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Rationale and design of a randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing the effects of etiologic treatment in Chagas` cardiomyopathy: The BENznidazole Evaluation For Interrupting Trypanosomiasis (BENEFIT)

MARIN-NETO, Jose Antonio; RASSI JR., Anis; MORILLO, Carlos A.; AVEZUM, Alvaro; CONNOLLY, Stuart J.; SOSA-ESTANI, Sergio; ROSAS, Fernando; YUSUF, Salim; BENEFIT Investigators
Fonte: MOSBY-ELSEVIER Publicador: MOSBY-ELSEVIER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Background Benznidazole is effective for treating acute and chronic (recently acquired) Tryponosoma cruzi infection (Chagas` disease). Recent data indicate that parasite persistence plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of chronic Chagas` cardiomyopathy. However, the efficacy of trypanocidal therapy in preventing clinical complications in patients with preexisting cardiac disease is unknown. Study Design BENEFIT is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 3,000 patients with Chagas` cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Patients are randomized to receive benznidazole (5 mg/kg per day) or matched placebo, for 60 days. The primary outcome is the composite of death; resuscitated cardiac arrest; sustained ventricular tachycardia; insertion of pacemaker or cardiac defibrillator; cardiac transplantation; and development of new heart failure, stroke, or systemic or pulmonary thromboembolic events. The average follow-up time will be 5 years, and the trial has a 90% power to detect a 25% relative risk reduction. The BENEFIT program also comprises a substudy evaluating the effects of benznidazole on parasite clearance and an echo substudy exploring the impact of etiologic treatment on left ventricular function. Recruitment started in November 2004...

Avaliação do custo-benefício das atividades de prevenção da raiva humana e das atividades de controle da raiva canina no Município de Mogi Guaçu, no período de 2000 a 2004; Cost benefit analysis of the activities for human rabies prevention and the activities for canine rabies control in Mogi-Guaçu Municipality, from 2000 to 2004

Pinto, Haroldo de Barros Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/08/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
No presente estudo foi avaliado os custos dos tratamentos anti-rábicos pósexposição e das atividades do controle da raiva canina realizada no Mogi Guaçu, no período de 2000 a 2004. Para as análises foram utilizadas as informações disponíveis no banco de dados do Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) e dos dados pertinentes ao Programa de Controle da Raiva, fornecidos pelo Centro de Controle de Zoonoses. Com o auxilio das planilhas do programa Excel, os dados foram tabulados e os valores em reais, obtidos ano a ano (valores nominais), foram atualizados para valores do ano de 2006, tendo como deflator o Índice de Preço do Consumidor Ampliado (IPCA). No período estudado, ocorreram 4.279 notificações de pacientes agredidos por diferentes espécies de mamíferos. O tipo de lesão mais freqüente foi a mordedura, com 90,9% do total, tendo sido o cão a principal espécie agressora, com 84,1% do total dos agravos. Os pacientes do sexo masculino apresentaram o maior risco exposição (48,2%), o mesmo ocorrendo com os pacientes de faixa etária entre zero e 14 anos (35,2%). O esquema de tratamento pós-exposição, com três doses de vacina e a observação do cão agressor, foi preconizado para 18,3% das pessoas agredidas o que representou um gasto estimado de R$ 43.829...

Cost-benefit analysis of sheep and goat brucellosis vaccination with Rev.1 in the North of Portugal from 2000 to 2005

Coelho, Adosinda; Pinto, Maria; Coelho, Ana
Fonte: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Publicador: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
In the North of Portugal, a mass vaccination programme of small ruminants was conducted from 2001 to 2004. A study of cost-benefit was carried out for the 2000/2005 period to ascertain the economic benefits of this strategy. In order to estimate the cost of the zoonosis, the compensation costs paid to farmers for culled animals in the Brucellosis Eradication Campaign, data from vaccine Rev. 1 costs, and costs of people internment due to brucellosis were studied. An increase in the cost was observed from 2000 to 2001 (aproximately US$ 110,000), essentially due to compensation for culled animals, but also from vaccination and human internment costs. However, a progressive decrease was observed from 2001 to 2004 (from more than US$1,200,000 in 2001 to US$180,000 in 2004), roughly US$ 1,020,000 less. As the main conclusion, the annual cost of this zoonosis decreased by an average of almost US$600,000 per year, and a total of more than three million dollars were saved from 2000 to 2005. The results of this study suggest that mass vaccination with Rev. 1 reduced overall costs and was effective in reducing animal and human brucellosis costs.

Cost-benefit analysis of sheep and goat brucellosis vaccination with Rev.1 in the north of Portugal from 2000 to 2005

Coelho,A.M; Pinto,M.L; Coelho,A.C
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária Publicador: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
In the North of Portugal, a mass vaccination programme of small ruminants was conducted from 2001 to 2004. A study of cost-benefit was carried out for the 2000/2005 period to ascertain the economic benefits of this strategy. In order to estimate the cost of the zoonosis, the compensation costs paid to farmers for culled animals in the Brucellosis Eradication Campaign, data from vaccine Rev. 1 costs, and costs of people internment due to brucellosis were studied. An increase in the cost was observed from 2000 to 2001 (aproximately US$ 110,000), essentially due to compensation for culled animals, but also from vaccination and human internment costs. However, a progressive decrease was observed from 2001 to 2004 (from more than US$1,200,000 in 2001 to US$180,000 in 2004), roughly US$ 1,020,000 less. As the main conclusion, the annual cost of this zoonosis decreased by an average of almost US$600,000 per year, and a total of more than three million dollars were saved from 2000 to 2005. The results of this study suggest that mass vaccination with Rev. 1 reduced overall costs and was effective in reducing animal and human brucellosis costs

On Measuring the Benefits of Lower Transport Costs

Jacoby, Hanan G.; Minten, Bart
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
Despite large amounts invested in rural roads in developing countries, little is known about their benefits. This paper derives an expression for the willingness-to-pay for a reduction in transport costs from the canonical agricultural household model and uses it to estimate the benefits of a hypothetical road project. Estimation is based on novel cross-sectional data collected in a small region of Madagascar with enormous, yet plausibly exogenous, variation in transport cost. A road that essentially eliminated transport costs in the study area would boost the incomes of the remotest households-those facing transport costs of about USD 75/ton-by nearly half, mostly by raising non-farm earnings. This benefit estimate is contrasted to one based on a hedonic approach.

Romania - Poverty Monitoring Analytical and Advisory Assistance Program : Are the Most Vulnerable Protected?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
The rapid economic growth since 2000 has been the main driver of poverty reduction in Romania. However, even under the current positive growth scenario, there are still people who live in poverty, and some who are unlikely to benefit from future growth and thus may continue to be left behind. For these people an effective redistributive social policy and targeted interventions are needed. The purpose of this note is to assist the Ministry of Labor, Family and Equal Opportunities (MLFEO) to analyze and monitor the effectiveness of the main social safety net benefits to fight social exclusion and reduce poverty. To determine the extent to which social transfers offer protection to the poorest groups of the population, the paper uses the last available (2004-2006) rounds of the household budget survey data. The analysis presented here uses the consumption aggregate and the absolute poverty definition presented in the 2003 and 2007 poverty assessments. Three main indicators are used to assess the effectiveness of social protection (SP) programs: coverage (share of population covered by the programs)...

Fiscal Projections for Pension System of Belarus

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
This note attempts to describe the pension system in Belarus including its fiscal performance, redistributive aspects benefit levels and benefit eligibility conditions. The note also discusses the challenging demographic environment which Belarus pension system is expected to face in the future and explores alternative paths that the system could take in this environment. Some reform scenarios are explored including the increase in retirement ages, changes in benefit indexation rules and the introduction of notional defined contribution accounts.

Benefits on the Margin : Observations on Marginal Benefit Incidence

Younger, Stephen D.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
Benefit incidence analysis has become a popular tool over the past decade, especially for researchers at the World Bank. Despite or perhaps because of the popularity of this method, recent research has pointed out many of its limitations. One of the most common criticisms of benefit incidence analysis is that its description of average participation rates is not necessarily useful in guiding marginal changes in public spending policies. This article considers a variety of methods for analyzing the marginal benefit incidence of policy changes. A key conceptual point is that despite the fact that the various methods measure marginal incidence, they do not measure the same thing nor are they intended to do so. There are many possible policy changes and thus many margins of interest. Each method captures one of these and so is of interest for some analyses and inappropriate for others. Empirically, the precision of the methods differs substantially, with those relying on differenced data or aggregations of households yielding standard errors that are quite large relative to the estimated shares.

Liberia : A Diagnostic of Social Protection

Borgarello, Andrea; Figazzolo, Laura; Weedon, Emily
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
Safety Nets are limited in Liberia and, although as a share of GDP, expenditures are higher than the regional average, the average benefit amount is equal to only 7-20 percent of the poverty line. The current system focuses on the country s most vulnerable populations but that the system is fragmented. Food insecurity is mainly addressed through food transfers aimed at preventing starvation and malnutrition. Unemployed people, including the large portion of the population engaged in informal employment, are targeted primarily by public works. Scaling-up Liberia s safety nets would require significant investments, which are not viable at the moment given the country s financial constraints. Efforts should hence focus on improving the overall safety net system within the existing budget.

United States Marine Corps (USMC) KC-130J tanker replacement requirements and cost/benefit analysis

McCarthy, Mitchell J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 95 p., 28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; NAVAIR funded a research project to answer the question: how many KC- 130Js Aerial Refueling Tankers will the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) need to meet their future wartime requirements? This thesis supports that study. Thesis results were incorporated into the recently completed Marine KC-130 Requirements Study. by Professors Gates, Kwon, Washburn, and Anderson. Specifically, the thesis focuses on the tradeoffs the USMC faces between requirements, performance, and life-cycle costs. The KC-130J aerial refueling requirement must support expected USMC fixed-wing refueling demand during two nearly simultaneous major theater wars. Furthermore, refueling capacity must keep the average time an aircraft waits in the aerial refueling queue (CT(q)) below five minutes. To define the tradeoff between the KC-130J requirement and system performance (waiting time), the thesis develops a Simulation Model using the ARENA(copyright) simulation language. The simulation model highlights the impact of capacity failures (refueling drogues and hoses) and overlaps between KC-130J sorties, two potentially significant factors that can't be explored with standard static queuing theory models. Next, the thesis develops a Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model that incorporates cost variability using the Crystal Ball EXCEL(copyright) spreadsheet add-on. The model defines the tradeoffs between LCC and KC-130J fleet size. The resulting analysis and conclusions specify a base- case KC-130J requirement and discuss the tradeoffs between the requirement...

The Foreign-born Population in the European Union and Its Contribution to National Tax and Benefit Systems : Some Insights from Recent Household Survey Data

Barbone, Luca; Bontch-Osmolovsky, Misha; Zaidi, Salman
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
Despite the purported surge in internal migration following the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, data from the 2006 European Union Survey of Income and Living Conditions show that internal migrants are a relatively small share of the European Union's population. Depending on the exact definition used, only about 1 to 2 percent of the population of European Union-13 countries (members prior to the 2004 enlargement, not including Germany and Luxembourg) were born in other European Union countries, while the corresponding share for European Union-4 countries (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia) is even lower. By contrast, about 6 percent of the population of European Union-13 countries was born outside the European Union. On examining the demographic and socio-economic background of the migrant population (both from within as well as outside the European Union), this paper finds that migrants tend to include a concentration of both low as well as highly educated workers. Both sets of migrants uniformly contribute to raising the working-age population of receiving countries. Using data on average incomes and taxes paid and benefits received by migrant and non-migrant households...

Cost Benefit Studies on Disaster Risk Reduction in Developing Countries

KC, Shyam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
The focus of development actors working in the area of disaster management has shifted substantially from disaster recovery to disaster risk reduction over the past decade, coinciding with the decade of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015. Amidst this strategic shift, there is now the need to work towards ensuring that investments made to reduce disaster risks are cost-effective and that the benefits reach all members of the population including the poor and vulnerable, who are often 'affected disproportionately' (Global Assessment Report 2009, The Sendai Report 2012). The losses from natural disasters to mankind are undoubtedly massive-on average, globally every year over 100,000 people were killed and some 246 million people affected by natural disasters during the period 2002-2011 and the estimated average economic loss was US$131 billion per year. The purpose of this note is to briefly survey existing evidence in developing countries with regard to the benefits and costs of various disaster risk reduction interventions so as to provide some general lessons for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) practitioners on the strengths and limitations of such existing work. In doing so...

Zambia - Commercial Value Chains in Zambian Agriculture : Do Smallholders Benefit?

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.92%
Agriculture and agroprocessing are important in Zambia's economy, representing more than 40 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and contributing about 12 percent of national export earnings. Agriculture employs some 67 percent of the labor force and supplies raw materials to agricultural industries, which account for some 84 percent of manufacturing value-added in the country. Smallholder agriculture dominates the rural economy. It provides livelihoods for the overwhelming majority of rural households. The commercialization of smallholder agriculture is an important element of Zambia's strategy to increase economic growth in an equitable manner and diversify smallholder agriculture. This study therefore asks: 'do Zambian smallholders benefit from greater participation in value chains?' It provides an evidence-based analysis of the benefits and constraints associated with smallholders' integration into specific commercial value chains. The study also investigates whether the benefits of participating in these value chains can be increased for smallholders and provides corresponding policy and investment recommendations.

Benefit Incidence with Incentive Effects, Measurement Errors and Latent Heterogeneity

Ravallion, Martin; Chen, Shaohua
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Empirical studies of tax and benefit incidence routinely ignore behavioral responses and measurement errors. This paper offers an econometric method of estimating the mean benefit withdrawal rate (marginal tax rate) allowing for incentive effects, measurement errors, and correlated latent heterogeneity in incidence. Under the method's identifying assumptions, a feasible instrumental variables estimator corrects for incentive effects and measurement errors, and provides a bound for the true value when there is correlated incidence heterogeneity. A case study for a large cash transfer program in China indicates that past methods of assessing benefit incidence using either nominal official rates or raw tabulations from survey data are deceptive. The program entails a nominal 100 percent benefit withdrawal rate -- a poverty trap. However, the paper finds that the actual rate is much lower, and clearly too low in the light of the literature on optimal income taxation. The paper discusses likely reasons based on the qualitative observations.

Would Multilateral Trade Reform Benefit Sub-Saharan Africans?

Anderson, Kym; Martin, Will; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
This paper examines whether the Sub-Saharan African economies could gain from multilateral trade reform in the presence of trade preferences. The World Bank's LINKAGE model of the global economy is employed to examine the impact first of current trade barriers and agricultural subsidies, and then of possible outcomes from the WTO's Doha round. The results suggest moving to free global merchandise trade would boost real incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa proportionately more than in other developing countries or in high-income countries, despite a terms of trade loss in parts of the region. Farm employment and output, the real value of agricultural and food exports, the real returns to farm land and unskilled labor, and real net farm incomes would all rise in the region, thereby alleviating poverty. A Doha partial liberalization of both agricultural and nonagricultural trade could significantly benefit the region.

Can Cost-Benefit Analysis Guide Education Policy in Developing Countries?

Jimenez, Emmanuel; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
Cost-benefit analysis in education is an important tool in the economists' arsenal. However, it is essential that research, especially on the social benefits of education, make further progress to make cost-benefit more analysis. There is a need for more research on the effects of policy interventions on outcomes beyond access to a year in school and what they earn as a result, such as on what children actually learn. Such research should focus on ensuring that the interventions are attributable to outcomes. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to go through the discipline of noting the benefits and costs, even if social rates of return cannot be calculated robustly.

Social Assistance Transfers in Bosnia and Herzegovina : Moving Toward a More Sustainable and Better-Targeted Safety Net; Socijalna davanja u Bosni i Hercegovini : Kreiranje odrzivog sistema socijalne zastite zasnovanog na stvarnim potrebama

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
Public expenditures on non-insurance social protection cash transfers absorb a huge share of the entities' respective budgets. This level of spending requires buoyant public revenues. However, public revenues will be under continuing pressure in view of the impending economic crisis. Moreover, devoting a large proportion of public funds to social transfers has the effect of crowding out resources that could be devoted to public investments which will be increasingly needed to stimulate growth as the economy begins to sag under the impact of the world economic crisis. In addition, there is evidence that some rights based programs create disincentives for employment. This situation is fiscally unsustainable, economically inefficient, and socially inequitable. Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) needs to completely overhaul it s non-insurance social protection cash transfer programs. There are many ways in which BH could reform these programs and put in place measures aimed at developing a social safety net that is: (a) less of a burden on public resources...

The Market for Retirement Products in Sweden

Palmer, Edward
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Far-reaching changes in the regulation of financial markets and the organization of public pensions in the 1980s and 1990s transformed the landscape for retirement products in Sweden. First, banking and insurance were extensively deregulated in the 1980s, while the securities markets experienced major expansion. Insurance received a large boost from the authorization of unit-linked products in the early 1990s. Second, the public pension system was reformed. Survivor benefits for widows were eliminated from the public pillar in the late 1980s, leading to a large increase in demand for term life insurance. The old defined benefit public pension system was replaced by a notional or nonfinancial defined contribution (NDC) scheme, while a funded defined contribution (FDC) component was also created in the public pillar. The four occupational pension funds that cover the majority of Swedish workers were also converted into FDC schemes. This paper reviews the implications of these changes for the Swedish annuity market. It discusses the regulation of payout options in Sweden...

Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in South Mexico: cost / benefit analysis

Tovilla Hernández,Cristian; de la Lanza Espino,Guadalupe; Orihuela Belmonte,D. Edith
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
Environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in Barra de Tecoanapa, Guerrero, Mexico. Original forest included Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha) and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day). A total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. Later, an average of 2 555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 USD). Succession when the area was abandoned included strictly facultative and glycophyte halophytes (16 families, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were the best represented). After logging, temperatures increased 13 °C in the soil and 11°C in the air, whereas salinity reached 52 psu in the dry season. These modified soil color and sand content increased from 42.6 to 63.4%. Logging was deleterious to species, habitat, biogeochemical and biological cycles, organic matter production, seeds, young plants, genetic exchange conservation of soil and its fertility, coastal protection, and aesthetic value; 3 000 m2 had eroded as the river advanced towards the deforested area (the cost/benefit analysis showed a ratio of 246: 1). There was long-term economic loss for the community and only 30% of the site has recovered after five years.

Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis: case study

Roth,Felix; Zinsstag,Jakob; Orkhon,Dontor; Chimed-Ochir,G.; Hutton,Guy; Cosivi,Ottorino; Carrin,Guy; Otte,Joachim
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness and economic benefit for human society and the agricultural sector of mass vaccination against brucellosis was modelled. The intervention consisted of a planned 10-year livestock mass vaccination campaign using Rev-1 livestock vaccine for small ruminants and S19 livestock vaccine for cattle. Cost-effectiveness, expressed as cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, was the primary outcome. FINDINGS: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49 027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit-cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27-4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3-486.8). If private economic gain because of improved human health was included...