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Developing Post-Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa : Assessing the Financial Sustainability of Alternative Pathways

Mingat, Alain; Ledoux, Blandine; Rakotomalala, Ramahatra
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.7%
All countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face the prospect of a substantial increase in the number of primary school completers in the coming years. Although initial conditions vary widely from country to country, this increase will inevitably intensify pressure on the education system, particularly at the secondary and tertiary levels. African countries may thus find it timely to align their education policies and strategies to the emerging challenges. A key goal is to ensure that the education system continues to develop in an efficient, equitable, and fiscally sustainable manner even as it expands to accommodate the rising numbers seeking a place in secondary and tertiary education. The rest of this report is organized as follows. Chapter two elaborates the policy context for education development in SSA. Chapter three explains the methodology and data sources. Chapter four examines the challenges and constraints posed by the sheer volume of increases in enrollments in post-primary education with which most education systems in SSA must grapple in the coming years. Taking these constraints into account...

Using the Results of a National Assessment of Educational Achievement

Kellaghan, Thomas; Greaney, Vincent; Murray, T. Scott
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
This book, the fifth and final volume of the National Assessments of Educational Achievement series, draws on the experiences of over forty countries that have implemented a national assessment. It considers the role of contextual factors which impinge on the use of assessment findings. The attachment of sanctions to performance on a national assessment and use of assessment results for accountability are discussed. Key components of a national assessment report are specified . Other instruments to communicate findings are described. Uses of national assessment findings for policy, management, teaching, and raising public awareness are described. A number of ways in which the use and value of national assessments could be optimized are proposed. This volume is intended primarily for teams who are responsible for conducting national assessments and policy makers responsible for the dissemination and use of national assessment results.

Evaluating Public Per-Student Subsidies to Low-Cost Private Schools : Regression-Discontinuity Evidence from Pakistan

Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Raju, Dhushyanth
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.55%
This study estimates the causal effects of a public per-student subsidy program targeted at low-cost private schools in Pakistan on student enrollment and schooling inputs. Program entry is ultimately conditional on achieving a minimum stipulated student pass rate (cutoff) in a standardized academic test. This mechanism for treatment assignment allows the application of regression-discontinuity (RD) methods to estimate program impacts at the cutoff. Data on two rounds of entry test takers (phase 3 and phase 4) are used. Modeling the entry process of phase-4 test takers as a sharp RD design, the authors find evidence of large positive impacts on the number of students, teachers, classrooms, and blackboards. Modeling the entry process of phase-3 test takers as a partially-fuzzy RD design given treatment crossovers, they do not find evidence of significant program impacts on outcomes of interest. The latter finding is likely due to weak identification arising from a small jump in the probability of treatment at the cutoff.

Revitalizing Public Training Centers in Indonesia : Challenges and the Way Forward

World Bank
Fonte: Jakarta Publicador: Jakarta
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.5%
The goal of this report is to examine the effectiveness and efficiency of the public vocational training centers (Balai Latihan Kerja, hereinafter BLK) in Indonesia. Its findings and recommendations will contribute to the ongoing effort of the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (MoMT) to revitalize the BLK training system. There are wide variations in terms of the size and capacities of BLK operating at central, provincial and district levels. This is indicated by the average number of graduates from the centers at each of these different levels in 2009, with 1,300 centrally managed BLK, compared with only around 650 and 340 at the provincial and district levels respectively. The variation in the average number of graduates may indicate deep differences in the operations of the training centers at the three levels. Due to these differences, various approaches at each of the different levels may be required to improve the centers. The emphasis and orientation of BLK programs has changed since their first establishment. In particular...

Incentives and Teacher Effort : Further Evidence from a Developing Country

Dang, Hai-Anh H.; King, Elizabeth M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.59%
Few would contest that teachers are a very important determinant of whether students learn in school. Yet, in the face of compelling evidence that many students are not learning what they are expected to learn, how to improve teacher performance has been the focus of much policy debate in rich and poor countries. This paper examines how incentives, both pecuniary and non-pecuniary, influence teacher effort. Using school survey data from Lao PDR, it estimates new measures of teacher effort, including the number of hours that teachers spend preparing for classes and teacher provision of private tutoring classes outside class hours. The estimation results indicate that teachers increase effort in response to non-pecuniary incentives, such as greater teacher autonomy over teaching materials, and monitoring mechanism, such as the existence of an active parent-teacher association and the ability of school principals to dismiss teachers. Methodologically, the paper provides a detailed derivation of a simultaneous ordinary least squares-probit model with school random effects that can jointly estimate teacher work hours and tutoring provision.

Expanding Opportunities for South African Youth through Math and Science : The Impact of Dinaledi Program

Blum, Jurgen; Krishnan, Nandini; Legovini, Arianna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.67%
In 2001, the Government of South Africa launched the Dinaledi Schools program, aimed at increasing the number of African and Indian secondary students entering and succeeding in mathematics and physical sciences Senior Certificate exams. The Dinaledi program provides selected high schools with a combination of supplementary inputs, including teachers, training, textbooks and calculators as well as close monitoring by the National Department of Education. This paper estimates the impact of the Dinaledi program for about 350 schools assigned to the program in the course of its expansion in 2005. It exploits administrative panel data for the years 2005-07 using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy. This is combined with a propensity score matching approach that compares Dinaledi schools with schools that are observably similar prior to the implementation of the program.

Kyrgyz Republic Public Expenditure Review Policy Notes : Education

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.7%
The Kyrgyz Republic has seen a rapid expansion of public spending on education in recent years, yet the sector continues to be plagued by a number of challenges. Efficiency of spending is low across the education system, and sustainability of sector financing is threatened by large outlays on wages following rapid wage growth during 2010-2012 and high shares of resources going toward food and utility costs. Lack of investment in the necessary teaching and learning materials contributes to low education quality, with over 80 percent of 15 year olds scoring at "functionally illiterate" levels in the 2009 PISA assessment. Coverage remains low in pre-primary education, while equity of education service provision varies widely across localities and social groups. The practices surrounding education sector governance could also be improved and brought in line with international standards. This chapter is composed of six sections. Section two presents an overview of the Kyrgyz education sector, covering its structure and governance...

Piloting Per-Student Formula Financing in Moldova : First Outcomes and Policy Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.68%
At present, the education sector is characterized by an oversized network of increasingly small schools and a high number of poorly paid teachers and non-teaching staff. A recent Ministry of Education sponsored feasibility study concluded that up to half of Moldova s rural schools may need to be reorganized in the next three to five years in order to counteract the sharp population declines that have taken place over the last 20 years. It is important to underline that the restructuring of the school network is not a goal in itself. The main purpose of the reforms will be to improve quality of education through consolidation of schools and better utilization of resources, human and physical. The results of the evaluation of the pilots (first two-years of implementation for which the data is available) have been presented and discussed with the Ministry of Education during the Bank missions in May and September 2012. This paper is organized as follows: section two explains sector context and the core of the per student financing reforms. Section three highlights key milestones in per student financing reform in Moldova. Section four reviews first outcomes of per-student finance in two pilots Riscani and Causeni. Finally...

The Impact of an Accountability Intervention with Diagnostic Feedback

de Hoyos, Rafael; Garcia-Moreno, Vicente A.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.65%
In 2009, the Mexican state of Colima implemented a low-stakes accountability intervention with diagnostic feedback among 108 public primary schools with the lowest test scores in the national student assessment. A difference-in-difference and a regression discontinuity design are used to identify the effects of the intervention on learning outcomes. The two alternative strategies consistently show that the intervention increased test scores by 0.12 standard deviations only a few months after the program was launched. When students, teachers, and parents in a school know that their scores are low, and this triggers a process of self-evaluation and analysis, the process itself may lead to an improvement in learning outcomes. Information on quality, without punitive measures but within a supportive and collaborative environment, appears to be sufficient to improve learning outcomes.

The Use and Misuse of Computers in Education : Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Colombia

Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Linden, Leigh L.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.63%
This paper presents the evaluation of the program Computers for Education. The program aims to integrate computers, donated by the private sector, into the teaching of language in public schools. The authors conduct a two-year randomized evaluation of the program using a sample of 97 schools and 5,201 children. Overall, the program seems to have had little effect on students' test scores and other outcomes. These results are consistent across grade levels, subjects, and gender. The main reason for these results seems to be the failure to incorporate the computers into the educational process. Although the program increased the number of computers in the treatment schools and provided training to the teachers on how to use the computers in their classrooms, surveys of both teachers and students suggest that teachers did not incorporate the computers into their curriculum.

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Toward an Education Strategy for the Twenty-First Century

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.55%
This note identifies major challenges now facing the Macedonian education system and suggests policies and programs for addressing them. Its primary function is to inform the representatives of the Government as well as other political leaders and stakeholders, in a continual dialogue with the World Bank, about the Bank team's position on the main challenges and policy options, which Macedonian education policy makers may consider. Given the past ethnic conflict and current political situation, Macedonia likely will require a significant increase in donor support in upcoming years to remedy some underlying social and economic problems and to simplify rehabilitating the school infrastructure. It is important that donor activities fit into a strategy and a follow-up policy framework to be agreed upon with the Government. Based on the country assistance strategy signed by the Government and the Bank, the next education project's preparation is underway and is planned to be effective by early 2004. This education policy note therefore intends to offer a coherent policy basis for the government's evolving strategy and to establish a basis for the project preparation...

Tunisia : Teacher Policy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.66%
A total of 1,995,167 students (around 96.2 percent of total enrollment) attend public schools in Tunisia. The public school student population is concentrated almost evenly between the primary (50.6 percent) and secondary levels (49.4 percent), and 82.6 percent of the total number of students attend schools in urban areas. Around 3.9 percent of enrolled students attend private schools (all of which are private, government- independent schools). All private schools are located in urban areas, principally serving secondary school students. Tunisia does have in place a mandatory probationary period prior to awarding open-ended status to new teachers. This may help in facilitating the dismissal of weak and unmotivated teachers earlier on, before they become permanent staff and part of the civil service. The first years of teaching are among the best available predictors of a teacher's performance later on. Therefore, it is positive to have in place screening processes to dismiss low-performing teacher entrants. In Tunisia...

The Challenge of Expanding Secondary Education and Training in Madagascar; Le defis de l'expansion de l'enseignement secondaire et de la formation a Madagascar

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.55%
Madagascar is making significant progress in achieving its Education for All Initiative (EFA) goals of providing universal primary education. It has recently decided to initiate far-reaching reforms in its primary and secondary education cycles. Good quality primary graduates are necessary for entry into the secondary education cycles in Madagascar. But equally important is the quality and relevance of what is taught and learned in secondary schools. This is one of the keys for accelerated economic growth and effective social development. International global trends in secondary education provide a useful framework for undertaking the current reform in secondary education. Madagascar's labor market needs more and better secondary graduates with "modern knowledge and better skills" to make its economy competitive and to attract overseas investments in the country. Asia and Latin America have already shown the way. However, to make the expansion of post-primary education services in Madagascar sustainable the system should become much more efficient and produce better results (in terms of quality and quantity). This report is designed to contribute to ongoing education reform discussions by presenting: analysis of the secondary education and training system; challenges and constraints to the expansion of the system; options to expand and improve secondary education based on other country experiences; and possible next steps for identifying the most appropriate course of action. This report aims to encourage discussion among policymakers...

Increasing Access by Waiving Tuition : Evidence from Haiti

Adelman, Melissa A.; Holland, Peter A.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
Despite impressive gains in increasing access to school over the past 20 years, an estimated 57 million children worldwide do not go to school. Abolishing school fees has increased enrollment rates in several countries where enrollments were low and school fees were high. However, such policies may be less effective, or even have negative consequences, when supply-side responses are weak. This paper evaluates the school-level impacts of a tuition waiver program in Haiti, which provided public financing to nonpublic schools conditional on these schools not charging tuition. The paper concludes that a school's participation in the program results in having more students enrolled, more staff, and slightly higher student-teacher ratios. The program also reduces grade repetition and the share of students who are over-age. Although the increase in students at participating schools does not directly equate to a reduction in the number of children out of school, it does demonstrate strong demand from families for the program...

Education in the Republic of South Sudan : Status and Challenges for a New System

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.65%
This education status report (ESR), prepared at the request of the Government of South Sudan (GoSS), provides a comprehensive snapshot of an education sector that is emerging from a long period of civil strife. It confirms the strong appetite among the people for education; in turn, more educated citizens are needed to provide the bedrock of the new country and its prospects. The purpose of this report is to enhance the knowledge base for policy development in the education sector and, more broadly, create a platform for engaging a diverse audience in dialogue on education policies in the new country. The ultimate aim is to help develop a shared vision for the future of the education system among government, citizens, and partners in Africa's newest nation. The report clearly shows that the education system in South Sudan faces all the challenges of a new nation that is making a visible effort to catch up quickly from a very low base by rapidly increasing student enrollment. These challenges include a concentration of students in the early grades; a high proportion of overage students, repetition, and dropout; and weak levels of student learning. Further, the report indicates that South Sudan is beginning to feel the effects of its success at increasing enrollment at the primary level with growing demand for secondary and higher education. The report also highlights the low overall quality of education...

Education in Sub-Saharan Africa : A Comparative Analysis

Majgaard, Kirsten; Mingat, Alain
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.68%
As in most countries worldwide, Sub-Saharan African countries are striving to build their human capital so they can compete for jobs and investments in an increasingly globalized world. In this region, which includes the largest number of countries that have not yet attained universal primary schooling, the ambitions and aspirations of Sub-Saharan African countries and their youth far exceed this basic goal. Over the past 20 years, educational levels have risen sharply across Sub-Saharan Africa. Already hard at work to provide places in primary schools for all children, most countries of the region are also rapidly expanding access to secondary and tertiary levels of education. Alongside this quantitative push is a growing awareness of the need to make sure that students are learning and acquiring the skills needed for life and work. Achieving education of acceptable quality is perhaps an even greater challenge than providing enough school places for all. Thus, Sub-Saharan African countries are simultaneously confronting many difficult challenges in the education sector, and much is at stake. This book gives those concerned with education in Sub-Saharan Africa an analysis of the sector from a cross-country perspective, aimed at drawing lessons that individual country studies alone cannot provide. A comparative perspective is useful not only to show the range of possibilities in key education policy variables but also to learn from the best performers in the region. (Although the report covers 47 Sub- Saharan African countries whenever possible...

Investing in Indonesia's Education : Allocation, Equity, and Efficiency of Public Expenditures

Arze del Granado, F. Javier; Fengler, Wolfgang; Ragatz, Andy; Yavuz, Elif
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.51%
What are the current trends and main characteristics of public education spending in Indonesia? Is education spending insufficient? Are expenditures in education efficient and equitable? This study reports the first account of Indonesia's aggregated (national and sub-national) spending on education, as well as the economic composition of education spending and its breakdown by programs. It presents estimations of the expected (average) level of education spending for a country with its economic and social characteristics. This analysis sheds light on the efficiency and equity of education spending by presenting social rates of return by level of education, by assessing the adequacy of current teacher earnings relative to other paid workers and the distribution of teachers across urban, rural, and remote regions, and by identifying the main determinants of education enrollment. It concludes that the current challenges in Indonesia are no longer defined by the need of additional spending, but rather the need to improve the quality of education services...

Guyana's Hinterland and Community-Based School Feeding Programme

World Bank; Guyana Ministry of Education
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.59%
Guyana s Hinterland Community-Based School Feeding Program (SFP) began in 2007 with the objective of building more community participation in schools and improving children s human development outcomes, such as student enrollment and attendance, nutritional status and learning outcomes. In addition, the program supports improvement of schools organization of primary level in Regions 1, 7, 8 and 9. In order to participate in the program, schools and their associated communities are required to submit school feeding proposals, undergo training in basic financial bookkeeping, food hygiene and nutritious meal preparation, using locally produced foods whenever possible. Communities must also ensure school kitchens meet the requirements and guidelines of the Ministry of Health, ensuring an adequate safe-water supply. To evaluate the program, the Government of Guyana and the World Bank collected survey data from schools, students, teachers and parents in three rounds 2007, 2008 and 2009 in Regions 1 and 7. This report shows the findings and impacts of SFP using all survey rounds. Regions 1 and 7 are characterized by high poverty levels and agricultural labor intensity. Both factors highlight the potential of organizing SFP around local producers...

Achieving World-Class Education in Brazil : The Next Agenda

Bruns, Barbara; Evans, David; Luque, Javier
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.73%
Education is improving in Brazil. The average years of education has almost doubled over the last 20 years, as has the proportion of adults who have completed secondary school. Brazil's high school students have improved consistently in math and language performance over the last decade. These gains stem from the federal government's priority attention to education through both reforms and resources over the past 15 years. The progress laid out in this book is impressive and praiseworthy, but Brazil still trails its competitors in several of the ways that matter most. Student learning, while improving, still lags far behind wealthier nations. Many secondary schools lose the majority of their students well before graduation. Teachers are drawn from among the lowest achievers and have few performance incentives, and it shows in how class time is used. This important book explores not only the basis for Brazil's progress, but also what it must do to bridge the remaining quality gap to a first-rate education for its children. It provides detailed recommendations for strengthening the performance of teachers...

Evaluation of Delaware Tech's emporium program for developmental math students

Patson, Lauren
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.59%
Morris, Anne B.; The emporium model has recently been adopted by several colleges throughout the country in order to improve their math programs, and literature reports that these colleges experienced an increase in learning and a decrease in costs. As a result, Delaware Technical Community College decided to redesign its developmental mathematics courses based on this model in the hopes that their students will benefit. The purpose of this study is to determine the success of Delaware Tech's emporium program, the effectiveness of particular program features, and the patterns withdrawal (WU) students exhibit in order to provide recommendations for improvement. The main research questions for this study are: 1. How successful is the emporium program as compared to the pre-emporium program? 2. What do emporium students identify as program features that promote or hinder their progress through their developmental math courses? 3. What patterns do WU students exhibit in the emporium program? To answer the first question, pass rates of emporium and pre-emporium students were calculated and a chi-square analysis was performed. The results showed that emporium students had significantly lower pass rates than pre-emporium students for developmental courses. For the second question on program features...