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Mobilidade do trabalho e disponibilidade de médicos no Brasil; Labor mobility and availability of medical doctors in Brazil

Costa Lima, Arnaldo Ribeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/04/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.44%
Compreendendo a mobilidade do trabalho como um fenômeno que promove o deslocamento espacial, setorial e profissional de trabalhadores, com o objetivo de o capital explorar força de trabalho e acumular excedente econômico e observando que os médicos no Brasil trabalham de forma particularmente diversificada, transversa e longitudinalmente, em múltiplos sub-empregos, procura-se apreender dimensões da mobilidade da força de trabalho de médicos no sistema brasileiro de serviços de saúde. Com a intenção de contribuir para a compreensão e crítica do fenômeno da disponibilidade desses profissionais, como processo sócio-histórico significante para a implementação do Sistema Único de Saúde, desenvolvem-se táticas de aproximação sucessiva ao empírico da mobilidade do trabalho de médico, em diversidade metodológica, pela integração de métodos quantitativos e qualitativos, utilizando-se de entrevista, pesquisa bibliográfica e análise de documentos e de dados secundários de pesquisas. Apreende-se, além de espacial, setorial e profissional, um deslocamento temporal na mobilidade da força de trabalho de médicos no modo como se dispõe no sistema brasileiro de serviços de saúde. Captura-se o desenvolvimento de estratégias e contra-estratégias de mobilidade...

Modular architecture in biological networks

Ramachandran, Gopal (Gopal Sebastian)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 207 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.36%
In the past decade, biology has been revolutionized by an explosion in the availability of data. Translating this new wealth of information into meaningful biological insights and clinical breakthroughs will require a complete overhaul both in the questions being asked, and the methodologies used to answer them. One of the largest challenges in organizing and understanding the data coming from genome sequencing, microarray experiments, and other high-throughput measurements, will be the ability to find large-scale structure in biological systems. Ideally, this would lead to a simplified representation, wherein the thousands of genes in an organism can be viewed as a much smaller number of dynamic modules working in concert to accomplish cellular functions. Toward demonstrating the importance of higher-level, modular structure in biological systems, we have performed the following analyses: 1. Using computational techniques and pre-existing protein-protein interaction (PPI) data, we have developed general tools to find and validate modular structure. We have applied these approaches to the PPI networks of yeast, fly, worm, and human.; (cont.) 2. Utilizing a modular scaffold, we have generated predictions that attempt to explain existing system-wide experiments as well as predict the function of otherwise uncharacterized proteins. 3. Following the example of comparative genomics...

An empirical analysis of quantitative trading strategies; rise and fall : evolution of trading strategies

Aiuchi, Masaharu
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 280 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.36%
Along with the increasing computing power, growing availability of various data streams, introduction of the electronic exchanges, decreasing trading costs and heating-up competition in financial investment industry, quantitative trading strategies or quantitative trading rules have been evolving rapidly in a few decades. They challenge the Efficient Market Hypothesis by trying to forecast future price movements of risky assets from the historical market information in algorithmic ways or in statistical ways. They try to find some patters or trends from the historical data and use them to beat the market benchmark. In this research, I introduce several quantitative trading strategies and investigate their performances empirically i.e. by executing back-tests assuming that the S&P 500 stock index is a risky asset to trade. The strategies utilize the historical data of the stock index itself, trading volume movement, risk-free rate movement and implied volatility movement in order to generate buy or sell trading signals. Then I attempt to articulate and decompose the source for successes of some strategies in the back-tests into several factors such as trend patterns or relationships between market information variables in intuitive way. Some strategies recorded higher performances than the benchmark in the back-tests...

Assessment of high-burnup LWR fuel response to reactivity-initiated accidents; Assessment of high-burnup Light Water Reactor fuel response to reactivity-initiated accidents

Liu, Wenfeng, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 273 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.36%
The economic advantages of longer fuel cycle, improved fuel utilization and reduced spent fuel storage have been driving the nuclear industry to pursue higher discharge burnup of Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. A design basis accident, the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA), became a concern for further increase of burnup as simulated RIA tests revealed lower enthalpy threshold for fuel failure associated with fuel dispersal, which may compromise the core coolability and/or cause radiological release should this happened in LWRs. Valuable information on the behavior of high burnup fuel during RIA are provided by the simulation tests. However atypical design and operating conditions in simulated tests limited the application of experimental data directly to evaluate the failure potential of LWR fuels. To better interpret the experimental results and improve the capability of the fuel performance codes to predict high burnup fuel behavior, this thesis developed mechanistic models of high burnup fuel during an RIA and implemented models in a transient fuel performance code FRAPTRAN 1.3. Fission gas release (FGR) and swelling were systematically modeled to quantify gaseous loading effects. The grain boundary fission gas inventory is simulated prior to the transient using a diffusion model in FRAPCON 3.3 code. The restructuring of high burnup fuel in rim region is described in terms of porosity...

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Fonte: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Publicador: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
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75.36%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

Investing in the Livestock Sector : Why Good Numbers Matter, A Sourcebook for Decision Makers on How to Improve Livestock Data

Pica-Ciamarra, Ugo; Baker, Derek; Morgan, Nancy; Zezza, Alberto; Azzarri, Carlo; Ly, Cheikh; Nsiima, Longin; Nouala, Simplice; Okello, Patrick; Sserugga, Joseph
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.42%
This sourcebook summarizes the outputs and lessons of the Livestock in Africa: improving data for better policies project. It aims to present the challenges facing professionals collecting and analyzing livestock data and statistics and possible solutions. While the Sourcebook does not address all conceivable issues related to enhancing livestock data and underlining statistical issues, it does represent a unique document for a number of reasons. To begin with, it is possibly the first document which specifically addresses the broad complexity of livestock data collection, taking into consideration the unique characteristics of the sector. Indeed, in most cases livestock data are dealt with, if ever, within the context of major agricultural initiatives. Second, the sourcebook is a joint product of users and suppliers of livestock data, with its overarching objective being to respond to the information needs of data users, and primarily the Ministries responsible for livestock in African countries and the National Statistical Authorities. Finally...

Open Data for Economic Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.42%
Many governments are pursuing open data policies. One of the key policy drivers has been to use open data to drive economic growth and business innovation. This paper examines the evidence for the economic potential of open data and concludes that, despite a variation in published estimates and some methodological difficulties, the potential is very large indeed. It reviews the latest data about companies using open data, and highlights four companies which did not exist ten years ago, which are driven by open data, and which are each now valued at around $1 billion or more. It discusses the five archetypical types of businesses using open data, and cites concrete examples of each, and discusses the types of data which are proving most likely to lead to widespread business adoption and innovation. It suggests that governments should see themselves not only as a Supplier of open data but also as a leader, catalyst and user of it. Finally, it makes some recommendations for policies and actions which governments could take to maximize the economic growth possible from their data.

Technical Assessment of Open Data Platforms for National Statistical Organisations

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.43%
The term quot;open dataquot; is generally understood to be data that are made available to the public free of charge, without registration or restrictive licenses, for any purpose whatsoever (including commercial purposes), in electronic, machine-readable formats that ensure data are easy to find, download and use. National Statistics Offices (NSOs) have the potential to play a pivotal role in the implementation of open data initiatives. As producers and curators of data, the objective of making high quality data more accessible and usable is consistent with their guiding principles. NSOs indicate, in research conducted in support of this report, that one of the difficulties they encounter is that the technology they use to publish - or electronically distribute - data for public use is not compatible with open formats. They also indicate that common software packages used for open data portals do not accommodate the data formats and metadata they produce. Two key concerns related to data dissemination products are addresses: (1) Can such products designed primarily for NSOs satisfy requirements for an open data initiative?; and (2) Can such products designed primarily for open data satisfy the requirements of NSOs? Furthermore...

Open Data for Economic Growth in Russia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.42%
The report reviews the latest data about companies using open data, and highlights four companies which did not exist ten years ago, which are driven by open data, and which are each now valued at around $1 billion or more. It discusses the five archetypical types of businesses using Open Data, and cites concrete examples of each, and discusses the types of data which are proving most likely to lead to widespread business adoption and innovation. One of the examples of successful open data companies is Zillow with a market capitalization of over $3 billion, provides a home and real estate on-line marketplace. Climate Corp, acquired for $930 million by Monsanto in October 2013, uses 60 years of detailed crop yield data, weather observations from one million locations in the United States and 14 terabytes of soil quality data - all free from the US Government, to provide applications that help farmers improve their profits by making better informed operating and financing decisions. The paper suggests that since Open Data is relatively new in Russia it is unsurprising that there is less evidence of actual economic returns so far. Nevertheless rapid progress has been made...

Data Deprivation

Serajuddin, Umar; Uematsu, Hiroki; Wieser, Christina; Yoshida, Nobuo; Dabalen, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.42%
The Millennium Development Goal of halving the incidence of extreme poverty from its 1990 level will be achieved in 2015, and the international development community is now moving to a new goal of “ending extreme poverty.” However, the data needed to monitor progress remain severely limited. During the 10 year period between 2002 and 2011, as many as 57 countries have zero or only one poverty estimate. This paper refers to such lack of poverty data as “data deprivation,” because the poor are often socially marginalized and voiceless, and the collection of objective and quantitative data is crucial in locating them and formulating policy to help them exit extreme deprivation. This paper studies the extent of data deprivation and proposes targets for ending data deprivation by 2030—the year by when the international community aims to end extreme poverty. According to the analysis in this paper, this target is ambitious but possible, and achieving it is necessary to be able to declare the end of extreme poverty with confidence.

Business Regulations and Growth

Divanbeigi, Raian; Ramalho, Rita
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.47%
Over the past decade, there has been increased interest in improving business regulations, in part because of the increased availability of data that can inform and monitor those improvements. This paper analyzes whether these regulatory changes are linked to economic outcomes. With panel data for 10 years across more than 180 countries, the paper establishes the link between business regulations, firm creation, and growth. It is found that an improvement of 10 points in the overall measure of business regulations is linked to an increase of around 0.5 new businesses per 1,000 adults. Moreover, the results show that although small changes in the overall level of business regulations may have a negligible link to growth, moving from the lowest quartile of improvement in business regulations to the highest quartile is associated with a significant increase in annual per capita growth of around 0.8 percentage points. In addition, the results highlight the importance of sound entry and exit regulations and sound credit market regulations and court enforcement for growth.

Requests and Appeals Data in Right to Information Systems

Worker, Jesse; Excell, Carole
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.41%
This paper provides a summary of data about requests and appeals published by central reporting bodies in eight countries. It was prepared for the World Bank as part of a larger study on the implementation of right to information (RTI) laws. It examines available RTI data about requests and appeals from the most recent year of aggregated data—ranging between 2011 and 2013. It does not evaluate subnational data. It assessed these statistics for Brazil, India, Jordan, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand, The United Kingdom, and the United States. Through this assessment it provides trends in how countries are collecting and publishing these data. Statistics were retrieved from annual reports and through online portals. Online portals were used for Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. The types of data collected include: volume of requests and rate of responses, types of requesters, type of information requested, agencies receiving requests, use of exemptions, appeals and complaints, and sanctions.

Feasibility research into the controlled availability of opioids, Volume 2b - Appendices

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health; Australian Institute of Criminology
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 399508 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.52%
Executive Summary: The results of a three month exploration of legal, ethical, political, medical and logistic issues lead us to the interim conclusion that it would be feasible to undertake a randomised controlled trial as a test of the policy of expanding the availability of heroin in a controlled fashion for the management of heroin dependent users in the ACT. There is evidence that the ACT community is willing to consider such a trial, but also that ACT police have significant concerns about its logistics and possible ill effects. The trial would compare oral methadone treatment with a program of expanded opioid availability, in which dependent individuals would be able to take intravenous, oral or smoked heroin and/or methadone under careful medical supervision. Volunteers would be subject to strict residential eligibility criteria and would need to agree to extensive medical tests and data collections. They would be randomly assigned either to methadone treatment or to the expanded availability program. The two groups would be carefully followed for at least one year in an effort to discover whether or not the expanded availability program provides benefits for dependent drug users, their families and to society at large which methadone programs cannot provide. The purpose of the study would be to discover whether or not a policy of controlled heroin availability could ameliorate the massive burden which illegal heroin use currently imposes on Australian and ACT societies. Our exploration of these matters leads us to recommend to the Select Committee on HIV...

Feasibility research into the controlled availability of opioids, Volume 2a - Background Papers

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health; Australian Institute of Criminology
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 880000 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.52%
Executive Summary: The results of a three month exploration of legal, ethical, political, medical and logistic issues lead us to the interim conclusion that it would be feasible to undertake a randomised controlled trial as a test of the policy of expanding the availability of heroin in a controlled fashion for the management of heroin dependent users in the ACT. There is evidence that the ACT community is willing to consider such a trial, but also that ACT police have significant concerns about its logistics and possible ill effects. The trial would compare oral methadone treatment with a program of expanded opioid availability, in which dependent individuals would be able to take intravenous, oral or smoked heroin and/or methadone under careful medical supervision. Volunteers would be subject to strict residential eligibility criteria and would need to agree to extensive medical tests and data collections. They would be randomly assigned either to methadone treatment or to the expanded availability program. The two groups would be carefully followed for at least one year in an effort to discover whether or not the expanded availability program provides benefits for dependent drug users, their families and to society at large which methadone programs cannot provide. The purpose of the study would be to discover whether or not a policy of controlled heroin availability could ameliorate the massive burden which illegal heroin use currently imposes on Australian and ACT societies. Our exploration of these matters leads us to recommend to the Select Committee on HIV...

Feasibility research into the controlled availability of opioids, Volume 1

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health; Australian Institute of Criminology
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 127367 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.52%
Executive Summary: The results of a three month exploration of legal, ethical, political, medical and logistic issues lead us to the interim conclusion that it would be feasible to undertake a randomised controlled trial as a test of the policy of expanding the availability of heroin in a controlled fashion for the management of heroin dependent users in the ACT. There is evidence that the ACT community is willing to consider such a trial, but also that ACT police have significant concerns about its logistics and possible ill effects. The trial would compare oral methadone treatment with a program of expanded opioid availability, in which dependent individuals would be able to take intravenous, oral or smoked heroin and/or methadone under careful medical supervision. Volunteers would be subject to strict residential eligibility criteria and would need to agree to extensive medical tests and data collections. They would be randomly assigned either to methadone treatment or to the expanded availability program. The two groups would be carefully followed for at least one year in an effort to discover whether or not the expanded availability program provides benefits for dependent drug users, their families and to society at large which methadone programs cannot provide. The purpose of the study would be to discover whether or not a policy of controlled heroin availability could ameliorate the massive burden which illegal heroin use currently imposes on Australian and ACT societies. Our exploration of these matters leads us to recommend to the Select Committee on HIV...

Geolocation of Data in the Cloud

Gondree, Mark; Peterson, Zachary N. J.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.42%
We introduce and analyze a general framework for authentically binding data to a location while providing strong assurances against cloud storage providers that (either accidentally or maliciously) attempt to re-locate cloud data. We then evaluate a preliminary solution in this framework that combines constraint-based host geolocation with proofs of data possession, called constraint-based data geolocation (CBDG). We evaluate CBDG using a combination of experiments with PlanetLab and real cloud storage services, demonstrating that we can bind fetched data to the location originally hosting it with high precision. We geolocate data hosted on the majority of our PlanetLab targets to regions no larger than 118,000 km2, and we geolocate data hosted on Amazon S3 to an area no larger than 12,000 km2, sufficiently small to identify the state or service region.; Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation under award No. 1143573.

Papua New Guinea Education Management Information System; SABER Country Report 2015

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.52%
In 2011, the World Bank Group commenced a multiyear program designed to support countries in systematically examining and strengthening the performance of their education systems. By leveraging this global knowledge, the systems approach for better education results (SABER) tools fill a gap in the availability of data and evidence on what matters most to improve the quality of education and achievement of better results. This report discusses the results of applying the SABER - education management information systems (EMIS) tool in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The objectives of this report are to examine the system according to key policy areas, identify successes and challenges in the system, and provide recommendations to support the continued advancement of EMIS in PNG. A successful EMIS is credible and operational in planning and policy dialogue as well as teaching and learning.

HARBOR : an integrated approach to recovery and high availability in an updatable, distributed data warehouse; Integrated approach to recovery and high availability in an updatable, distributed data warehouse

Lau, Edmond, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 105 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.58%
Any highly available data warehouse will use some form of data replication to ensure that it can continue to service queries despite machine failures. In this thesis, I demonstrate that it is possible to leverage the data replication available in these environments to build a simple yet efficient crash recovery mechanism that revives a crashed site by querying remote replicas for missing updates. My new integrated approach to recovery and high availability, called HARBOR (High Availability and Replication-Based Online Recovery), targets updatable data warehouses and offers an attractive alternative to the widely used log-based crash recovery algorithms found in existing database systems. Aside from its simplicity over log-based approaches, HARBOR also avoids the runtime overhead of maintaining an on-disk log, accomplishes recovery without quiescing the system, allows replicated data to be stored in non-identical formats, and supports the parallel recovery of multiple sites and database objects. To evaluate HARBOR's feasibility, I compare HARBOR's runtime overhead and recovery performance with those of two-phase commit and ARIES, the gold standard for log-based recovery, on a four-node distributed database system that I have implemented.; (cont.) My experiments show that HARBOR incurs lower runtime overhead because it does not require log writes to be forced to disk during transaction commit. Furthermore...

Rail transit OD matrix estimation and journey time reliability metrics using automated fare data

Chan, Joanne, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 191 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.39%
The availability of automatic fare collection (AFC) data greatly enhances a transit planner's ability to understand and characterize passenger travel demands which have traditionally been estimated by manual surveys handed out to passengers at stations or on board vehicles. The AFC data also presents an unprecedentedly consistent source of information on passenger travel times in those transit networks which have both entry and exit fare gates. By taking the difference between entry and exit times, AFC transactions can be used to capture the bulk of a passenger's time spent in the system including walking between gates and platforms, platform wait, in-train time, as well as interchange time for multi-vehicle trips. This research aims at demonstrating the potential value of AFC data in rail transit operations and planning. The applications developed in this thesis provide rail transit operators an easy-to-update management tool that evaluates several dimensions of rail service and demand at near real-time. While the concepts of the applications can be adapted to other transit systems, the detailed configurations and unique characteristics of each transit system require the methodologies to be tailored to solve its needs.; (cont.) The focus of this research is the London Underground network which adopted the automatic fare collection system...

Availability of data for monitoring noncommunicable disease risk factors in India

Raban,Magdalena Z; Dandona,Rakhi; Dandona,Lalit
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.52%
OBJECTIVE: To examine the availability of data measuring noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factor indicators from household surveys conducted in India from 2000 to 2009. METHODS: Questionnaires and publications used in household surveys were identified through internet and PubMed searches and examined to determine which core NCD risk factor indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for NCD monitoring were being measured. Surveys with a sample size of 5000 or more were included to ensure a certain level of precision. The completeness of core indicator measurement and the geographical representativeness of the surveys were assessed. FINDINGS: Twenty six surveys met the inclusion criteria. Among the WHO-recommended core behavioural risk factor indicators, those monitoring tobacco use were measured completely in national and subnational surveys; those assessing dietary intake and physical inactivity were measured only in subnational surveys, and those assessing alcohol use were not measured at all. Among WHO-recommended core biological risk factors, only body mass index was measured in national and subnational surveys, whereas blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and blood cholesterol were measured only in subnational surveys. Due to the use of non-standard indicator definitions...