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Técnicas e procedimentos para a auto-suficiência econômica de organizações não-governamentais: um estudo de caso com organizações de microcrédito brasileiras; Techniques and Conducts to an Economic Self-Suficiency in Non Governamental Organizations: study case related to Brazilian Microcredit Organizations

Carneiro, Murilo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/09/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
O desemprego é dos grandes problemas enfrentados pela sociedade moderna e, sabidamente, os microempreendimentos têm um potencial maior para gerar empregos que as grandes organizações. Um dos principais problemas enfrentados pelos microempreendimentos é a falta de recursos financeiros para implementar seus investimentos. A fim de suprir essa demanda latente, várias ONGs foram fundadas com o intuito de lhes fornecer empréstimos de pequeno valor, conhecidos por microcréditos. Dentre os desafios que as ONGs de microcrédito devem superar para se consolidar no mercado, está a busca pela auto-suficiência econômica. Por meio de um estudo de caso com dezessete organizações brasileiras associadas à ABCRED, conclui-se que há indícios que algumas técnicas e seus respectivos procedimentos têm mais relevância para que se alcance a auto-suficiência. O estudo também apresenta diversas informações sobre as ONGs de microcrédito brasileiras que participaram do estudo de caso, permitindo que se tenha uma noção das características e peculiaridades desse segmento de atividade.; Unemployment is one of the most serious problem faced by the present society and the microundertakings, well embased, own a higher potencial to generate employment if compared with large organizations. The privation of financial resoucers is one of the basic problems faced by the microundertakings...

Validação do poder discriminante das classificações de operações de crédito das instituições financeiras brasileiras; Validation of the power of scores of discriminant credit operations of financial institutions Brazilian

Annibal, Clodoaldo Aparecido
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/04/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.95%
Um sistema de classificação de risco de crédito eficiente é fundamental para que uma instituição financeira (IF) possa realizar uma boa gestão de risco de crédito. No Brasil, as operações de crédito de IFs devem ser classificadas em nove níveis de risco que, em ordem crescente, são: "AA", "A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G" e "H". As provisões para créditos de liquidação duvidosa, um dos maiores itens de despesa das IFs, são constituídas em função destas classificações. Também no Novo Acordo de Capital da Basiléia as classificações de risco de crédito são relevantes na determinação do capital exigido das IFs para absorver perdas inesperadas em seus portfolios de crédito. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar, no período compreendido entre dezembro de 2005 e dezembro de 2006, o comportamento dos sistemas de classificação das IFs brasileiras no que diz respeito a um dos principais aspectos a serem observados nos procedimentos de validação de sistemas de classificação de risco de crédito, a saber, o poder discriminante do sistema. A literatura sobre validação de sistemas de classificação de crédito define poder discriminante como sendo a habilidade do sistema em diferenciar, ex ante, casos "bons" de casos "ruins". Existem diversos métodos para realizar a medição do poder discriminante. Neste estudo...

Estudos empíricos sobre microeconomia bancária no Brasil; Studies on microeconomics of banking applied to Brazil

Ozawa, Celina Yumiko
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/12/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
Este estudo está organizado em três capítulos, independentes entre si e que possuem em comum o fato de serem trabalhos aplicados de microeconometria bancária e de utilizarem dados desagregados do Banco Central do Brasil. Os dois primeiros estão relacionados com crédito e o terceiro com os submercados de agências bancárias. Os determinantes da demanda por financiamento de automóveis é o tema central do primeiro capítulo. Usando dados da Central de Risco de Crédito do Banco Central, estima-se as elasticidades da demanda por empréstimo com respeito à taxa de juros e à duração. Os tomadores respondem tanto a uma variável quanto a outra, indicando que não somente a duração, mas a taxa de juros também é importante na decisão de financiamento de automóveis. O segundo capítulo também usa os dados da Central de Risco (na modalidade capital de giro) e trata da relação entre a taxa de juros e a garantia, e da importância do tempo de relacionamento nos contratos de crédito. As estimativas fornecem evidências de que a taxa de juros e a garantia são negativamente relacionadas, e este resultado é consistente com a literatura que dá suporte ao sorting-by-private information paradigm. Adicionalmente, um tempo de relacionamento mais longo contribui para mitigar os efeitos da assimetria informacional. No terceiro capítulo...

Gerenciamento de acervo através da tecnologia RFID: a experiência da Biblioteca Universitária da UFLA

Fonte: Universidade Federal de Lavras Publicador: Universidade Federal de Lavras
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
This experience report shows the implementation of the RFID system at the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA). Due the growing expansion of courses and number of students from UFLA, the University Library realized the need to modernize and streamline the services offered to the public. To achieve this goal, a security, identification and management project for the library resources was developed, using the Radio Frequency Identification technology, also known by the acronym RFID. The deployment of this system was structured into 4 phases and involved: (a) survey of RFID technology suppliers; (b) acquisition of tags and RFID equipment; c) magnetization of the library’s collection; and (d) training of the library employees and users. Due the use of RFID technology, there has been an improvement in the safety and management of the library’s collection, the loan service has been optimized by the auto loan, the library’s users have become more independent and it has been possible to allocate some employees to perform other tasks. In this article, we share the experience of the University Library of UFLA in the deployment of this system and also present the benefits, problems and evaluation of the RFID technology.

Macroprudential Regulation of Credit Booms and Busts : The Experience of the National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia

Celeska, Frosina; Gligorova, Viktorija; Krstevska, Aneta
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.16%
This paper provides an overview of the macroprudential measures undertaken by the National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia to prevent further deterioration of the systemic risk and to promote resilience of the banking system. The measures were generally aimed at addressing the time dimension of the systemic risk and were intended to protect the banking system against the increase of credit risk arising from the credit boom. The paper also outlines the future challenges facing financial regulation and supervision, as well as the most important quantitative and qualitative impacts of the utilized macroprudential measures.

Monetary Policy, Structural Break, and the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Thailand

Hesse, Heiko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.95%
The paper studies monetary policy and the monetary transmission mechanism in Thailand in light of the Asian crisis in 1997. Existing studies that adopt structural vector auto-regression (VAR) approaches do not give a clear and agreed-upon view how monetary shocks are transmitted to the Thai economy that is subject to structural breaks. This study explicitly models a pre-crisis and post-crisis cointegrated VAR model. This analysis supports arguments that the trinity of open capital markets, pegged exchange rate regime, and monetary policy autonomy is inconsistent in the pre-crisis period. In contrast, the model points to an effective monetary policy in the post-crisis period. Further, the author analyzes the common driving trends of the model.

Global Development Finance 2008 : The Role of International Banking, Volume 1. Review, Analysis, and Outlook

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This report is comprised of two volumes. Global Development Finance (GDF) 2008 volume one provides analysis of key trends and prospects, including coverage of the role of international banking in developing countries. Volume two provides summary and country tables contain statistical tables on the external debt of the 134 countries that report public and publicly guaranteed debt under the Debtor Reporting System (DRS). It also includes tables of selected debt and resource flow statistics for individual reporting countries as well as summary tables for regional and income groups. It is the culmination of a year-long process that requires extensive cooperation from people and organizations around the globe-national central banks, ministries of finance, major multilateral organizations, and many departments of the World Bank.

Armenia : Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy, Volume 2. Comparison with Good Practices

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.43%
The objectives of the diagnostic review of consumer protection and financial literacy for Armenia are: (i) to assess the existing financial consumer protection framework, by reviewing laws, regulations and practices in Armenia compared to international good practices; and (ii) to provide recommendations on ways to improve consumer protection and financial literacy in Armenia. The review provides a detailed assessment of the institutional, legal and regulatory framework in four financial segments, namely banking, non-bank credit institutions, securities, and insurance. Many key steps have already been taken in financial consumer protection, especially at the regulatory and institutional levels. Regarding the institutional framework, adequate resources need to be allocated to the consumer protection team and modern supervisory tools should be made available. Consumer organizations should be strengthened and motivated to assist the Central Bank of Armenia (CBA) in market monitoring. In terms of consumer disclosure...

Paraguay Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy : Volume 2. Comparison with Good Practices

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.41%
This review of the Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy Framework (CPFL) in Paraguay was undertaken in response to a request for technical assistance in this area made by the Central Bank of Paraguay (BCP). The objectives were: (i) to assess the existing consumer protection and financial literacy framework by reviewing laws, regulations, and actual practices in Paraguay, and comparing it with international good practice; and (ii) to provide recommendations on ways to improve the level of financial consumer protection and financial literacy in the country. The Diagnostic Review provides a detailed assessment of the institutional, legal and regulatory framework for consumer protection in four segments of the financial sector: (i) banks and finance companies, (ii) financial cooperatives, (iii) insurance companies, and, - in reflection of the important role they play in Paraguay - (iv) non-bank agents and mobile payment providers. Its findings and recommendations cover six thematic areas: (i) Institutional Arrangements...

Customer Management in SME Banking

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.41%
The objective of the Customer Management in Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Banking Guide is to share and disseminate critical information for managing the SME client relationship, allowing banks that already serve the SME sector to move beyond lending to better capture the SME Banking opportunity. This Guide leverages IFC s SME Banking Diagnostic framework used to assess SME banking operations, as well as its SME Banking Benchmarking exercise used to analyze good practice business models. In addition, the Guide provides practical examples of customer management focused on SME banking from a number of featured financial institutions. Such examples may serve to highlight a good practice, or may simply serve to illustrate a learning experience. Financial institutions featured in this publication include Bankinter, DBS Bank, Diamond Bank, Garanti Bank, ICICI Bank, Banco Santander, and Türk Ekonomi Bankasi (TEB). Additional SME banking experiences are drawn from a variety of other banks and are cited throughout the text as appropriate. Profitably serving the SME segment requires a tailored customer management approach that will allow banks to answer these four questions: How can banks better understand SME customer needs? How can they match diverse needs with the right offer...

Getting Financed

World Bank Group; World Wildlife Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.26%
Like many organizations working in the tourism sector, the authors believe that private sector investment is one of the key drivers of development. Over the past few years, the private sector has been a central innovator in forging business partnerships with local communities for tourism purposes around the world. Having demonstrated some extraordinary development results, joint ventures increasingly need to demonstrate their commercial viability over the long term. Moving out of the donor and grant-funded sphere and into the competitive capital markets in search of finance has posed a significant challenge. The author have observed that many community joint venture partnerships contain high levels of risk and that this risk usually is too high for banks to assume. The author have learned that this risk could be reduced to more acceptable levels in a number of ways, notably through better market-orientation and a more competitive enabling environment. This guide provides nine tips for all actors involved in this arena, including governments, the private sector, communities, banks, and nongovernmental organizations, to reduce risk and greatly improve joint ventures access to commercial finance.

El papel del juez y del legislador ante los retos de la ejecución hipotecaria. Reflexiones en torno al auto de la audiencia provincial de navarra 111/2010 de 17 de diciembre

Lacasta Goñi, Miren; Pantaleón Prieto, Marta; Pedroza Fernández, Luis Alberto
Fonte: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; Dykinson Publicador: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; Dykinson
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.31%
El Auto de la AP de Navarra 111/2010, de 17 de diciembre, recae en un procedimiento de ejecución hipotecaria. El acreedor se adjudica el inmueble por un valor que no cubre la totalidad de su crédito. ¿Debe poder reclamarse en estos casos el resto del importe en virtud de la responsabilidad patrimonial universal del deudor? Esta situación plantea especiales problemas en el marco de la actual crisis socioeconómica y ha suscitado un gran debate en la doctrina, la jurisprudencia y la opinión pública. Opinamos que, en nuestro Estado de Derecho, juez y legislador deberían dar respuestas diferentes a la pregunta planteada.; On December 17th 2010, the “Audiencia Provincial de Navarra” decreed the foreclosure of a mortgage. In this case, as in many others, after the property was sold and the proceeds repaid to the lender, a tranche of the loan still remained unpaid. The problematic question this essay addresses is whether he, the lender, should be entitled to claim the remainder of the loan, as is currently the case under Spanish Law. These not at all uncommon facts raise controversial and interesting issues, especially in the context of the current socio-economic crisis. They thus evoke great debate among scholars, judges and the public itself. In our opinion and according to the rule of law principle...

Sistema de Gestión y control de préstamo de libros en bibliotecas para teléfonos móviles Android

Fombellida Moreno, Javier
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.5%
El objetivo de este proyecto es desarrollar un sistema de control y gestión de préstamos mediante dispositivos móviles mediante la creación de un servicio web, el cuál es el encargado de controlar todo el sistema. El problema que este proyecto persigue, es modernizar los sistemas de préstamos tradicionales, de forma que un usuario pueda auto-prestarse un libro en una biblioteca con un dispositivo móvil. A la hora de desarrollar este proyecto se ha realizado un estudio extendido de las tecnologías que se han utilizado, así como aplicaciones similares que existan, y en si mismo, se ha realizado un estudio del sistema y de toda la funcionalidad necesaria que se va a requerir para cumplir todos los objetivos del proyecto. En las siguientes páginas se van a detallar las tecnologías utilizadas así como los diferentes objetivos que se han marcado, seguido de un análisis y diseño del sistema. Por ultimo se va a detallar la forma de implementar el diseño realizado. Por lo tanto, se plantea crear dos aplicaciones móviles para dos tipos de usuarios que son el administrador y el usuario final al que se le presta el libro. Estas aplicaciones serán manejadas por su tipo de usuario correspondiente de forma que a la hora de realizar alguna acción...

Financial Inclusion in Brazil : Building on Success

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.47%
The development of a far reaching correspondent banking network is one of the key factors behind Brazil's success story in financial inclusion. Between 2005 and 2011, the number of correspondents approximately doubled to more than 160,000. The Central Bank encouraged financial institutions to reach out to more distant consumers and to communities where they had not previously been active, including lower income areas, through partnerships with a variety of retail establishments including some with public ties such as the post office network and lottery agencies. Regulators have gradually reduced restrictions on correspondent banking, such as individual approval processes, in response to early successes with this program. The legal framework also facilitated healthy expansion by putting the onus on regulated institutions to train and monitor their correspondents. This Technical Note (TN) does not include an analysis of the causes underlying Brazil's continued high credit cost but many of the issues discussed here may be contributing factors. These include the lack of savings and related dependence on credit which may reduce price elasticity in credit markets; information asymmetries which add to the cost of credit evaluation and increase risk for lenders; and competition issues (as with mobile payments and the so-called no-surcharge-rule on payment methods). The Aide Memoire for the FSAP mission provides further discussion of these important issues.

The Chrysler Effect : The Impact of the Chrysler Bailout on Borrowing Costs

Anginer, Deniz; Warburton, A. Joseph
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.16%
Did the U.S. government's intervention in the Chrysler reorganization overturn bankruptcy law? Critics argue that the government-sponsored reorganization impermissibly elevated claims of the auto union over those of Chrysler's other creditors. If the critics are correct, businesses might suffer an increase in their cost of debt because creditors will perceive a new risk, that organized labor might leap-frog them in bankruptcy. This paper examines the financial market where this effect would be most detectible, the market for bonds of highly unionized companies. The authors find no evidence of a negative reaction to the Chrysler bailout by bondholders of unionized firms. They thus reject the notion that investors perceived a distortion of bankruptcy priorities. To the contrary, bondholders of unionized firms reacted positively to the Chrysler bailout. This evidence suggests that bondholders interpreted the Chrysler bailout as a signal that the government will stand behind unionized firms. The results are consistent with the notion that too-big-to-fail government policies generate moral hazard in the credit markets.

Garanti Bank SA : Combining SME Banking Excellence with a Proposition for Women Entrepreneurs in Turkey

McCartney, Andrew; Tilyayev, Ulugbek
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
Garanti Bankasi (Garanti) is a regional pioneer in offering products and services specifically targeted towards women entrepreneurs as a specific market segment. In 2006, Garanti created a women's entrepreneur support package specifically designed to help Turkey s women entrepreneurs to establish and grow their businesses. This was followed up with the creation of Women Entrepreneur Gatherings, in 2007, which provided additional training and educational tools and new networking opportunities. And in 2013, Garanti began collaborating with Bogazici University, a top university in Turkey, to offer an intensive mini-MBA training program for women entrepreneurs. Garanti also launched Turkey s first Woman Entrepreneur of the Year award, an initiative that showcases women who have successfully grown their business, encouraging more women entrepreneurship in the country. This case study (the study ) explores how Garanti leaders decided to focus on women entrepreneurs. It also documents and analyzes the bank s efforts to build a profitable and sustainable women in business franchise...

Islamic Republic of Pakistan : Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy, Volume 2. Comparison with Good Practices

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: PSD, Privatization and Industrial Policy
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.26%
The diagnostic review for Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy (CPFL) provides a detailed assessment of the institutional, legal, and regulatory framework in four segments of the financial sector: banking, microfinance, securities, and insurance. The review took place in response to a request for World Bank technical assistance in the field of financial consumer protection made by Pakistan's Ministry of Finance (MoF), the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP), and the Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP). The review consists of two volumes. Volume one summarize the key findings and recommendations of the review and Volume two presents a detailed assessment of each financial segment compared against the good practices for financial consumer protection. The key findings and recommendations in volume one cover five areas: (i) the institutional, legal, and regulatory framework for consumer protection; (ii) disclosure; (iii) business practices; (iv) dispute resolution mechanisms; and (v) financial education. Priority recommendations are outlined in table one; a more detailed list of recommendations is included in annex one.

Assimetria de informação, intermediação financeira e o mecanismo de transmissão da política monetária : evidências teóricas e empíricas para o canal do empréstimo bancário no Brasil (1995-2006)

Denardin, Anderson Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.16%
Nesta tese investigaremos se os bancos, em geral, e se os empréstimos bancários, em particular, desempenham alguma função especial na economia brasileira, especificamente, no que se refere em explicar a performance da atividade produtiva. Procuramos averiguar as evidências teóricas e empíricas que visam desvendar a relevância do canal do crédito, em especial, do canal do empréstimo bancário, enquanto um canal adicional para a transmissão da política monetária. Isso é feito levando em conta o ambiente institucional em que a economia brasileira está inserida, cujo caráter específico, supõem-se de grande relevância para o melhor entendimento das reais condições apresentadas pelo mercado financeiro e, em especial, pelo mercado de crédito. A hipótese central considerada é que, além do impacto promovido pelo tradicional canal da taxa de juros (custo do capital) - através do efeito que exerce sobre as obrigações (depósitos) dos intermediários financeiros e sobre as decisões de investimento dos agentes - a política monetária afeta a atividade econômica através do mercado de crédito, em especial, através do canal do empréstimo bancário, devido ao efeito que exerce sobre a composição dos ativos das instituições financeiras...

Self control and debt theory and evidence /

Ata Nurcan, Husniye Nur
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 ENG; ENG
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16.74%
Descripció del recurs: el 04/11/2010; A la hora de comprar a crédito, la evidencia empírica así como la meramente anecdótica sugieren que los consumidores se centras más en la cuantía de los pagos mensuales que en el tipo de interés del préstamo o la cantidad total que han de pagar. Los dos primeros capítulos de esta tesis exploran el papel del los problemas de auto control a la hora de explicar este comportamiento. Nuestro análisis se basa en el supuesto de descuento hiperbólico (Laibson (1997)) como forma de modelar el auto control. En el primer capitulo de la tesis consideramos un modelo de equilibrio parcial en el que la duración del préstamo y el tipo de interés están fijos y los consumidores pueden elegir cuánto tomar prestado y como repartir la devolución del préstamo entre los diferentes periodos. Mostramos que tener problemas de auto control implica mayores niveles de endeudamiento y que ser consciente de estos problemas o poseer la capacidad de comprometerse a un curso de acción reduce la presión sobre esos niveles. También demostramos que tener problemas de auto control y ser naif sobre ellos puede inducir una preferencia por los préstamos que requieren mayores cuotas hacia el final de su duración. El segundo capitulo analiza la interacción entre un prestamista monopolístico y un consumidor con descuento cuasi hiperbólico en un modelo en el que asumimos cuotas mensuales idénticas y permitimos al consumidor elegir entre distintas duraciones del préstamo. Obtenemos que mientras el tipo de interés del préstamo permanezca por encima del tipo de interés de mercado...

Simulation Study on Exchangeability and Significant Test on Survey Data

Cao, Yong
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.16%

The two years of Master of Science in Statistical and Economic Modeling program is the most rewarding time ever in my life. This thesis acts as a portfolio of project and applied experience while I am enrolled in the Master of Science in Statistical and Economic Modeling program. This thesis will summarize my graduate study in two parts: Simulation Study of Exchangeability for Binary Data, and Summary of Summer Internship at Center for Responsible Lending. The project of Simulation Study of Exchangeability for Binary Data contains materials from a team project, which jointly performed by Sheng Jiang, Xuan Sun and me. Abstracts for both projects are below in order.

(1) Simulation Study of Exchangeability for Binary Data

To investigate tractable Bayesian tests on exchangeability, this project considers special cases of nonexchangeable random sequences: Markov chains. Asymptotic results of Bayes factor (BF) are derived. When null hypothesis is true, Bayes Factor in favor of the null goes to infinity at geometric rate (true odds is not one half). When null hypothesis is not true, Bayes Factor in favor of the null goes to 0 faster than geometric rate. The results are robust under misspecifications. Simulation studies are employed to see the performance of the test when the sample size is small...