Technique to Analyze Learning Outcomes Changes over Time : An Application to Indonesia’s Results in PISA Mathematics

Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Garcia-Moreno, Vicente; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Porta, Emilio
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
The Oaxaca-Blinder technique was originally used in labor economics to decompose earnings gaps and to estimate the level of discrimination. It has been applied since in other social issues, including education, where it can be used to assess how much of a gap is due to differences in characteristics (explained variation) and how much is due to policy or system changes (unexplained variation). The authors apply the decomposition technique in an effort to analyze the increase in Indonesia's score in PISA mathematics. Between 2003 and 2006, Indonesia's score increased by 30 points, or 0.3 of a standard deviation. The test score increase is assessed in relation to family, student, school and institutional characteristics. The gap over time is decomposed into its constituent components based on the estimation of cognitive achievement production functions. The decomposition results suggest that almost the entire test score increase is explained by the returns to characteristics, mostly related to student age. However...

Assessing the Long-term Effects of Conditional Cash Transfers on Human Capital : Evidence from Colombia

Baez, Javier E.; Camacho, Adriana
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
Conditional cash transfers are programs under which poor families get a stipend provided they keep their children in school and take them for health checks. Although there is significant evidence showing that they have positive impacts on school participation, little is known about the long-term impacts of the programs on human capital. This paper investigates whether cohorts of children from poor households that benefited up to nine years from Familias en Acción, a conditional cash transfer program in Colombia, attained more school and performed better on academic tests at the end of high school. Identification of program impacts is derived from two different strategies using matching techniques with household surveys, and regression discontinuity design using a census of the poor and administrative records of the program. The authors show that, on average, participant children are 4 to 8 percentage points more likely than nonparticipant children to finish high school, particularly girls and beneficiaries in rural areas. Regarding long-term impact on tests scores...

Impacts of an Early Stage Education Intervention on Students' Learning Achievement : Evidence from the Philippines

Yamauchi, Futoshi; Liu, Yanyan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
This paper examines the impact of a large supply-side education intervention in the Philippines, the Third Elementary Education Project, on students' national achievement test scores. It finds that the program significantly increased student test scores at grades 4 to 6. The estimation indicates that two-year exposure to the program increases test scores by about 4.5 to 5 score points. Interestingly, the mathematics score is more responsive to the education reform than are other subjects. The analysis also finds that textbooks, instructional training of teachers, and new classroom construction particularly contributed to these outcomes. The empirical results imply that early-stage investment improves student performance at later stages in the elementary school cycle, which suggests that social returns to such an investment are greater than what the current study demonstrates.

Achieving World-Class Education in Brazil : The Next Agenda

Bruns, Barbara; Evans, David; Luque, Javier
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.92%
Education is improving in Brazil. The average years of education has almost doubled over the last 20 years, as has the proportion of adults who have completed secondary school. Brazil's high school students have improved consistently in math and language performance over the last decade. These gains stem from the federal government's priority attention to education through both reforms and resources over the past 15 years. The progress laid out in this book is impressive and praiseworthy, but Brazil still trails its competitors in several of the ways that matter most. Student learning, while improving, still lags far behind wealthier nations. Many secondary schools lose the majority of their students well before graduation. Teachers are drawn from among the lowest achievers and have few performance incentives, and it shows in how class time is used. This important book explores not only the basis for Brazil's progress, but also what it must do to bridge the remaining quality gap to a first-rate education for its children. It provides detailed recommendations for strengthening the performance of teachers...

Adrenocortical tumors: results of treatment and study of Weiss's score as a prognostic factor

Lucon,Antonio Marmo; Pereira,Maria Adelaide; Mendonça,Berenice B.; Zerbini,Maria Claudia; Saldanha,Luiz B.; Arap,Sami
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / Universidade de São Paulo - FM/USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / Universidade de São Paulo - FM/USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
PURPOSE: The differential diagnosis between benign and malignant adrenal cortical tumors circumscribed to the gland is controversial. One hundred and seven patients with adrenal cortex tumors (excluding those with primary hyperaldosteronism) were studied to assess the 5-year survival rate of adults, children, patients stratified by pathological stage, and patients stratified according to Weiss's score of <3 or >3. METHODS: The patients were evaluated both clinically and biochemically. One hundred and five patients underwent surgery and were classified pathologically as stages I, II, III, or IV. The tumors were weighed, measured, and classified according to Weiss's criteria and divided into 2 groups: <3 and >3. RESULTS: After 5 years, the survival rate was 77.5% for the whole group, 74.61% for the adults, 84.3% for the children, 100% for stage I, 83.9% for stage II, 33% for stage III, and 11.7% for stage IV groups. Additionally, after 5 years, 100% of the patients with tumors with Weiss's score <3 were alive compared to 61.65% of those with Weiss's score >3. The average weights of the tumors of score <3 and >3 were 23.38 g ± 41.36 g and 376.3 ± 538.76 g, respectively, which is a statistically significant difference. The average sizes of tumors of Weiss's score <3 and >3 were 3.67 ± 2.2 cm and 9.64 ± 5.8 cm...

Internet incidence on SME's sales: a propensity score matching analysis.

Alderete, Maria Veronica
Fonte: IGI Global Publicador: IGI Global
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
The purpose of this paper is to determine how much is the bonus or prize to the sales per worker of Internet-using firms compared to not Internet-using firms. The author employs matching techniques based on an Argentinean database. The author first presents a binary logit model, in which the dependent variable is a dichotomous variable equal to 1 if the firm adopted Internet and 0 otherwise, to evaluate the factors that influence a firm?s probability of adopting Internet. A propensity score matching (PSM) model is then used to assess the impact of using Internet on the sales per worker. The author finds statically significant differences in the sales average between firms that are similar in many dimensions such as location, size, and sales market except for the Internet adoption decision. By probing that Internet access improves SME's sales, the author is validating the Public Sector ICT modernization programs for SME. The contribution of this paper consists of using a well known technique as PSM to analyze a recent field of research which is the contribution of Internet adoption to the firm's sales per worker.; Fil: Alderete, Maria Veronica. Consejo Nacional de Invest.cientif.y Tecnicas. Centro Cientifico Tecnol.conicet - Bahia Blanca. Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales del Sur; Argentina;

Aplicação do Nursing Activities Score (NAS) na unidade de terapia intensiva de trauma de um hospital público do Distrito Federal; Implementation of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) in the intensive care unit of a hospital in the Federal District

Costa, Adriana de Sousa; Lisbôa, Vanderlúcia Ribeiro de Souza
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Trata-se de um estudo com abordagem quanti-qualitativo do tipo exploratório-descritivo, que teve como objetivos, avaliar a carga de trabalho de enfermagem segundo o Nursing Activities Score (NAS), caracterizar a amostra demograficamente, descrever as intervenções terapêuticas realizadas nos pacientes, segundo o NAS, verificar a necessidade de cuidado do paciente em relação à equipe de enfermagem, comparar o quantitativo de profissionais de enfermagem alocados na UTI com relação ao escore NAS. Os dados foram coletados na UTI de trauma do Hospital de base do DF (HBDF) no período de 30/03/2010 a 18/04/2010. A amostra foi constituída de 10 pacientes, sendo que 90% eram do sexo masculino e 10% eram do sexo feminino. 60% dos pacientes são adultos jovens entre 19 e 36 anos. Nesta pesquisa o NAS foi aplicado 83vezes, resultando na média estabelecida de pontuação total dos pacientes de 267, 4% e média de pontuação diária de 64,44%. A pontuação média dos pacientes foi de 71,80% (máximo de 93,05% e mínimo de 53,23%). Observa-se que pacientes vítimas de trauma necessitam, em média, de 17,2 horas de assistência de enfermagem nas 24 horas (máximo de 22, 3 horas e mínimo de 12,77). Ao término do estudo, identificamos que a quantidade de profissionais escalados para a UTI de trauma é adequada para atender a demanda. O estudo oferece subsídios importantes para o cálculo de dimensionamento do pessoal de enfermagem utilizando o NAS como um instrumento que ajuda na determinação da gravidade do paciente e estimativa da carga de trabalho de enfermagem...

Provisão pública e privada de educação fundamental: diferenças de qualidade medidas por meio de propensity score

França, Marco Túlio Aniceto; Gonçalves, Flávio de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
This paper aims to measure the difference of performance between state and private primary schools. We use weighted least squares by propensity score method along with SAEB-2003 data set to avoid selection problems and to have better causality estimation. The results show a huge difference of performance between these schools students and an increasing difference according to student's socioeconomic level and the average salary paid for teachers. Black and mulatto students get less benefit with private schooling than white and Asian ones. Increasing spending do not reduce such differences, these also vary according to non observed regional differences.; O artigo busca mensurar as diferenças de desempenho entre escolas públicas e privadas na fase inicial do ensino fundamental. Utiliza-se o método dos mínimos quadrados ponderados por propensity score com as informações do SAEB/2003 para evitar problemas de seleção e ter uma melhor estimativa das relações de causalidade. Os resultados mostram uma grande diferença de desempenho entre alunos destas redes além de uma diferença crescente segundo o nível socioeconômico da família do aluno e os salários médios pagos aos professores. Alunos negros e pardos se beneficiariam menos de uma mudança de rede que aqueles brancos e asiáticos. Aumento nos gastos por aluno não reduzem tais diferenças que também variam de acordo com especificidades regionais.

Ecological impacts of small dams on South African rivers Part 1: drivers of change - water quantity and quality

Mantel,Sukhmani K; Hughes,Denis A; Muller,Nikite WJ
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Impacts of large dams are well-known and quantifiable, while small dams have generally been perceived as benign, both socially and environmentally. The present study quantifies the cumulative impacts of small dams on the water quality (physico-chemistry and invertebrate biotic indices) and quantity (discharge) of downstream rivers in 2 South African regions. The information from 2 South African national databases was used for evaluating the cumulative impacts on water quality and quantity. Physico-chemistry and biological data were obtained from the River Health Programme, and discharge data at stream flow gauges was obtained from the Hydrological Information System. Multivariate analyses were conducted to establish broad patterns for cumulative impacts of small dams across the 2 regions - Western Cape (winter rainfall, temperate, south-western coast) and Mpumalanga (summer rainfall, tropical, eastern coast). Multivariate analyses found that the changes in macroinvertebrate indices and the stream's physico-chemistry were more strongly correlated with the density of small dams in the catchment (as a measure of cumulative impact potential) relative to the storage capacity of large dams. T-tests on the data, not including samples with upstream large dams...

The X-Ray Knee instability and Degenerative Score (X-KIDS) to determine the preference for a partial or a total knee arthroplasty (PKA/TKA)

Oosthuizen,CR; Burger,S; Vermaak,DP; Goldschmidt,P; Spangenberg,R
Fonte: SA Orthopaedic Journal Publicador: SA Orthopaedic Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
The X-ray Knee Instability and Degenerative Score (X-KIDS) was developed as a tool based on the degenerative and instability patterns seen on routine X-ray views of the weight-bearing compartments and tested on 336 knees, average age 64 years and followed up for 24 months. It is a study to evaluate the X-KIDS scoring method, which quantifies whether a PKA or TKA is the procedure of choice, comparing it to the surgical procedure done and to a stress X-ray evaluation as a stand-alone when contemplating knee arthroplasty. Points are allocated to the following features: narrowing (N), osteophytes (O), and subluxations (S). The assessed score is out of 10. A patient with a score of at least 3 but less than 5 is suitable for a PKA, a score of 5 could be suitable for a PKA or a TKA and a score exceeding 5 requires a TKA. There was a 95.82% (321) evaluator consensus with the X-KIDS on the X-ray sequence for a PKA or TKA. 92.3% (310) received the procedure assessed by X-KIDS and 2.98% (10) could have received the procedure evaluated. 90.78% of the stress views indicated the preferred procedure and is not as reliable as X-KIDS to determine the procedure.