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O impacto das tecnologias de informação e comunicação, implantadas a partir de 2003, sobre a estrutura de custos no governo do Rio Grande do Sul

Silveira, Stefano José Caetano da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
O conceito de governo eletrônico (e-Gov) surgiu do somatório de ações e benefícios proporcionados pelas Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TICs). O produto final deste trabalho é a proposição de um estudo que identifique os custos de produção e os custos de transação, bem como seus respectivos componentes nos projetos do Governo do Rio Grande do Sul analisados antes e depois das modernas soluções de TICs implantadas a partir de 2003, tanto sob a ótica do Estado como do cidadão. Nessa proposta, foi adotado o referencial teórico da Nova Economia Institucional (NEI), focando custos de produção e de transação positivos, representados, respectivamente, pelos projetos Órgãos Públicos e Pregão Eletrônico, sendo o primeiro vinculado à Junta Comercial do Rio Grande do Sul (JUCERGS) e o último à Central de Compras do Estado (CECOM-RS). Concluiu-se que a utilização de TICs torna os processos mais ágeis e transparentes, permitindo uma queda tanto dos custos de produção como dos custos de transação. Isto é possível devido ao arrefecimento dos custos de barganha, negociação, tomada de decisão, monitoramento e cumprimento das cláusulas vigentes nos contratos firmados entre o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e seus fornecedores...

Trade Integration in East Asia : The Role of China and Production Networks

Haddad, Mona
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
Production networks have been at the heart of the recent growth in trade among East Asian countries. Fragmentation trade, reflected mainly in the trade in parts and components, is expanding more rapidly than the conventional trade in final goods. This is mainly due to the relatively more favorable policy setting for international production, agglomeration benefits arising from the early entry into this new form of specialization, considerable intercountry wage differentials in the region, lower trade and transport costs, and specialization in products exhibiting increasing returns to scale. The economic integration of China has deepened production fragmentation in East Asia, countering fears of crowding out other countries for international specialization. International production fragmentation in East Asia has intensified intraregional trade but has depended heavily on extraregional trade in final goods. While production networks centered on China have contributed significantly to growth in East Asia...

Infrastructure and Trade Preferences for the Livestock Sector : Empirical Evidence from the Beef Industry in Africa

Iimi, Atsushi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Trade preferences are expected to facilitate global market integration and offer the potential for rapid economic growth and poverty reduction for developing countries. But those preferences do not always guarantee sustainable external competitiveness to beneficiary countries and may risk discouraging their efforts to improve underlying productivity. This paper examines the EU beef import market where several African countries have been granted preferential treatment. The estimation results suggest that profitability improvement achieved by countries under the Cotonou protocol compares unfavorably with the returns to nonbeneficiary countries in recent years. Rather, it shows that public infrastructure, such as paved roads, has an important role in lowering production costs and thus increasing external competitiveness and market shares.

Trade Costs and Location of Foreign Firms in China

Amiti, Mary; Javorcik, Beata Smarzynska
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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45.9%
The authors examine the determinants of entry by foreign firms using information on 515 Chinese industries at the provincial level during 1998-2001. The analysis, rooted in the new economic geography, focuses on market and supplier access within and outside the province of entry, as well as production and trade costs. The results indicate that market and supplier access are the most important factors affecting foreign entry. Access to markets and suppliers in the province of entry matters more than access to the rest of China, which is consistent with market fragmentation due to underdeveloped transport infrastructure and informal trade barriers.

The Cost of Compliance with Product Standards for Firms in Developing Countries : An Econometric Study

Maskus, Keith E.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro; Wilson, John S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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45.99%
Standards and technical regulations exist to protect consumer safety or to achieve other goals, such as ensuring the interoperability of telecommunications systems, for example. Standards and technical regulations can, however, raise substantially both start-up and production costs for firms. Maskus, Otsuki, and Wilson develop econometric models to provide the first estimates of the incremental production costs for firms in developing nations in conforming to standards imposed by major importing countries. They use firm-level data generated from 16 developing countries in the World Bank Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Survey Database. Their findings indicate that standards do increase short-run production costs by requiring additional inputs of labor and capital. A 1 percent increase in investment to meet compliance costs in importing countries raises variable production costs by between 0.06 and 0.13 percent, a statistically significant increase. The authors also find that the fixed costs of compliance are nontrivial-approximately $425,000 per firm, or about 4.7 percent of value added on average. The results may be interpreted as one indication of the extent to which standards and technical regulations might constitute barriers to trade. While the relative impact on costs of compliance is relatively small...

The Central American Coffee Crisis : Effects and Strategies Forward

Castro, Felipe; Montes, Eduardo; Raine, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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45.91%
This brief includes the following headlines: structural changes in the global coffee market: the impact on Central America; economic effects of the coffee crisis; yields and production costs; effects of the crisis on employment in the coffee sector; responses to the crisis; strategies for promoting competitiveness and diversification; an analysis of sustainable coffee production in Central America; environmental considerations; recommendations; and about the authors.

Sugar Policies: Opportunity for Change

Mitchell, Donald
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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45.96%
Sugar is one of the most policy distorted of all commodities, and the European Union, Japan, and the United States are among the worst offenders. But internal changes in the E.U. and U.S. sugar and sweetener markets and international trade commitments make change unavoidable and provide the best opportunity for policy reform in several decades. The nature of reforms can have very different consequences for developing countries. If existing polices in the E.U. and the U.S. are adjusted to accommodate higher imports under international commitments, many low-cost producers, such as Brazil, will lose because they do not currently have large quotas and are not included among the preferential countries. The benefits of sugar policy reform are greatest under multilateral reform, and according to recent studies, the global welfare gains of removal of all trade protection are estimated to total as much as $4.7 billion a year. In countries with the highest protection (Indonesia, Japan, Eastern Europe, Western Europe...

Informal Export Barriers and Poverty

Porto, Guido G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher poverty. The author investigates the poverty impacts of improving export procedures in Moldova. This is a unique case study: poverty is widespread (half of the Moldovan population lives in poverty), the country is very open and relies on agricultural exports for growth, formal trade barriers are fairly liberalized, and informal export barriers are common and widespread. The author finds that improving export practices would benefit the average Moldovan household across the whole income distribution. For example, halving informal export barriers would cause poverty to decline from 48.3 percent of the population to between 43.3 and 45.5 percent...

Agglomeration Economies and Productivity in Indian Industry

Lall, Somik; Shalizi, Zmarak; Deichmann, Uwe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
"New" economic geography theory, and the development of innovative methods of analysis have renewed interest in the location, and spatial concentration of economic activities. The authors examine the extent to which agglomeration economies contribute to economic productivity. They distinguish three sources of agglomeration economies: 1) At the firm level, from improved access to market centers. 2) At the industry level, from enhanced intra-industry linkages. 3) At the regional level, from inter-industry urbanization economies. The input demand framework they use in analysis, permits the production function to be estimated jointly with a set of cost shares, and, makes allowances for non-constant returns to scale, and for agglomeration economies to be factor-augmenting. They use firm-level data for standardized manufacturing in India, together with spatially detailed physio-geographic information that considers the availability, and quality of transport networks linking urban centers - thereby accounting for heterogeneity in the density of transport networks...

Export Diversification in Africa

Huria, Ankur; Brenton, Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Economic activity in many African countries remains highly concentrated and exports are often dominated by mineral resources or a few primary products. The World Bank’s 2011 report on light manufacturing in Africa identified poor trade logistics performance as a constraint that especially penalized African exporters that relied on imported inputs, very often making them uncompetitive. The report highlighted research that demonstrated how poor logistics added roughly a 10 percent production cost penalty in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Zambia across the five subsectors of light manufacturing where opportunities were identified as greatest in Africa. The report outlined how in Africa poor trade logistics increase production costs (often wiping out the labor cost advantage) and lead to long and unreliable delivery times, making local firm’s unattractive suppliers to lead firms in global value chains (GVCs), particularly for light manufacturing. This note seeks to contribute to a review of progress in achieving export diversification through greater exports of light manufacturing products. It looks at recent trends in the exports of the five categories of light manufacturing identified as having strong potential in Africa. The note reviews progress in improving trade logistics in Sub-Saharan Africa...

Cambodia

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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45.92%
The use of quality seed is a major component of increased yields in crop production. Quality seed and seed programs in a country does not emerge by happenstance; it is created by a combination of many factors that include variety development, seed production, quality control, processing, marketing, and governmental oversight. As the seed sector in a country matures, each of these factors becomes more important and plays a more important role in the growth of the agricultural sector. The seed program in Cambodia is interestingly different from that in many other developing countries. Even without a true seed program in Cambodia, farmers understand the need to plant quality seed to increase crop yields. When structuring this growing seed industry, it is important to look at current practices and to incorporate these practices into programs. Since a major thrust of the seed program in Cambodia involves rice, it is important to consider its role in the average Cambodian’s life. Cambodia’s climate must also be accounted for in any decisions regarding seed. Its heat and humidity causes rapid deterioration of seed viability and germination in rice and other seeds in both the growth and storage phases. CARDI research has shown that the level of rice germination falls below 80-85 percent within 6-8 months after harvest; this means that seed must be planted during the growing season following harvest. Therefore...

Regional comparative advantage in grain production in China

Zhong, Funing; Xu, Zhigang
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 449698 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Since the end of 1996, Chinese agriculture has produced a surplus of many major products, which has led to sharp decreases in farm prices and the stagnation of farmers’ income. To deal with these problems, the Chinese government has called for a ‘strategic adjustment’ in the structures of agriculture and the rural economy. The goals of this strategic adjustment are to meet changing market demands and increase farmers’ incomes by improving efficiency in resource allocation among regions and sub-sectors, and by increasing the variety and improving the quality of farm product. A major component of the strategic adjustment is the restructuring of the grain sector, which still accounts for a lion’s share of the crops sector in general. Re-allocation of the production of each major grain crop among the regions on the basis of regional comparative advantage is likely to increase average yields and decrease average costs. Thus, improved efficiency in resource allocation will bring about increases in farmers’ incomes. Also, since competition in the world commodity market is largely based on price, any significant reduction in China’s grain production costs will improve its position in the world grain market. It is widely agreed that years of government intervention and underdeveloped infrastructure have prevented regional comparative advantages in the grain sector from being realised. For the same reasons...

Development Phase Cost Drivers for Production Costs: The Case of Tracked Vehicles

Boger, Dan C.; Malcolm, David S.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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45.95%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; There are two different approaches, the disjoint and sequential models, which attempt to account for differences between development unit cost and production unit cost. The disjoint model uses a production cost improvement curve that is physically separate from the development cost improvement curve. For the sequential model, however, the first unit cost of production units directly follows the last development unit due to a carryover of the cost improvement process. This paper, using a sample of seven tactical armored tracked vehicles, first obtains the theoretical first unit production costs for the vehicles under both sequential and disjoint models. Then, using various measures of activities in the development phase, CERs are obtained for both models which relate activities in the development phase to theoretical first unit production cost. The results indicate that, for the disjoint model, first unit production costs depend on development first unit costs. For the sequential model, first unit production costs depend on the average development cost as well as the time span between the end of development and the beginning of production.

A Coasian Model of International Production Chains

Fally, Thibault; Hillberry, Russell
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.03%
International supply chains require the coordination of numerous activities across multiple countries and firms. This paper develops a theoretical model of supply chains in which the measure of tasks completed within a firm is determined by parameters that define transaction costs and the cost of coordinating more activities within the firm. The structural parameters that govern these costs explain variation in supply chain length as well as cross-country variation in gross-output-to-value-added ratios. The structural parameters are linked to comparative advantage along and across supply chains. The paper provides an analytical treatment of trade and welfare responses to trade cost change in a simple two-country model. To explore the models implications in a richer setting, the model is calibrated to match key observables in East Asia, and the calibrated model is used to evaluate implications of changes in model parameters for trade, welfare, the length of supply chains, and countries relative position within them.

The Cost of Being Landlocked : Logistics Costs and Supply Chain Reliability

Arvis, Jean-François; Raballand, Gaël; Marteau, Jean-François
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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46%
In the last two decades new emphasis has been given to the economic impact of geography, especially on the cost of being landlocked. From a development perspective, understanding the cost of being landlocked and its economic impact is critical, since one country of four in the world is landlocked (almost one out of three in Sub-Saharan Africa). Attempts to address the cost of being landlocked have mainly focused on regional and multilateral conventions aiming at ensuring freedom of transit, and on the development of regional transport infrastructure. The success of these measures has been limited, and many massive investments in infrastructure seem to have had a disappointing impact on landlocked economies. Although there may still be an infrastructure gap, this book, based on extensive data collection in several regions of the world, argues that logistics and trade services efficiency can be more important for landlocked countries than investing massively in infrastructure. Logistics have become increasingly complex and critical for firms' competitiveness...

Eastern Africa - A study of the Regional Maize Market and Marketing Costs

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
Maize is the most important staple food in the Eastern Africa region and the most widely traded agricultural commodity. Therefore, the performance of grain markets has a significant impact on people's welfare, particularly the poor, and is critical to inducing pro-poor growth in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, i.e. the countries under review in this report. Marketing costs at the borders would need to be reduced but even more attention should be paid to domestic marketing costs. Policy makers in East Africa should not be misled that encouraging greater regional trade is solely a diplomatic matter. Instead, concerted public investments and policy actions at local, national, and regional levels are required. Reduced marketing costs would allow a reduction in input prices and thus production costs. This report aims to examine, identify, and quantify the factors behind the marketing costs for maize in East African countries. While a number of studies have recognized major barriers to trade in the region, few have actually quantified their relative importance or the magnitudes of these constraints on grain trade. Since much past research has been inconclusive...

Transport Prices and Costs in Africa : A Review of the International Corridors; Le prix et le cout du transport en Afrique : etude des principaux corridors

Teravaninthorn, Supee; Raballand, Gaël
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
The objective of the study is to examine, identify, and quantify the factors behind Africa's high prices for road transport. Such prices are a major obstacle to economic growth in the region, as shown in several studies. For example, Amjadi and Yeats (1995) concluded that transport costs in Africa were a higher trade barrier than were import tariffs and trade restrictions. Other analyses by the World Bank (2007a) demonstrated that Africa's transport prices were high compared to the value of the goods transported and that transport predictability and reliability were low by international standards. This study's findings should help policy makers take actions that will reduce transport costs to domestic and international trade.

A Preliminary Analysis of the Impact of a Ukraine-EU Free Trade Agreement on Agriculture

von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Hess, Sebastian; Brummer, Bernhard
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Agriculture including food products is of particular interest for Ukraine. However, in free trade agreements involving the European Union, agriculture is always given special treatment and subject to less and slower liberalization than other sectors. This paper employs the standard Global Trade Analysis Project model in order to assess how World Trade Organization accession affects agriculture in Ukraine, and how potential bilateral tariff cuts may interact with potential productivity gains within Ukrainian agriculture. The results indicate that, due to trade liberalization, Ukraine can expect gains from a more efficient allocation of its resources in line with comparative advantage, leading to an increase of production and exports of wheat, other grains, and oilseeds, but also of several processed food products that benefit from less expensive intermediate inputs. However, Ukraine's exports are concentrated on a small number of destinations, especially Russia and some other Former Soviet Union countries because they fail to meet quality standards elsewhere. When Ukrainian production of these products increases due to increased allocative efficiency...

The Role of Natural Resources in Fundamental Tax Reform in the Russian Federation

Bosquet, Benoit
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
The Russian Federation has one of the richest natural resource endowments in the world. Despite their importance in the Russian economy, natural resources do not contribute as much as they could to public revenues. Large resource rents (excess payments, or above-normal profits generated by natural resources in scarce supply) are dissipated through subsidies and wastage, or appropriated by private interests. Failure to tax this rent means that taxes must be levied elsewhere (on capital and labor) to sustain revenues, thereby depressing investment and employment, or that potential revenues are foregone. Failure to reinvest rent means that Russia perpetuates the tradition of exporting low value-added raw materials and excessive capital outflows, and retards its transition to sustainable economic development. The author provides estimates of the average and total current rent on crude oil, natural gas, and round wood in Russia. The sum of appropriated rent on oil and gas was estimated at US$9 billion in 1999 (in excess of $15 billion in 2000)...

Light Manufacturing in Zambia : Job Creation and Prosperity in a Resource-Based Economy

Dinh, Hinh T.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
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45.89%
This book on light manufacturing in Zambia is part of broader World Bank work on light manufacturing in Africa. The focus on light manufacturing, with its emphasis on labor-intensive economic activities, is particularly appropriate for a resource-based economy such as that of Zambia. While Zambia's recent growth has been impressive, it has not been accompanied with adequate job creation. The long-term job creation in copper production has been small; links to the rest of the economy tend to be weak as well; and the development of natural resources tends to discourage job-creating sectors such as manufacturing in any case. This book has several innovative features. First, it provides in-depth cost comparisons between Zambia and four other countries in Africa and Asia at the sector and product levels. Second, the book uses a wide array of quantitative and qualitative techniques to identify key constraints to enterprises and to evaluate differences in the performance of firms across countries. Third, it uses a focused approach to identify country-and industry-specific constraints. It proposes market-based measures and selected government interventions to ease these constraints. Fourth, it highlights the interconnectedness of constraints and solutions. For example...