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Effect of vehicle characteristics on safety, fuel use and emissions; Efeito das características do veículo na segurança, consumos e emissões

Torrão, Guilhermina Cândida Antas
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
Nos últimos anos, o número de vítimas de acidentes de tráfego por milhões de habitantes em Portugal tem sido mais elevado do que a média da União Europeia. Ao nível nacional torna-se premente uma melhor compreensão dos dados de acidentes e sobre o efeito do veículo na gravidade do mesmo. O objetivo principal desta investigação consistiu no desenvolvimento de modelos de previsão da gravidade do acidente, para o caso de um único veículo envolvido e para caso de uma colisão, envolvendo dois veículos. Além disso, esta investigação compreendeu o desenvolvimento de uma análise integrada para avaliar o desempenho do veículo em termos de segurança, eficiência energética e emissões de poluentes. Os dados de acidentes foram recolhidos junto da Guarda Nacional Republicana Portuguesa, na área metropolitana do Porto para o período de 2006-2010. Um total de 1,374 acidentes foram recolhidos, 500 acidentes envolvendo um único veículo e 874 colisões. Para a análise da segurança, foram utilizados modelos de regressão logística. Para os acidentes envolvendo um único veículo, o efeito das características do veículo no risco de feridos graves e/ou mortos (variável resposta definida como binária) foi explorado. Para as colisões envolvendo dois veículos foram criadas duas variáveis binárias adicionais: uma para prever a probabilidade de feridos graves e/ou mortos num dos veículos (designado como veículo V1) e outra para prever a probabilidade de feridos graves e/ou mortos no outro veículo envolvido (designado como veículo V2). Para ultrapassar o desafio e limitações relativas ao tamanho da amostra e desigualdade entre os casos analisados (apenas 5.1% de acidentes graves)...

Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Offshore Fisheries of the Republic of Korea

Park, Jeong-A; Gardner, Caleb; Chang, Myo-In; Kim, Do-Hoon; Jang, Young-Soo
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from the offshore fisheries industry in the Republic of Korea (Korea) were examined in response to growing concerns about global warming and the contribution of emissions from different industrial sectors. Fuel usage and GHG emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) were analysed using the ‘Tier 1’ method provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) from the offshore fishery, which is the primary domestic seafood production sector in Korea. In 2013, fuel usage in the offshore fishery accounted for 59.7% (557,463 KL) of total fuel consumption of fishing vessels in Korea. Fuel consumption and thus GHG emissions were not stable through time in this industry, increasing by 2.4% p.a. for three consecutive years, from 2011 to 2013, despite a decrease in the number of vessels operating. GHG emissions generated in offshore fisheries also changed through time and increased from 1,442,975 tCO2e/year in 2011 to 1,477,279 tCO2e/year in 2013. Changes in both fuel use and GHG emissions per kg offshore fish production appeared to be associated with decreasing catch rates by the fleet, which in turn were a reflection of decrease in fish biomass. Another important feature of GHG emissions in this industry was the high variation in GHG emission per kg fish product among different fishing methods. The long line fishery had approximately three times the emissions of the average production while the jigging fishery was more than two times higher than the average. Lowest emissions were from the trawl sector...

Status of Energy Efficiency in the Western Balkans : A Stocktaking Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
Across the Western Balkan region, countries exhibit relatively high levels of energy intensity, a high energy savings potential among energy end-users, and heavy dependence on imported hydrocarbons. Energy markets would benefit from enhanced demand-side efforts and integrated energy efficiency measures across all sectors. Since most energy infrastructure was built during the 1960s and 1970s, inadequately maintained since the 1990s, and reaching the end of its useful lifespan, now is a crucial time to consider the way forward in the energy sector. The signing of the Energy Community Treaty in 2003 marked the beginning of systematic energy sector liberalization among Western Balkan countries, allowing them to deal with widespread energy sector problems that included, on the demand side, low energy tariffs, lack of payment discipline and, hence, little incentive for energy users to invest in energy efficiency measures. Building each component of the strong enabling environment required for increased Energy Efficiency (EE) across the Western Balkan countries will need cooperation among decision makers at multiple government levels...

An Analysis of Various Policy Instruments to Reduce Congestion, Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Beijing

Anas, Alex; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zheng, Siqi
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
Using a nested multinomial logit model of car ownership and personal travel in Beijing circa 2005, this paper compares the effectiveness of different policy instruments to reduce traffic congestion and CO2 emissions. The study shows that a congestion toll is more efficient than a fuel tax in reducing traffic congestion, whereas a fuel tax is more effective as a policy instrument for reducing gasoline consumption and emissions. An improvement in car efficiency would also reduce congestion, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions significantly; however, this policy benefits only richer households that own a car. Low-income households do better under the fuel tax policy than under the efficiency improvement and congestion toll policies. The congestion toll and fuel tax require the travel cost per mile to more than triple. The responsiveness of aggregate fuel and CO2 are, approximately, a 1 percent drop for each 10 percent rise in the money cost of a car trip.

Impacts of Policy Instruments to Reduce Congestion and Emissions from Urban Transportation : The Case of São Paulo, Brazil

Anas, Alex; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
This study examines impacts on net social benefits or economic welfare of alternative policy instruments for reducing traffic congestion and atmospheric emissions in São Paulo, Brazil. The study shows that expanding road networks, subsidizing public transit, and improving automobile fuel economy may not be as effective as suggested by economic theories because these policies could cause significant rebound effects. Although pricing instruments such as congestion tolls and fuel taxes would certainly reduce congestion and emissions, the optimal level of these instruments would steeply increase the monetary cost of travel per trip and are therefore politically difficult to implement. However, a noticeable finding is that even smaller tolls, which are more likely to be politically acceptable, have substantial benefits in terms of reducing congestion and emissions. Among the various policy instruments examined in the study, the most socially preferable policy option for São Paulo would be to introduce a mix of congestion toll and fuel taxes on automobiles and use the revenues to improve public transit systems.

Transportation Fuel Use, Technology and Standards : The Role of Credibility and Expectations

Eskeland, Gunnar S.; Mideksa, Torben K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
There is a debate among policy analysts about whether fuel taxes alone are the most effective policy to reduce fuel use by motorists, or whether to also use mandatory standards for fuel efficiency. A problem with a policy mandating fuel economy standards is the "rebound effect," whereby owners with more efficient vehicles increase vehicle usage. If an important part of negative externalities from transport are associated with vehicle kilometers (accidents, congestion, road wear) rather than fuel consumption, the rebound effect increases negative externalities. Taxes and standards should be mutually supportive because fuel taxes often meet political resistance. Over time, fuel efficiency standards can reduce political resistance to fuel taxes. Thus, by raising fuel efficiency standards now, politicians may be able to pursue higher fuel tax paths in the future. Another argument in support of fuel efficiency standards and similar policies is that standards to a greater extent than taxes can be announced in advance and still be credible and change the behavior of inventors...

Demand Side Instruments to Reduce Road Transportation Externalities in the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area

Parry, Ian W.H.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
Economically efficient prices for the passenger transportation system in the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area would account for broader societal costs of traffic congestion and accidents, and local and global pollution. A $2.20 per gallon gasoline tax (2006 US$) would be economically efficient, compared with the current subsidy of $1.20 per gallon. Removal of the existing subsidy alone would achieve about three-quarters of the net benefits from subsidy elimination and the tax. Per-mile tolls could target congestion and accident externalities more efficiently than fuel taxes, although they are not practical at present. A combination of $0.80 per gallon gasoline tax to address pollution (versus $2.20 without tolls), and $0.12 and $0.19 tolls per vehicle mile on automobiles and microbuses, respectively, to address traffic congestion and accident externalities (versus $0.22 without fuel taxes) would be most efficient. Current public bus and rail subsidies are relatively close to efficient levels in the absence of such policies; however, if automobile and microbus externalities were fully addressed through more efficient pricing, optimal subsides to public transit would be smaller than current levels.

Syrian Arab Republic Electricity Sector Strategy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
This electricity sector strategy note was prepared by the World Bank, at the request of the Government of Syria. It identifies options for the Government to improve the financial and technical performance of the electricity sector. The note focuses in particular on the following major sector objectives: a) increasing the efficiency of the electric power sector, including by reducing large technical and commercial losses now standing at 27 percent of demand; b) reducing the growing gap between demand and supply of electricity through capacity expansion, thus enhancing security of electricity supply and reducing power outages; c) increasing security of supply further in an environmentally sustainable manner by developing vigorous energy efficiency and renewable energy programs; d) encouraging regional energy integration through a series of targeted investments in electric power and natural gas; e) attracting private sector investment into generation capacity expansion, including in renewable energy, through independent power producers; and f) making the electricity sector financially viable and coordinating natural gas production plans with electricity generation requirements.

Urban Transport and CO2 Emissions : Some Evidence from Chinese Cities

Darido, Georges; Torres-Montoya, Mariana; Mehndiratta, Shomik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
This working paper provides a bottom-up estimate of energy use and Green-House Gas (GHG) emissions for the transport sector based on data available at the city and municipal levels. For urban transport in China, GHG emissions primarily consist of carbon dioxide (CO2), so these terms are used interchangeably. Energy use and CO2 emissions are also highly correlated based on the predominance of fossil fuels in transport. A database of self-reported indicators was developed and verified for the fourteen participating cities of the China World Bank-Global Environment Facility (GEF) Urban Transport Partnership Program. Other supplemental sources were also used to enrich the dataset for urban transport and energy analysis, namely the most recent China City Statistical Yearbooks. Beijing and Shanghai were also included where data was available from existing studies given their relevance in broad comparison of Chinese cities. Section two discusses the general demographic and economic trends in the sample of cities that may be influencing the sector. Section three points to stylized facts about the most relevant urban transport demand...

Energy Efficiency in Russia : Untapped Reserves

International Finance Corporation; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
This report was designed to provide senior Russian policymakers with a comprehensive and practical analysis of energy efficiency in Russia: potential, benefits, and recommendations on how to fully tap into this resource. Shortly after his inauguration, President Medvedev made several public statements identifying Russia s inefficient use of energy, and the associated economic and ecological consequences, as one of the most pressing problems facing the nation. He has called for an action plan to halve Russia s energy intensity by 2020. The goal of this report is to make a significant contribution toward developing such a plan.

A Review of Regulatory Instruments to Control Environmental Externalities from the Transport Sector

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Dulal, Hari B.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
This study reviews regulatory instruments designed to reduce environmental externalities from the transport sector. The study finds that the main regulatory instruments used in practice are fuel economy standards, vehicle emission standards, and fuel quality standards. Although industrialized countries have introduced all three standards with strong enforcement mechanisms, most developing countries have yet to introduce fuel economy standards. The emission standards introduced by many developing countries to control local air pollutants follow either the European Union or United States standards. Fuel quality standards, particularly for gasoline and diesel, have been introduced in many countries mandating 2 to 10 percent blending of biofuels, 10 to 50 times reduction of sulfur from 1996 levels, and banning lead contents. Although inspection and maintenance programs are in place in both industrialized and developing countries to enforce regulatory standards, these programs have faced several challenges in developing countries due to a lack of resources. The study also highlights several factors affecting the selection of regulatory instruments...

Air Transport and Energy Efficiency

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
The air transport sector is enjoying an optimistic growth rate while at the same time eliciting growing concern, due to its environmental impact and its vulnerability with respect to energy security. These issues have put the sector at the forefront of the tide in achieving energy efficiency. Efforts have been made on every front to improve efficiency through better technology, optimized operation, as well as energy-saving infrastructure. This report includes five chapters. Chapter 1 will introduce the air transport energy consumption outlook though the analysis of the growth of air services as well as consumption of fossil fuel-based energy. Chapter two will discuss air transport's impact on the environment and the response and actions from the air transport sector. Chapter three will detail potential energy efficiency gains in aircraft design, air service operation, as well as infrastructure design. The role of the government and private sector in fostering and supporting those energy efficiency gains will also be discussed. Chapter four will enumerate policy options for countries with respect to air transport energy efficiency...

Poland Transport Policy Note : Toward a Sustainable Land Transport Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This Policy Note addresses strategic issues facing Poland s transport sector. Despite recent growth and integration within the European Union (EU), the overall quality and efficiency of transport infrastructure and services is still poor. About 40 percent of the national roads network, which carries the largest volume of people and goods among all transport modes, is in poor or unsatisfactory condition. The government and freight-logistics industry recognize the railway sector's low efficiency but not much has been achieved since the 2001 restructuring that separated the infrastructure company and operators. Low staff productivity - more than 40,000 employees managing 17,000 km of track - and almost no investment in signaling and IT systems modernization are still major constraints with important long-term consequences, affecting current railway performance. The scope of the Note is on land transport, mainly on national roads and railways with a priority on strategic issues requiring immediate actions. The Note addresses issues specific to single modes and those requiring policy-making coordination. The current chapter sets the study context and helps to understand better the drivers for the current state of the sector and policy orientation. This chapter explains the note s focus and its organization. Chapter 2 reviews the national road network with a focus on infrastructure efficiency and sustainability. Chapter 3 covers the railway sector with an emphasis on the various entities of the PKP Group and how the sector competes with roads. Chapter 4 addresses road safety in Poland with the human and economic costs of current situation. Chapter 5 looks at land transport emissions and derives most of its conclusions from a recent study on GHG emissions in Poland s transport sector. Chapter 6 reviews the current policy path and offers three alternative policy options. The direct and indirect impact of implementing each policy options is assessed and compared to the current situation with a focus on medium-term (2020) sustainability.

Petroleum Product Pricing and Complementary Policies : Experience of 65 Developing Countries Since 2009

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Unable to cope fully with steadily climbing world oil prices since mid-2009, many of the 65 countries reviewed in this paper have progressed slowly or even reversed course in reforming pricing of petroleum products. End-user prices in July 2012 varied by two orders of magnitude across the countries. More than two-fifths, including some that had only recently adopted automatic pricing mechanisms, froze the prices of gasoline, diesel, or both for months or even years on end during the study period. When the prices were finally adjusted, the increases were sometimes substantial, leading to large-scale protests, partial or full reversals of price adjustments, or softening of pricing reform policy. Governments' attempts to keep domestic prices artificially low -- through price control, export or quantity restrictions, or political pressure put on oil companies -- have helped curb inflation in the short term, but frequently with serious negative consequences: flourishing black markets, smuggling, fuel adulteration, illegal diversion of subsidy funds...

Good Practices in City Energy Efficiency : Bogota, Colombia - Bus Rapid Transit for Urban Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Bogota, the capital city of Colombia, is located near the geographic center of Colombia, 2,640 meters (8,661 ft) sea level. It is the largest and most populous city in the nation, with an estimated 8.2 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2007 and a population density of 3,912 inhabitants per square kilometer. Its economy generates 25 percent of Colombia's total gross domestic product (GDP). The city's roads were highly congested with the significant growth in private car ownership and use. While private cars occupied 64 percent of the road space, they only represented 19 percent of the population, and the daily average commute time was 1 hour and 10 minutes each way. Other issues included high incidences of accidents and extremely high air pollution rates during peak travel hours. In 1999, after the new National Government rejected potential plans for a subway system, the Mayor of Bogota presented his plan for a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, built upon the successful experience of Curitiba in Brazil. The transition to an effective BRT system would help realize the Mayor's four main goals by: (i) improving public transport system with respect to efficiency...

Transit Bus Operational and Maintenance Practices to Maximize Fuel Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
Buses are the most common form of urban transit but, in the developing world, are often seen as inefficient and polluting. It is well known that buses that are properly tuned and adjusted tend to be cleaner, safer and consume less fuel than poorly maintained buses. Fuel cost is a relatively large fraction of total cost especially when labor and bus costs are low, as in many developing countries. Hence, reducing fuel use through targeted maintenance of fuel inefficient buses can reduce significant expenditures especially in developing countries, freeing up resources for other improved city services. In addition, if city buses do not receive periodic maintenance that is adequate in quality and quantity, their emissions, both local and global, will suffer. In an effort to catalyze solutions for urban transport, the World Bank Group focused on development of a global Knowledge Product in the form of a 'Guidance Note' (GN) on bus maintenance procedures. The GN is directed towards city transit managers and their technical staff in developing countries to enhance the energy efficiency of city transit. The objective of this work effort is to prepare a Guidance Note (GN) on maintenance best practices that is a practical and useful tool to guide the implementation of a program that will enhance the fuel efficiency of buses. To address this objective...

Transport Activity Measurement Toolkit for On-Road Vehicles : Practitioners' Guide

Rogers, John A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Although urbanization is frequently cited as a major cause of greenhouse gas and local air pollution emissions growth, it could be better understood as one of the crucial links between climate and development. Urbanization is a major driver of development, and once in cities, people tend to increase their mobility dramatically, driving an increase in greenhouse gas and other emissions from transport. The demand for transport is not limited only to urban environments. As each economy becomes richer, its demand for passenger and freight mobility increases. This increase in car usage coupled with a tendency to have a lower number of passengers per car, has been sufficient to offset the improvements gained in vehicle fuel efficiency. The increasing transport demand, if not accompanied by adequate growth in infrastructure and facilities, leads to rising congestion, time loss, and air quality deterioration that can stifle economic growth and quality of life. Finding the delicate balance of policy options to achieve long-term improvements in on-road transport and reduce the impact of its externalities is critical and needs to be tailored to each locale. This requires measurements both to design the interventions and evaluate their impacts. This transport activity measurement toolkit (TAMT) has been developed specifically to simplify this measurement process by providing standardized software...

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Technology Pilot Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
The World Bank (WB) initiated a pilot project - dubbed "Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project" in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a proof of concept for a truck program in Guangdong Province and China that aims to: Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks and consequently obtain GHG emission savings. The following strategies were applied during the technology pilot on HDTs: Cab roof fairing, which is an integrated air deflector mounted on the top of the cab and reduces the gap between the tractor and the trailer. Fairings of the brand DongGuan CAIJI were used in the pilot. Nose cone, which is installed on the front of the trailer and reduces air turbulence. Nose cones were purchased from a Guangdong-based supplier, DongGuan CAIJI. Skirts, which are panels that hang down from the bottom of a trailer to enclose the open space between the rear wheels o the tractor and the rear wheels of the trailer. Skirts reduce the amount of wind underneath the trailer and...

Development of aircraft fuel burn modeling techniques with applications to global emissions modeling and assessment of the benefits of reduced vertical separation minimums

Yoder, Tim (Tim Alan)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 50 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
Given the current level of concern over anthropogenic climate change and the role of commercial aviation in this process, the ability to adequately model and quantify fuel burn and emissions on a system wide scale is of high importance. In particular, the ability to adequately assess the ability of operational alternatives within the commercial aviation system to improve system efficiency and reduce environmental impact is essential. Much work has already been done with this end in mind; however, given the high degree of complexity associated with a large system such as this, there is opportunity for improvements in modeling capability. The work presented in this thesis was conducted with this aim, to build additional functionality and fidelity into an established modeling method. The FAA System for assessing Aviation's Global Emissions (SAGE)'is a well established model for the creation of global inventories of aviation fuel use and emissions. There are, however, two aspects of the model which could benefit from improvements in modeling methodology. The first is the way in which the specific fuel consumption (SFC) is calculated. Previous to this study, SFC was calculated through the methods put forward in EUROCONTROL's Base of Aircraft Data (BADA).; (cont.) These methods are based on aircraft type specific coefficients and perform well in the context of global inventories; however...

An Internal Fuel Efficiency Credit Market Mechanism for Meeting the CAFE Standard: Internalizing a Regulation Caused Externality

Plott, Charles R.; Katz, Gabriel
Fonte: California Institute of Technology Publicador: California Institute of Technology
Tipo: Report or Paper; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The paper develops and analyzes an internal market based mechanism that enables a decentralized enterprise to meet the conditions of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations. Divisions that produce vehicles with fuel economy (miles per gallon fuel) above the regulatory requirement receive Fuel Efficiency Credits (FEC). These credits can be sold in an internal FEC market to divisions that produce vehicles with fuel economy levels below the regulatory requirement. The FEC available for sale by fuel efficient vehicle production and the FEC needed as a condition of production of fuel inefficient vehicles are tied to the respective fuel efficiency levels. Experimental tests demonstrate that the enterprise can achieve near profit maximum levels while continuing to operate through decentralized profit centers. The FEC market “internalizes” the externality across divisions created by the CAFE regulation. The behavioral model supported by the data suggests that the policy can be successfully crafted to include multiple firms trading FECs.