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Geoinformação para estudos demográficos: representação espacial de dados de população na Amazônia Brasileira. ; GEOINFORMATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC STUDYES: SPATIAL REPRESENTATION OF POPULATION DATA OVER THE BRAZILIAN AMAZÔNIA.

Kampel, Silvana Amaral
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/12/2003 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Esta tese propõe o uso da geoinformação a serviço da demografia tomando-se a distribuição da população na Amazônia Brasileira como objeto de estudo. Foram desenvolvidos métodos baseados em dados de sensoriamento remoto e técnicas de análise espacial para representar a população em superfícies de densidade. O objetivo geral foi verificar a utilidade dos dados de sensoriamento remoto para compor a base do processo de redistribuição da população, em comparação com métodos tradicionais. Especificamente, foram utilizadas imagens de luzes noturnas do sistema DMSP/OLS para a Amazônia Legal, e imagens dos sistemas CCD-CBERS1 e TM-Landsat, para a escala municipal. Inicialmente, um mosaico de imagens de luzes noturnas DMSP/OLS foi avaliado quanto à capacidade de detectar presença e atividade humana na região. As relações lineares entre pixels de luzes DMSP e população urbana, área urbanizada e consumo de energia elétrica obtidas, motivaram o desenvolvimento de um produto de luzes noturnas mais recente e adequado para estudos de distribuição de população. A análise deste mosaico indicou o potencial e as restrições da informação de luzes noturnas para estimar a evolução dos valores de população urbana. Um novo método para interpolar e redistribuir população utilizando informações de luzes noturnas...

Desnutrição infantil em Jordão, Estado do Acre, Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira; Child malnutrition in the municipal district of Jordão, Acre State, Brazilian Amazonia

Araújo, Thiago Santos de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/03/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
Introdução - Apesar da melhoria do padrão nutricional infantil observada em vários países em desenvolvimento nas últimas décadas, a desnutrição infantil persiste como um problema de saúde pública no Brasil, especialmente nos municípios do interior da Amazônia. Inquéritos nutricionais de base populacional em povos Amazônicos são escassos, e em sua maioria restritos às cidades maiores e a populações indígenas residentes em áreas de reserva. Objetivo - Avaliar a prevalência e fatores associados à desnutrição infantil no município do Jordão, interior do Estado do Acre, Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira. Metodologia - Trata-se de um estudo transversal conduzido em 478 crianças menores de cinco anos da zona urbana (censo n=211) e rural (amostra n=267). As prevalências de déficits nutricionais para os indicadores altura para idade (A/I), peso para idade (P/I) e peso para altura (P/A) foram calculadas com o ponto de corte -2 escores Z e excesso de peso para altura (P/A) com o ponto de corte +2 escores Z, utilizando-se o padrão de crescimento infantil da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) de 2006. Para a coleta de informações foram utilizados questionários estruturados, aplicados aos pais ou responsáveis pelas crianças em entrevistas domiciliares. Foram calculadas as prevalências de desnutrição geral e segundo variáveis biológicas...

Suplementação da população de bugios-pretos (Alouatta caraya) no campus da Universidade de São Paulo em Ribeirão Preto pela soltura de indivíduos cativos - estudo do comportamento; Supplementation of the population of black howler-monkey (Alouatta caraya) on the campus of campus of University of São Paulo in Ribeirão Preto for the release of captive individuals the study of behavior

Rossi, Marcelí Joele
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/09/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.97%
O campus da Universidade de São Paulo em Ribeirão Preto consiste em uma área de 450 ha, caracterizada por um mosaico de remanescentes de mata e construções, sendo uma das maiores áreas verdes do município. Para suplementar a população de bugios-pretos (Alouatta caraya) existente no campus, este estudo realizou a soltura de um casal cativo. O grupo residente, composto por quatro bugios, foi rastreado seis dias por mês num período de seis meses para verificação da área de vida com finalidade de definir uma área para a soltura do casal. Um macho adulto e uma fêmea subadulta foram unidos em cativeiro no Parque Municipal Morro de São Bento. A formação do casal foi realizada em três fases (familiarização, junção e pós-junção) com gradativo aumento de aproximação. O padrão de atividades foi registrado pelo método de varredura a cada 5 minutos por 2 horas durante 10 dias (para cada fase). Os valores obtidos ficaram próximos ao relatado para o gênero, com aumento do comportamento social no decorrer das fases: 4,4 16 e 35,2% (p<0,001). O casal foi transferido para um cativeiro na área de soltura, onde permaneceu por 44 dias. Neste período foi realizada a avaliação pré-soltura e a reeducação alimentar. Na avaliação pré-soltura foi verificado que a mudança de área não afetou significativamente o comportamento social do casal...

Social Impacts of Climate Change in Bolivia : A Municipal Level Analysis of the Effects of Recent Climate Change on Life Expectancy, Consumption, Poverty and Inequality

Andersen, Lykke E.; Verner, Dorte
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.7%
This paper analyzes the direct evidence of climate change in Bolivia during the past 60 years, and estimates how these changes have affected life expectancy and consumption levels for each of the 311 municipalities in Bolivia. Contrary to the predictions of most general circulation models, the evidence shows a consistent cooling trend of about 0.2°C per decade over all highland areas, slight and scattered evidence of warming in the lowlands, and no systematic changes in precipitation. The estimations indicate that the 1°C cooling experienced in the already cold highlands over the past five decades likely has reduced consumption possibilities by about 2-3 percent in these areas. Since the much richer population in the lowlands have benefitted slightly from recent climate change, the simulations suggest that recent climate change has contributed to an increase in inequality and poverty in Bolivia. Poor and indigenous peoples in the highlands are among the most severely affected populations. No statistically significant effect on life expectancy was found.

Decentralization and Governance in the Ghana Health Sector

Couttolenc, Bernard F.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
In recent years, many countries, both developed and developing, have engaged in a process of decentralization of health service delivery and/or other functions of the health system. In most cases, decentralization has been adopted to improve accountability to local population, efficiency in service provision, equity in access and resource distribution, or to increase resource mobilization. Ghana has a long history of local government, going back to pre-independence times of the nineteenth century. By 1859 Municipal Councils were established in the major coastal towns of the then Gold Coast. Native Authorities, Councils and Courts were also established to administer law and order under the indirect authority of the colonial government; the limitations of this system was repeatedly put forward in the 1930s and 1940s, and reforms were introduced in 1951 by the Local Government Ordinance (Ahwoi 2010). The government has embarked in a decentralization policy since independence, which was strengthened and amplified by the local government act of 1993 and other legislations. At the present the Government of Ghana (GOG) is committed to strengthen the implementation of decentralization and for that purpose revise and strengthen the policy and regulatory framework governing decentralization. In spite of this long history and successive waves of decentralization reforms...

Municipal Vulnerability to Climate Change and Climate-Related Events in Mexico

Borja-Vega, Christian; de la Fuente, Alejandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
A climate change vulnerability index in agriculture is presented at the municipal level in Mexico. Because the index is built with a multidimensional approach to vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity), it represents a tool for policy makers, academics and government alike to inform decisions about climate change resilience and regional variations within the country. The index entails baseline (2005) and prediction (2045) levels based on historic climate data and future-climate modeling. The results of the analysis suggest a wide variation in municipal vulnerability across the country at baseline and prediction points. The vulnerability index shows that highly vulnerable municipalities demonstrate higher climate extremes, which increases uncertainty for harvest periods, and for agricultural yields and outputs. The index shows at baseline that coastal areas host some of the most vulnerable municipalities to climate change in Mexico. However, it also shows that the Northwest and Central regions will likely experience the largest shifts in vulnerability between 2005 and 2045. Finally...

Using Rapid City Surveys to Inform Municipal Social Policy: An Application in Cali, Colombia

Hentschel, Jesko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
Many developing countries assign local governments increasing responsibilities in fighting poverty. This requires local social policy to go beyond the execution of centrally designed and funded education and health programs. Hence, local governments and their partners have both an opportunity and a need to analyze key local bottlenecks for poverty reduction and social development. Drawing on an example from Cali, Colombia, The author describes a tool for such policy formulation at the local level-a rapid city household survey. Although the survey uses pre-coded and closed- ended questions, it is contextual in the sense that it is tailor-made to social and economic conditions in Cali. The survey places particular emphasis on collecting key quantitative information, such as household welfare and service access, as well as qualitative information, such as service evaluations and population priorities. Combining the quantitative and qualitative data allows, for example, the mapping of population budget priorities or service satisfaction levels by welfare group. Rapid city household surveys could provide an important tool for the development of local social policies.

Environmental Health in Nicaragua : Addressing Key Environmental Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.95%
The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region has a unique mix of qualities and challenges when it comes to the environment. It is exceptionally endowed with natural assets, with globally significant biodiversity and valuable crops, and also harbors the world s greatest carbon sink in the Amazon. The purpose of the series is to contribute to the global knowledge exchange on innovation in environmental and water resources management and the pursuit of greener and more inclusive growth. The series addresses issues relevant to the region s environmental sustainability agenda from water resources management to environmental health, natural resource management, biodiversity conservation, environmental policy, pollution management, environmental institutions and governance, ecosystem services, environmental financing, irrigation and climate change and their linkages to development and growth. In this particular paper, the author presents the findings of a study looking at three fundamental environmental health risks in Nicaragua...

What a Waste : A Global Review of Solid Waste Management

Hoornweg, Daniel; Bhada-Tata, Perinaz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.98%
Solid waste management is the one thing just about every city government provides for its residents. While service levels, environmental impacts and costs vary dramatically, solid waste management is arguably the most important municipal service and serves as a prerequisite for other municipal action. As the world hurtles toward its urban future, the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW), one of the most important by-products of an urban lifestyle, is growing even faster than the rate of urbanization. Ten years ago there were 2.9 billion urban residents who generated about 0.64 kg of MSW per person per day (0.68 billion tonnes per year). This report estimates that today these amounts have increased to about 3 billion residents generating 1.2 kg per person per day (1.3 billion tonnes per year). By 2025 this will likely increase to 4.3 billion urban residents generating about 1.42 kg/capita/day of municipal solid waste (2.2 billion tonnes per year).

Living without Sanitary Sewers in Latin America : The Business of Collecting Fecal Sludge in Four Latin American Cities

Rojas Ortuste, Franz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26%
The present report spotlights the major challenges and the opportunities that lie ahead in fecal sludge management and summarizes the findings from four case studies that describe the current and potential market for sludge removal, collection, and disposal in peri-urban areas. These areas, inhabited by a variety of ethnic, religious, and cultural groups, typically struggle with high population density, insufficient land use planning, high citizen insecurity, and low coverage with basic services. The report demonstrates how technical, financial, environmental, social, regulatory, political, and institutional factors interact to create supply and demand in four markets where coverage with sanitary sewerage services is below the regional average, namely: Santa Cruz (Bolivia), Guatemala City (Guatemala), Tegucigalpa (Honduras), and Managua (Nicaragua).

Urban Transport and CO2 Emissions : Some Evidence from Chinese Cities

Darido, Georges; Torres-Montoya, Mariana; Mehndiratta, Shomik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.98%
This working paper provides a bottom-up estimate of energy use and Green-House Gas (GHG) emissions for the transport sector based on data available at the city and municipal levels. For urban transport in China, GHG emissions primarily consist of carbon dioxide (CO2), so these terms are used interchangeably. Energy use and CO2 emissions are also highly correlated based on the predominance of fossil fuels in transport. A database of self-reported indicators was developed and verified for the fourteen participating cities of the China World Bank-Global Environment Facility (GEF) Urban Transport Partnership Program. Other supplemental sources were also used to enrich the dataset for urban transport and energy analysis, namely the most recent China City Statistical Yearbooks. Beijing and Shanghai were also included where data was available from existing studies given their relevance in broad comparison of Chinese cities. Section two discusses the general demographic and economic trends in the sample of cities that may be influencing the sector. Section three points to stylized facts about the most relevant urban transport demand...

Social Impacts of Climate Change in Chile : A Municipal Level Analysis of the Effects of Recent and Future Climate Change on Human Development and Inequality

Andersen, Lykke E.; Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.77%
This paper uses municipality level data to estimate the general relationship between climate, income, and life expectancy in Chile. The analysis finds that incomes are negatively related to temperature, while life expectancy is not significantly related to average temperatures. Both incomes and life expectancy are greater in areas with either very little rain or a lot of rain. The authors use the estimated relationships to simulate the effects of both past (1958-08) and future (2008-58) climate change. The findings indicate that past climate change has been favorable for the central, and most populous, part of Chile, and it has contributed to reduced poverty and reduced inequality of health outcomes. Whereas temperatures in the past have shown a downward trend for most of the Chilean population, climate models suggest that they will increase in the future, and that there will be a reduction in precipitation in the central part of Chile. The analysis simulates the likely effects of these projected climate changes over the next 50 years. The findings suggest that expected future climate will tend to reduce incomes across the whole country...

Water and Wastewater Services in the Danube Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.96%
To evaluate and reflect the sustainability of services in the region, an overall sector sustainability assessment was done, taking into account four main dimensions: access to services, quality of services, efficiency of services, and financing of services. Each of these dimensions is measured through three simple and objective indicators. For each indicator, best practice values are established by looking at the best performers in the region, and countries closest to those best performers are deemed to have a more mature sector. A more complete description of the methodology to assess sector sustainability is included in the Annex of the State of the Sector Regional Report from the Danube Water Program. The outcomes of this assessment for Hungary’s water sector are displayed, which also shows average and best practices in the Danube region. The Hungarian sector sustainability score is 74, which is far above the Danube average sustainability of 64, and is among the best practices in the region. The assessment shows that...

Water and Wastewater Services in the Danube Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.02%
To evaluate the sustainability of services in the region, an overall sector assessment has been done taking into account four main dimensions: access to services, quality of services, efficiency of services, and financing of services. Each of these dimensions is measured through three simple and objective indicators. For each indicator, best practice values are established by looking at the best performers in the region, and the countries closest to those best performers are deemed to have a more mature sector. A more complete description of the methodology to assess sector sustainability is included in the annex of the state of the sector regional report from the Danube Water Program. The outcomes of this assessment for the Serbian water sector are presented, which also shows average and best practices in the Danube region. The Serbian sector sustainability score is 61, which is below the Danube average sustainability of 64. The assessment shows that, on average, the country performs well in terms of access to piped water and flush toilets...

Water and Wastewater Services in the Danube Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.02%
To evaluate the sustainability of services in the region, an overall sector sustainability assessment was done taking into account four main dimensions: access to services, quality of services, efficiency of services, and financing of services. Each of these dimensions is measured through three simple and objective indicators. For each indicator, best practice values are established by looking at the best performers in the region, and countries closest to those best performers are deemed to have a more mature sector. A more complete description of the methodology to assess sector sustainability is included in the annex of the state of the sector regional report from the Danube Water Program. The outcomes of this assessment for the FYR Macedonia water sector are presented in Figure 9, which also shows average and best practices in the Danube region. The Macedonian sector sustainability score is 61, which is below the Danube average of 64. The assessment shows that, on average, the country performs well in terms of access to piped water and flush toilets...

India : Municipal Financing Requirements - Water, Sewerage, and Solid Waste

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
This report presents the main results from cost models that were developed as an input to the High Powered Expert Committee on Urban Development in order to estimate the investment, operations, and maintenance requirements for urban water, sanitation and municipal solid waste in India. The cost models are designed as tools that allow linking the various building blocks of the cost estimation to one another, and tests the impact of the main model assumptions on the overall investment requirements. A cross-country comparison is also conducted to benchmark the key service standards adopted in the models against international experience. The report addresses the challenge of India's fast growing urban population and the high backlog in urban service delivery. Infrastructure deficits in urban areas are large and growing. Universal water access for urban population in India has yet to be realized. The report uses the cost models to discuss India's municipal financing needs, urban water supply services, urban sewerage services...

Moldova Public Expenditure Review : Reforming Local Public Finance for More Efficient, Equitable, and Fiscally Sustainable Subnational Spending

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.63%
This report reviews intergovernmental fiscal relations in Moldova and recommends ways to improve the efficiency and equity of local public finance, while maintaining fiscal sustainability. Local public authorities are responsible for meeting key public service delivery needs. They play a major role in education and bear primary responsibility for urban and rural functions such as water supply and local road construction and maintenance. But local authorities are unable to fulfill this role due to sub-optimal size, inadequate financial capacity, and low administrative capacity. The Government of Moldova is reforming intergovernmental fiscal relations, as part of broader commitments under the national decentralization strategy (2012). They set new rates for sharing national taxes with the two tiers of local government, introduce formulas for transfers to local governments, and remove subordination in financial relations between top and bottom tiers of local government. This report reviews recent reforms in local public finance and makes suggestions to further improve subnational expenditures...

Different Paths to Student Learning : Good Practices and Student Performance - Identifying Success from Municipal School Systems in Brazil; Diversos Caminhos para o Sucesso Educacional : Boas Praticas e Desempenho dos Alunos na Prova Brasil - Identificando Casos bem Sucedidos nas Redes Municipais de Ensino

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Education Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
The importance of education to the socioeconomic and political development of nations is widely discussed in the education policy literature. This study seeks to identify the good policies and practices that lead students in some municipal school systems in Brazil to obtain better results than would be expected based purely on socioeconomic factors. This report is divided into four sections. The next section, section two, explains in detail the rationale and motivation for the study. Section three explains the conceptual framework for the qualitative field research. It provides a succinct but detailed explanation of the methodology used, elaborating on issues such as the definition of study samples and the design of the field research instruments. Section four presents the main results of the analysis and identifies the principal education policy factors that appeared to help some municipal school systems obtain better-than-expected Prova Brasil results. Section five presents 12 municipal 'success stories' in a loose narrative format. These narratives serve as examples of how different combinations of good practices can translate into results in a variety of actual situations. Lastly...

Good Practices in City Energy Efficiency : Bogota, Colombia - Bus Rapid Transit for Urban Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.96%
Bogota, the capital city of Colombia, is located near the geographic center of Colombia, 2,640 meters (8,661 ft) sea level. It is the largest and most populous city in the nation, with an estimated 8.2 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2007 and a population density of 3,912 inhabitants per square kilometer. Its economy generates 25 percent of Colombia's total gross domestic product (GDP). The city's roads were highly congested with the significant growth in private car ownership and use. While private cars occupied 64 percent of the road space, they only represented 19 percent of the population, and the daily average commute time was 1 hour and 10 minutes each way. Other issues included high incidences of accidents and extremely high air pollution rates during peak travel hours. In 1999, after the new National Government rejected potential plans for a subway system, the Mayor of Bogota presented his plan for a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, built upon the successful experience of Curitiba in Brazil. The transition to an effective BRT system would help realize the Mayor's four main goals by: (i) improving public transport system with respect to efficiency...

"Produção de internações nos hospitais sob gestão municipal em Ribeirão Preto-SP, 1996-2003" ; "Hospital admissions production in hospitals under municipal control in Ribeirão Preto-SP, from 1996 to 2003."

Chaves, Lucieli Dias Pedreschi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/10/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26%
A municipalização vem transformando a lógica das relações entre usuários, serviços e gestores e, neste cenário as ações desenvolvidas pela Divisão de Avaliação, Controle e Auditoria (DACA) tornam-se cada vez mais relevantes. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: descrever a produção de internações hospitalares processadas e remuneradas, no período de 1996 a 2003, pela Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Ribeirão Preto-SP (SMS-RP), nos aspectos físicos e financeiros; identificar os fatores explicativos para a variação desta produção segundo relato dos sujeitos que produzem e/ou utilizam as informações sobre internação hospitalar no município de estudo. As bases teóricas da investigação constituíram-se: das Normas Operacionais Básicas e Normas Operacionais da Assistência à Saúde com vistas à implementação do Sistema Único de Saúde; o financiamento, o sistema de informações e gestão das internações hospitalares na esfera local de saúde. Para desenvolvimento da pesquisa adotou-se uma abordagem descritiva utilizando dados quantiqualitativos. A população de estudo constituiu-se de todas as internações hospitalares processadas/pagas pela SMS-RP, através do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do SUS (SIH-SUS)...