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Custos hospitalares da meningite causada por Streptococcus pneumoniae na cidade de São José dos Campos, SP; Hospital costs of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in the city of São José dos Campos, SP

Lucarevschi, Bianca Rezende
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/09/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
O conhecimento dos custos das doenças imunopreveníveis, em especial os custos hospitalares da meningite pneumocócica, objeto de estudo desta tese, são de grande importância para os processos de tomada de decisão no que se refere a intervenções ou estratégias de saúde pública. O objetivo desta tese foi estimar os custos hospitalares relacionados à meningite pelo Streptococcus pneumoniae em crianças com idade até 13 anos (inclusive), na cidade de São José dos Campos, nos últimos dez anos. Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de custo-de-doença, a partir dos casos notificados de meningite pneumocócica ocorridos de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2008. O cálculo da estimativa de custos hospitalares foi realizado de acordo com o método misto para a mensuração das quantidades dos itens de custos identificados e também para atribuição de valor aos itens consumidos, fazendo uso do micro-costing quando este era possível, e do gross-costing, como alternativa de viabilidade. Todos os custos foram calculados com os valores monetários referentes a novembro de 2009, e expressos em reais. Para análise das freqüências e médias, foi usado o programa Epi-Info versão 3.5.1. Resultados: De 1999 a 2008, foram notificados ao núcleo municipal de vigilância epidemiológica 41 casos de meningite pneumocócica em menores com até 13 anos de idade (média = 4...

Custos de falência da legislação falimentar brasileira; Costs of bankruptcy of Brazilian bankruptcy law

Jupetipe, Fernanda Karoliny Nascimento
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/01/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
A condução de processos de falência ou de recuperação geram custos, principalmente, aos seus participantes diretos: credores e devedora. Esses custos são chamados custos de falência e são classificados em diretos e indiretos. Os custos diretos são representados pelas despesas administrativas do processo jurídico, tais como honorários do administrador judicial, custas e despesas judiciais. Os indiretos são os custos de oportunidade incorridos para os participantes devido à participação em processos de falência ou de recuperação, tais como a dificuldade em obter crédito, ou o tempo despendido no processo. Admitindo-se a presença desses custos, este trabalho objetivou identificar, mensurar e classificar os custos de falência para os participantes diretos desses processos (devedor e credores) conduzidos sob a legislação falimentar brasileira a fim de compará-los aos custos encontrados em trabalhos internacionais que trataram sobre o tema. Por meio da consulta de processos de falência e de recuperação judicial nas comarcas de São Paulo-SP, Belo Horizonte-MG e Contagem-MG, foi possível coletar os dados necessários para o desenvolvimento desta pesquisa. Como resultados principais foram encontrados que os desembolsos ocorridos nos processos de falência foram de em média 35% do ativo final da falida...

Performance and economic indicators of a large scale fish farming in Mato Grosso, Brazil

Barros, Adriana Fernandes de; Martins, Maria Inez Espagnoli Geraldo
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1325-1331
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Performance and economic indicators of a large scale fish farm that produces round fish, located in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were evaluated. The 130.8 ha-water surface area was distributed in 30 ponds. Average total production costs and the following economic indicators were calculated: gross income (GI), gross margin (GM), gross margin index (GMI), profitability index (PI) and profit (P) for the farm as a whole and for ten ponds individually. Production performance indicators were also obtained, such as: production cycle (PC), apparent feed conversion (FC), average biomass storage (ABS), survival index (SI) and final average weight (FAW). The average costs to produce an average 2.971 kg.ha-1 per year were: R$ 2.43, R$ 0.72 and R$ 3.15 as average variable, fixed and total costs, respectively. Gross margin and profit per year per hectare of water surface were R$ 2,316.91 and R$ 180.98, respectively. The individual evaluation of the ponds showed that the best pond performance was obtained for PI 38%, FC 1.7, ABS 0.980 kg.m-2, TS 56%, FAW 1.873 kg with PC of 12.3 months. The worst PI was obtained for the pond that displayed losses of 138%, FC 2.6, ABS 0.110 kg.m-2, SI 16% and FAW 1.811 kg. However, large scale production of round-fish in farms is economically feasible. The studied farm displays favorable conditions to improve performance and economic indicators...

Performance and economic indicators of a large scale fish farming in Mato Grosso, Brazil

Barros,Adriana Fernandes de; Martins,Maria Inez Espagnoli Geraldo
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Performance and economic indicators of a large scale fish farm that produces round fish, located in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were evaluated. The 130.8 ha-water surface area was distributed in 30 ponds. Average total production costs and the following economic indicators were calculated: gross income (GI), gross margin (GM), gross margin index (GMI), profitability index (PI) and profit (P) for the farm as a whole and for ten ponds individually. Production performance indicators were also obtained, such as: production cycle (PC), apparent feed conversion (FC), average biomass storage (ABS), survival index (SI) and final average weight (FAW). The average costs to produce an average 2.971 kg.ha-1 per year were: R$ 2.43, R$ 0.72 and R$ 3.15 as average variable, fixed and total costs, respectively. Gross margin and profit per year per hectare of water surface were R$ 2,316.91 and R$ 180.98, respectively. The individual evaluation of the ponds showed that the best pond performance was obtained for PI 38%, FC 1.7, ABS 0.980 kg.m-2, TS 56%, FAW 1.873 kg with PC of 12.3 months. The worst PI was obtained for the pond that displayed losses of 138%, FC 2.6, ABS 0.110 kg.m-2, SI 16% and FAW 1.811 kg. However, large scale production of round-fish in farms is economically feasible. The studied farm displays favorable conditions to improve performance and economic indicators...

Rural hospital costs: an analysis with policy implications.

Finch, L E; Christianson, J B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1981 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
The 1977 National Guidelines for Health Planning suggest a maximum of 4 hospital beds per 1,000 population and a minimum occupancy rate of 80 percent for those beds as desirable for an efficient local hospital system. Rural areas often have more than 4 hospital beds per 1,000 population and generally exhibit occupancy rates well below the rate specified by the Guidelines. Hence, there appears to be an opportunity for reducing the cost of hospital services in rural areas by providing care with fewer beds concentrated in larger, better utilized facilities. This paper presents estimates of the annual savings that would result from following such a policy in rural areas. The statistically estimated cost curves are based on data from a sample of 116 rural hospitals for the years 1971-77. With a quadratic specification for the cost function, the hospital size that minimizes average costs is estimated to be 113 beds, and the occupancy rate that minimizes costs is 73 percent. Hospitals with 113 beds are estimated to have average costs per patient day that are from $6.51 (logarithmic specification) to $15.15 (quadratic specification) below the average cost per patient day of a 41-bed hospital, the average size of the hospitals in the sample. Hospitals with a 73 percent occupancy rate are estimated to have average costs that are $5.96 logarithmic specification to $11.75 (quadratic specification) lower than the average costs in hospitals with 51 percent occupancy rates...

Does scale matter? The costs of HIV-prevention interventions for commercial sex workers in India.

Guinness, Lorna; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Rajaraman, Bhuvaneswari; Sankaranarayanan, Girija; Vannela, Gangadhar; Raghupathi, P.; George, Alex
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
OBJECTIVE: To explore how the scale of a project affects both the total costs and average costs of HIV prevention in India. METHODS: Economic cost data and measures of scale (coverage and service volume indicators for number of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) referred, number of STIs treated, condoms distributed and contacts made with target groups) were collected from 17 interventions run by nongovernmental organizations aimed at commercial sex workers in southern India. Nonparametric methods and regression analyses were used to look at the relationship between total costs, unit costs and scale. FINDINGS: Coverage varied from 250 to 2008 sex workers. Annual costs ranged from US$ 11 274 to US$ 52 793. The median cost per sex worker reached was US$ 19.21 (range = US$ 10.00-51.00). The scale variables explain more than 50% of the variation in unit costs for all of the unit cost measures except cost per contact. Total costs and unit costs have non-linear relationships to scale. CONCLUSION: Average costs vary with the scale of the project. Estimates of resource requirements based on a constant average cost could underestimate or overestimate total costs. The results highlight the importance of improving scale-specific cost information for planning.

Sunk Costs, Market Contestability, and the Size Distribution of Firms

Kessides, Ioannis N.; Tang, Li
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
This paper offers a new economic explanation for the observed inter-industry differences in the size distribution of firms. The empirical estimates--based on three temporal (1982, 1987, and 1992) cross-sections of the four-digit United States manufacturing industries--indicate that increased market contestability, as signified by low sunk costs, tends to reduce the dispersion of firm sizes. These findings provide support for one of the key predictions of the theory of contestable markets: that market forces under contestability would tend to render any inefficient organization of the industry unsustainable and, consequently, tighten the distribution of firms around the optimum.

What Explains the Cost of Remittances? An Examination across 119 Country Corridor

Beck, Thorsten; Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Remittances are a sizeable source of external financing for developing countries. In the L Aquila 2009 G8 Summit, leaders pledged to reduce the cost of remittances by half in 5 years (from 10 to 5 percent). Yet, empirically, little is known about what drives the cost of remittances. Using newly gathered data across 119 country corridors, this paper explores the factors that determine the cost of remittances. Considering average costs across all types of institutions, the authors find that corridors with larger numbers of migrants and more competition among remittances service providers exhibit lower costs. By contrast, remittance costs are higher in richer corridors and in corridors with greater bank participation in the remittances market. Comparing results across all banks and all money transfer operators separately, the analysis finds few significant differences. However, estimations for Western Union, a leading player in the remittances business, suggest that this firm s prices are insensitive to competition.

Heterogeneous Quality Firms and Trade Costs

Helble, Matthias; Okubo, Toshihiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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36.19%
There is increasing empirical evidence that vertical product differentiation is an important determinant of international trade. However, the economic literature so far has solely focused on the case in which quality trade stems from differences between countries. No studies investigate the role of quality trade between similar economies. This paper first develops a simple theoretical trade model that includes vertical product differentiation in a heterogeneous-firm framework. The model yields three main predictions for trade between similar economies. First, exported goods are of higher quality than goods sold on the domestic market. Second, larger economies have on average higher export qualities compared with smaller economies. Third, with increasing trade costs higher quality goods are exchanged. For all three effects, strong empirical support is found using detailed export trade data of the United States and 15 European Union countries.

Trade Costs in the Developing World : 1995 - 2010

Arvis, Jean-François; Duval, Yann; Shepherd, Ben; Utoktham, Chorthip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
The authors use newly collected data on trade and production in 178 countries to infer estimates of trade costs in agriculture and manufactured goods for the 1995-2010 period. The data show that trade costs are strongly declining in per capita income. Moreover, the rate of change of trade costs is largely unfavorable to the developing world: trade costs are falling noticeably faster in developed countries than in developing ones, which serves to increase the relative isolation of the latter. In particular, Sub-Saharan African countries and low-income countries remain subject to very high levels of trade costs. In terms of policy implications, the analysis finds that maritime transport connectivity and logistics performance are very important determinants of bilateral trade costs: in some specifications, their combined effect is comparable to that of geographical distance. Traditional and non-traditional trade policies more generally, including market entry barriers and regional integration agreements, play a significant role in shaping the trade costs landscape.

Egypt : Development of a Load Management Program and Design of Time of Use/Seasonal Pricing

Economic Consulting Associates, Ltd
Fonte: world Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: world Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
The primary aim of load shifting or peak clipping is to lower the peak demand of the electricity system as a whole or for key parts of the network and thereby to reduce the need for investment in generation and transmission capacity and to lower electricity supply costs. The pricing mechanisms and contractual frameworks examined in the project include conventional Time Of Use (TOU) tariffs that vary by season, day of the week or time of the day as well as special TOU contracts (contracts with large consumers to adjust their regular maintenance activities and/or major annual maintenance), interruptible contracts, and TOU power purchase contracts (purchase of electricity from customers who have excess self-generation). This Final Report is structured as follows; Section 2 provides an overview of the process of TOU tariff setting and rate design, Sections 3 and 4 summarise the experience of TOU tariffs and load management contracts in the MENA region (Section 3) and internationally (Section 4), Section 5 summarises the methodologies used in the development of TOU pricing mechanisms and load management contracts...

The Trade-Reducing Effects of Restrictions on Liner Shipping

Bertho, Fabien; Borchert, Ingo; Mattoo, Aaditya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
This paper examines how policy governing the liner shipping sector affects maritime transport costs and seaborne trade flows. The paper uses a novel data set and finds that restrictions, particularly on foreign investment, increase maritime transport costs, strongly but unevenly. The cost-inflating effect ranges from 24 to 50 percent and trade on some routes may be inhibited altogether. Distance increases maritime transport costs, but also attenuates the cost impact of policy barriers. Overall, policy restrictions may lower trade flows on specific routes by up to 46 percent and therefore deserve greater attention in national reform programs and international trade negotiations.

The opportunity costs of the status quo in the Thamarrurr Region

Taylor, John; Stanley, Owen
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 2453012 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
Given the substantial deficits in economic activity, infrastructure and human capital identified by the ICCP/COAG trial in the Thamarrurr Region of the Northern Territory, questions were asked by the COAG partners as to the opportunity cost—both to governments and the local community—of sustaining the status quo. This report presents the findings of a study aimed at answering these questions. It follows a methodology first deployed by the Canadian Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Using secondary data sources and information on program expenditures provided by Commonwealth and Northern Territory government departments it quantifies both costs due to foregone production and costs due to the remedial actions necessary to compensate for low socioeconomic status as benchmarked against an average set of costs—in this case those incurred in the Northern Territory as a whole. Analysis of these costs reveals that the value of output forgone at Thamarrurr amounts to $43.8 million per annum. As for remedial costs, these are found to be negative to the tune of $4 million per annum. Thus after accounting for all government dollars and transfer payments expended on residents of the Thamarrurr region, far less is spent on them per head than is spent on the average Territorian. What emerges is a structural imbalance in funding at Thamarrurr...

Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment Costs from the Perspective of the Supplementary Health System

Teich,Vanessa; Piha,Tony; Fahham,Lucas; Squiassi,Haline Bianca; Paloni,Everton de Matos; Miranda,Paulo; Araújo,Denizar Vianna
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
AbstractBackground:Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is defined as a “group of clinical symptoms compatible with acute myocardial ischemia”, representing the leading cause of death worldwide, with a high clinical and financial impact. In this sense, the development of economic studies assessing the costs related to the treatment of ACS should be considered.Objective:To evaluate costs and length of hospital stay between groups of patients treated for ACS undergoing angioplasty with or without stent implantation (stent+ / stent-), coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and treated only clinically (Clinical) from the perspective of the Brazilian Supplementary Health System (SHS).Methods:A retrospective analysis of medical claims of beneficiaries of health plans was performed considering hospitalization costs and length of hospital stay for management of patients undergoing different types of treatment for ACS, between Jan/2010 and Jun/2012.Results:The average costs per patient were R$ 18,261.77, R$ 30,611.07, R$ 37,454.94 and R$ 40,883.37 in the following groups: Clinical, stent-, stent+ and CABG, respectively. The average costs per day of hospitalization were R$ 1,987.03, R$ 4,024.72, R$ 6,033.40 and R$ 2,663.82, respectively. The average results for length of stay were 9.19 days...

What Drives the High Price of Road Freight Transport in Central America?

Osborne, Theresa; Pachon, Maria Claudia; Araya, Gonzalo Enrique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
In Central America, like many other developing regions, high transport costs are cited as an important impediment to trade and economic growth. Prices for road freight transport, a key mode of transport comprising a significant share of total transport costs for both intra, and extra, regional trade, are particularly high. Averaging 17 US cents per ton-kilometer on main trading routes, these rates stand out even relative to other inefficient developing country markets (e.g., central and west Africa). However, the policy and other factors associated with increased prices have not been well understood. Using data from a survey of trucking companies operating on the region's main trade corridors, this paper analyzes the primary drivers affecting firms' cost of providing service, as well as the effect of market structure and competition on markups and prices. We find that whereas improved cost efficiencies could reduce prices by 3 cents per ton?kilometer, increased competition on national routes, those entirely within a nation's borders...

Republic of Armenia : Power Sector Tariff Study

Kochnakyan, Artur; Balabanyan, Ani; Antmann, Pedro; Laderchi, Caterina Ruggeri; Olivier, Anne; Pierce, Lauren; Hankinson, Denzel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
Armenia's energy sector has achieved a level of electricity reliability, service quality and efficiency of sector operations that stands out among countries participating in Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Much of this can be attributed to a decade of regulatory reform including a long-standing commitment to cost-recovery tariffs. The study is structured as follows: section one provides definitions of the key terms used and a background on the current tariff setting process in Armenia. Section two indicates how far tariffs have departed from cost-recovery levels and what costs have not been covered as a result. Section three describes how new investments will affect the average cost of service and the average residential tariff. Section four proposes a marginal cost-based tariff structure and explains why this differs from the current tariff structure. Section five discusses the poverty and social impact of tariff increases needed to cover new investments in 2021. Section six identifies options for subsidization and mitigating rate shock that will help transition to higher...

What Drives the High Price of Road Freight Transport in Central America?

Osborne, Theresa; Pachon, Maria Claudia; Araya, Gonzalo Enrique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
In Central America, like many other developing regions, high transport costs are cited as an impediment to trade and economic growth. Prices for road freight transport -- a key mode of transport comprising a significant share of total transport costs for intra- and extra-regional trade, are particularly high. Averaging 17 cents per ton-kilometer on main trading routes, these rates stand out even relative to other inefficient developing country markets (e.g., central and west Africa). However, the policy and other factors associated with increased prices have not been well understood. This paper uses data from a survey of trucking companies operating on the region's main trade corridors to analyze the determinants of firms' costs of providing service, as well as the effect of market structure and competition on prices. The analysis finds that whereas improved cost efficiencies could reduce prices by 3 cents per ton-kilometer, increased competition on national routes -- those entirely within a nation's borders -- would reduce prices by significantly more. Although there are many trucking companies...

Impact of an interest in asthma on prescribing costs in general practice.

Jones, K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
OBJECTIVE--To examine the effect on total prescribing costs and prescribing costs for respiratory drugs for practices with at least one general practitioner with a special interest in asthma. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey. SETTING--General practitioners in England and Wales. SUBJECTS--269 members of the General Practitioners in Asthma Group, of whom 103 agreed to participate. MAIN MEASURES--Individual practitioners' and their practices' PACT prescribing costs from the winter quarters of 1989-90 compared with average costs for their family health services authority (FHSA) and a notional national average of all FHSAs combined. RESULTS--The response rate was 57%; the average total prescribing costs for the practices of the 59 respondents were significantly lower than those of their respective FHSAs (mean difference 505 pounds per 1000 patients per quarter (95% confidence interval -934.0 to -76.2, p = 0.022) and lower than the national average. The average prescribing costs for respiratory drugs for the practices were significantly greater than those for their FHSA (195 pounds per 1000 patients per quarter (84.4 to 306.0, p = 0.001) and the national average. Both types of costs varied widely. CONCLUSION--An interest in asthma care in general practice is associated with higher average prescribing costs for respiratory drugs but no increase in overall prescribing costs compared with those for respective FHSAs and national averages. IMPLICATIONS--FHSAs and their medical advisors should not examine high prescribing costs for individual doctors or one therapeutic category but in the context of practice total costs.

Social and economic costs and health-related quality of life in non-institutionalised patients with cystic fibrosis in the United Kingdom

Angelis, Aris; Kanavos, Panos; López-Bastida, Julio; Linertová, Renata; Nicod, Elena; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
Background This study aimed to determine the societal economic burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients in the UK. Methods A bottom-up cost-of-illness, cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of 74 patients was conducted aiming to estimate the economic impact of CF. Data on demographic characteristics, health resource utilisation, informal care, productivity losses and HRQOL were collected from questionnaires completed by patients or their caregivers. HRQOL was measured with the EuroQol 5-domain (EQ-5D) instrument. Results Using unit costs for 2012 we found that the average annual cost for a CF patient was €48,603, with direct health care costs amounting to €20,854 (42.9 % of total costs), direct non-health care costs being €21,528 (44.3 %) and indirect costs attributable to productivity losses being €6,222 (12.8 %). On average, the largest expenditures by far were accounted for by informal care (44.1 %), followed by medications (14.5 %), acute hospitalisations (13.9 %), early retirement (9.1 %) and outpatient and primary health care visits (7.9 %). Sharp differences existed depending on whether CF patients were in need of caregiver help (€76,271 versus €26,335). In adult CF patients...

Does scale matter? The costs of HIV-prevention interventions for commercial sex workers in India

Guinness,Lorna; Kumaranayake,Lilani; Rajaraman,Bhuvaneswari; Sankaranarayanan,Girija; Vannela,Gangadhar; Raghupathi,P.; George,Alex
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
OBJECTIVE: To explore how the scale of a project affects both the total costs and average costs of HIV prevention in India. METHODS: Economic cost data and measures of scale (coverage and service volume indicators for number of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) referred, number of STIs treated, condoms distributed and contacts made with target groups) were collected from 17 interventions run by nongovernmental organizations aimed at commercial sex workers in southern India. Nonparametric methods and regression analyses were used to look at the relationship between total costs, unit costs and scale. FINDINGS: Coverage varied from 250 to 2008 sex workers. Annual costs ranged from US$ 11 274 to US$ 52 793. The median cost per sex worker reached was US$ 19.21 (range = US$ 10.00-51.00). The scale variables explain more than 50% of the variation in unit costs for all of the unit cost measures except cost per contact. Total costs and unit costs have non-linear relationships to scale. CONCLUSION: Average costs vary with the scale of the project. Estimates of resource requirements based on a constant average cost could underestimate or overestimate total costs. The results highlight the importance of improving scale-specific cost information for planning.