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Language attrition: uma sinopse das principais questões de investigação

Flores, Cristina
Fonte: CEHUM Publicador: CEHUM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
This paper aims to give a broad overview of the research field of language attrition. The main goal is to present a brief summary of the most important research questions in this domain: why does attrition occur and what is lost in attrition situations? In the first part the most important factors that influence the attrition process are discussed: the role of age, the influence of the second language, the type and amount of input that the attriter receives, his attitudes and motivations. The second part is dedicated to the linguistic features involved: which linguistic domains are affected by language loss? Within this issue, some research findings concerning loss in the lexical, morphological and syntactic domain are presented.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Granular Attrition due to Rotary Valve in a Pneumatic Conveying System

Yao, Jun; Wang, Chi-Hwa; Lim, Wee Chuan
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 47101 bytes; application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%
The rotary valve is a widely used mechanical device in many solids-handling industrial processes. However, it may also be responsible for most of the attrition effects occurring in a typical process. In this study, the attrition effects occurring in a rotary valve operating as a stand-alone device and as part of a pneumatic conveying system were investigated. In the former case granular attrition was carried out at three different rotary valve speeds and the experimental results obtained were found to be in good agreement with the Gwyn correlation. In the latter case three typical air flow rates were used in the pneumatic conveying system. The size distribution of the attrition product obtained at the lowest air flow rate used was not adequately described by the Gwyn correlation. The attrition process and mechanisms involved were analysed and the minimum size of the attrition product obtained from both modes of operations was found to be similar.; Singapore-MIT Alliance (SMA)

The effect of household characteristics on living standards in South Africa 1993 - 98: a quantile regression analysis with sample attrition

Maitra, Pushkar; Vahid, Farshid
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 864502 bytes; 350 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper examines whether the dismantling of apartheid has resulted in the improvement in the standard of living for the vast majority of South Africans. The study is based on a panel data set from the Kwazulu-Natal province. Despite the best efforts of the interview team, the attrition rate in this panel is around 16%. We find that household income and size in 1993, several community characteristics and survey quality in 1993 significantly affect the probability of attrition. We use weighted quantile regressions to examine the distribution of standards of living, which corrects for the potential bias arising from non-random sample attrition. Our results show that there has been a significant increase in the spread of the distribution of household expenditure of the Non-White households residing in Kwazulu-Natal province. We argue that the stretch to the right of the upper tail of distribution can be attributed to significant increase in returns to primary and high school education, while movement to the left of the lower quantiles can be associated with the increase in the proportion of female headed households and household size.; no

The future nursing workforce in Australia: Baseline data for a prospective study of the profile, attrition rates and graduate outcomes in a contemporary cohort of undergraduates

Gaynor, L.; Gallasch, T.; Yorkston, E.; Stewart, S.; Bogossian, F.; Fairweather, C.; Foley, D.; Nutter, H.; Thompson, J.; Stewart, L.; Anastasi, J.; Kelly, J.; Barnes, L.; Glover, P.; Turner, C.
Fonte: Australian Nursing Federation Publicador: Australian Nursing Federation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
Objective To gather data from ten universities across two Australian states in order to: provide a descriptive demographic profile of undergraduate Australian nursing students; provide baseline data for a prospective analysis of attrition within undergraduate nursing programs; and to facilitate student recruitment into a prospective cohort study to examine graduate outcomes. Methods Approval was sought from each Head of School to enable recruitment of undergraduate nursing students as a sub‑sample of an ongoing large scale longitudinal e‑cohort study involving Australian, New Zealand and United Kingdom nurses and midwives (http://www.e‑cohort.net). Each nursing school nominated a contact person to become part of the research team; provide aggregate data on the quantity and demographic profile of currently enrolled undergraduate nursing students; and to facilitate recruitment of students into the cohort study. Results Two of the ten universities could not supply any demographics of their undergraduate nursing student body and one university could not provide data on year levels. The remaining data revealed an interesting demographic profile in the following areas: the age range of students across both states was 17 to 68 years...

Second language attrition: are different nouns equally likely to be lost?

Marefat, Hamideh; Rouhshad, Amir
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.33%
This study aimed at investigating L2 attrition of vocabulary in adult Iranian learners of English at four different proficiency levels. A 40-item vocabulary test measured their productive and receptive vocabulary in and out of context for concrete and abstract nouns with different frequencies. After an interval of 3 months, subjects took the same test. The results revealed that there is no significant difference between the attrition rate of concrete and abstract nouns across different proficiency levels. Moreover, advanced learners who did not participate in classes and had no exposure to English throughout the 3 months interval demonstrated a significant amount of attrition in noncontextualized nouns. Besides, those learners who continued participating in English classes demonstrated attrition in receptive vocabulary but advanced non-continuing learners underwent attrition in productive vocabulary. Additionally, both continuing and noncontinuing learners except advanced ones underwent attrition in low-frequency nouns. These findings suggest that certain words are more vulnerable to attrition and that even learners who are still in the process of learning English are susceptible to it.; Este estudio tiene como objeto investigar la p??rdida de vocabulario en la segunda lengua en aprendices iran??es adultos de ingl??s que se encuentran en cuatro niveles distintos de competencia. Un test de 40 ??tems med??a su vocabulario (nombres concretos y abstractos con diferente frecuencia) a nivel de producci??n y recepci??n dentro y fuera de un contexto. Despu??s de un intervalo de 3 meses...

Second language attrition and activation: Are multiple intelligence profiles and semantic categorization playing a role?

Rouhshad, Amir
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.13%
This study aimed to investigate the spread of activation and part-set effect in attrited semantic sets, the relationship between multiple intelligences and second language attrition, and the differences between high and low attriters??? intelligence levels in 54 lower-intermediate and beginner participants after 1 to 35 years of disuse. After identifying attrited words through a 133-word checklist of 12 semantic sets, translation and match-making tasks were devised to investigate the spread of activation. The results showed that the spread of activation is not significantly different between the recognition and production levels or across proficiency levels, and that it is unrelated to the length of disuse. Furthermore, this study shows that the part-set effect exists in semantic sets, so it could be hypothesized that the quick relearning of languages might be due to the spread of activation. Additionally, a significant relationship was found between musical intelligence and the amount of attrition in low attriters, as well as a significant difference between high and low attriters in terms of intrapersonal intelligence. Thus, these might be a few of the variables that are key in reducing the amount of attrition in this study.; Este estudio se propone investigar la extensi??n de la activaci??n y el efecto de los grupos sem??nticos...

A study of promotion and attrition of mid-grade officers in the U.S. Marine Corps: are assignments a key factor?

Morgan, Jerry R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 75 p. : col. ill.
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This study analyzes the relationship between selection to major in the Marine Corps, and the survival of midgrade officers to the promotion point of major, by investigating the effects of billet assignments. Specifically, this study looks at the influence of the percentage of time spent in the Fleet Marine Forces (FMF), the percentage of time spent in primary military occupation (PMOS) billet assignments, and the effect of having served in combat, recruiting, security forces, joint, and drill field duties. Models were formulated using groundwork established in previous promotion, retention, and attrition studies. Assignment variables were then introduced to the models. To account for officers' choice for continued service vice forced attrition, the sample was restricted to officers who had attained five years of service. Probit regression was used to find the influence of career assignments on the probability of selection; Heckman's correction was used to control for self-selection bias; and, Cox proportionalhazard regression was used, utilizing the same assignment factors, to find the influence of assignments on the likelihood of attrition. The findings indicated that FMF and PMOS ratios above 60 percent had a negative effect on promotion and retention. Also indicated was that time spent outside the PMOS...

Analysis of the attrition reporting system in Navy technical training

Firehammer, Robert L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: vii, 65 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.13%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This study examines the ARB decision and reporting process of the seven A Schools and the Advanced Electronics School from the Service School Command in San Diego, Ca. Three research questions are addressed: (1) Do differences exist between the schools' ARB procedures which could promote either inaccurate or decreased standardization in attrition reporting?; (2) How much agreement is there among the ARB members concerning the evaluation of student factors for a given type decision?; (3) What other information can be captured that sheds light on the attrition process? The results from the study revealed several items: (1) ARB procedures differ across schools; (2) There is moderate to high levels of agreement concerning the value certain student factors bring to the decision process; and (3) Some of the ARB members perceive that the command policy has changed from producing high quality technicians to reducing their school's attrition rates.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Could realistic job previews reduce first-term attrition?

Brose, Gary D.
Fonte: Monterey, California ; Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California ; Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: ix, 91 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis examines whether realistic job previews (RJPs) can be used to reduce the first-term attrition of Navy recruits. The methodology consists of a literature review in which previous RJP studies are examined for their relevance to military accession and training processes. The military's use of educational screens, trends and costs of first-term attrition, and labor market theories of turnover are discussed to provide a common frame of reference within which to view the person-job matching process and its consequences. In general, the literature suggests that RJPs are effective in reducing turnover and could result in long-term savings in recruiting and training sailors. However, there are also costs associated with the use of RJPs. These costs are primarily short-term, and include funding for development and implementation, as well as the potential for increasing recruiting costs through lower rates of job acceptance. Consideration must be given to whether the benefits of reduced attrition outweigh these costs. Recommendations for further research and a conceptual framework for an RJP are also provided.; http://www.archive.org/details/couldrealisticjo00bros; Lieutenant Commander...

The effect of different enlistment ages on first-term attrition rate

Seker, Erdal; Ibis, Emrah
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.35%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This thesis analyzes the effects of different enlistment age on the first-term attrition for U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps enlisted personnel with non-prior service and prior service that attrited between fiscal years of 1995 and 2013. Two separate probit models were used to analyze attrition behavior. The first model was formed to analyze the effect of age at entry on the first-term attrition for four forces. The second model focuses on the attrition based on the character disorder and analyzes the effect of different enlistment ages on this attrition. Both attrition models are conditional and analyzing attrition behavior for four terms'at six months, between 6 and 12 months, between 12 and 24 months, and between 24 and 45 months. The independent variables for the two models types included demographic variables, such as Black, White, Hispanic, other race, and unknown; education level; different enlistment age dummies between 18 and 42; female or male; and AFQT Cat. Unemployment rates by states were included in the regressions. The study concluded that enlistment ages do significantly affect the attrition of enlisted personnel. This effect varies across different time periods'the first six months...

An examination of the effects of first-term career progression on Navy A-School attrition and the military experiences of A-School students after attrition

McNamara, David Lee; Laury, James Mitchell
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 90 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.13%
Approved for public release: Distribution is unlimited; The objective of this study is to contribute to the Navy's knowledge and understanding of high A-School attrition. The study organized the available data concerning attrition in the Navy's training programs, evaluated its significance, and offers prospective solutions. The significance of the data of personnel characteristics may then aid the Navy in selecting those personnel with a higher propensity to succeed; http://archive.org/details/examinationofeff00mcna; Lieutenant, United States Navy; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Delayed Entry Program attrition : a multivariate analysis

Ogren, Margery A.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 96 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited.; This thesis uses binary logit models to examine the effects of personal background characteristics and local area economic conditions on an individual's likelihood to leave the Delayed Entry Program (DEP). The DEP allows individuals to contract for enlistment up to one year prior to starting basic training. Between fiscal years 1991 and 1996, over 1.1 million individuals joined the DEP for all four military branches, yet 167,134 (15 percent) never entered basic training. The Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) provided a data file that included all individuals who joined the DEP between October 1989 and June 1996. The DMDC raw data file was merged with county-level unemployment data provided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. DEP attrition was modeled as a function of gender, educational level, dependent status, Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) score, race, ethnicity, moral waiver status, and county-level unemployment rates. Results show that a person's likelihood of leaving the DEP is affected most strongly by gender and educational level. Women and high school seniors are more likely than men and high school graduates to leave the DEP. County-level unemployment rates have a significant...

Analysis of Navy Delayed Entry Program and recruit training center attrition; NA

Knox, Bryant W.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 57 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
Attrition from the Navy's Delayed Entry Program (DEP) and attrition from Bootcamp are costly phenomena. The Commander of Naval Recruiting (CNRC) and Center for Naval Analysis (CNA) have periodically modeled both DEP and Bootcamp attrition with logistic regression. This thesis analyzes current data provided by CNRC and CNA. Both DEP and Bootcamp attrition are modeled using logistic regression and tree-structured classification. For DEP, the logistic model indicates that individuals who accept incentives prior to enlistment (i.e., Navy College Fund or Enlisted Bonus Program) and individuals who change enlistment programs (while in DEP) have a significantly lower propensity to attrite from DEP than others. The DEP tree model indicates that an individual with a low Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) score, no high school diploma and a long scheduled DEP duration has a 97% probability of attriting. For Bootcamp, the logistic model indicates that individuals who use tobacco products, individuals who do not exercise, and individuals that have criminal waivers have a significantly higher propensity to attrite than others. The Bootcamp tree model shows that smokers and individuals with low AFQT scores have higher propensities to attrite than others. The models are tested using random partitions and this analysis shows that all of the models predict poorly at the individual level...

Study of attrition documentation at the U.S. Navy recruit training command

Eckenrode, John E.; Condon, Nancy K.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 167 p. : ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
This thesis examines the administrative separation process and attrition documentation as well as the characteristics of recruits who attrite from the U.S. Navy's Recruit Training Command (RTC). A random sample of 754 "retained files" from Customer Service Desk RTC was examined for attrition documentation and the information obtained was compared with attrition documentation contained in the Corporate Enterprise Training Activity Resource System (CETARS). The comparison is used to determine the accuracy of CETARS in documenting the reasons for medical and psychiatric attrition and its relationship to Separation Program Codes (SPD) listed on the DD 214 discharge form. The results indicate that CETARS is 95.2 percent accurate in documenting medical reasons for attrition and 94.2 percent accurate for psychiatric reasons. It was unclear whether a relationship existed between SPD codes and CETARS in documenting attrition. The specific reasons for psychiatric attrition include the following: Personality Disorder, Adjustment Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In addition to the analysis of attrition documentation, we analyzed data on 216,028 recruits entering RTC between fiscal year 2000 and 2004 to determine the predictors of non-psychiatric attrites versus psychiatric attrites. Logit regression found that the predictors of both types of attrition were similar.

Effects of moral conduct waivers on U.S. Army First-Term enlistment attrition

Distifeno, Christopher W.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 79 p. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%
This study evaluates the U.S. Army's policy on granting moral conduct waivers and the effects of moral conduct waivers on the quality of service. The analysis investigates the wartime levels of recruits who were approved for different categories of conduct waivers. Research conducted includes multivariate analysis in the form of ordinary least squares regression models and probit regression models. This study employs U.S. Army MEPCOM data obtained from the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) for soldiers who enlisted between 2000 and 2006. I analyze first-term attrition as a function of age, sex, race, AFQT, rank, bonus size, education, prior service, youth program participation (such as JROTC), contract length, and all sub-categories of conduct waivers. In addition, I analyze attrition at 180 and 365 days for all cohorts. The study also includes a survival analysis to investigate whether conduct waivers affect the duration of survival during the first enlistment contract. The analysis reveals that the comparison of attrition rates between soldiers with wavers and those without does not remain constant and depends on when attrition is measured. At the beginning of the term, conduct waiver soldiers attrite at lower rates than non-waiver soldiers. However...

Analysis of recruit attrition from the Navy's delayed entry program and recruit training command

Neuhalfen, Jon K.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xxvi, 295 p. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.33%
This thesis analyzes demographic and assignment factors associated with recruit attrition from the U.S. Navy's Delayed Entry Program (DEP) and Recruit Training Command (RTC). These factors include education credentials, enlistment programs, and women in traditional ratings. The Navy currently screens applicants using three qualification "tiers" based on education credentials. Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores are cross-referenced with education tier to create the Navy's Recruit Quality Matrix, which determines enlistment eligibility. The analysis uses the PRIDE database, provided by Commander, Navy Recruiting Command. Trend analyses are used to identify significant changes in enlistment and attrition behavior for recruits who joined from fiscal years 1998 through 2005. Probit regression models are also constructed using these data to identify differences in attrition probabilities. Results show that education credential, time in DEP, gender, marital status, AFQT score, enlistment program, and Navy Recruiting District are significant factors affecting DEP attrition. Analyses of RTC data indicate similar factors are significant when predicting RTC attrition. A tool for screening applicants based on education credential...

An analysis of marine corps Delayed Entry Program (DEP) attrition by high school graduates and high school seniors

Baykiz, Murat Sami.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 90 p. : ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%
This study investigates the effects of personal background characteristics on USMC Delayed Entry Program (DEP) attrition for high school senior and high school graduate recruits and recommends policy changes to decrease DEP attrition rates. Logistic regression models to explain DEP attrition are estimated using data from the USMC Total Force Data Warehouse for all high school graduates and high school seniors who enlisted between fiscal years 2000 and 2005. DEP attrition is regressed on fiscal year, recruiting district, time spent in DEP, separation month, age, gender, AFQT score, race, marital status and dependent status, day of enlistment, and unemployment rate. Model results show that high school seniors are more likely to be DEP losses than high school graduates. Female recruits, single recruits and recruits without dependents show higher attrition rates, as do those with lower AFQT scores. Recruits who enlisted in eastern recruiting districts, who spent longer time in DEP, and who enlisted on the last day or in the last week of the month are more likely to attrite. High School seniors are most likely to attrite in March and April. Unemployment rates were negatively associated with high school graduates' DEP attrition...

Atrito de particulas solidas de cloreto de sodio (NaCl) em leite fluidizado gasoso; Attrition of solid particles of sodium chlroide (NaCl) in gas-fluidized bed

Valdirene O. Platen Valdo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/07/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.35%
O atrito de sólidos particulados é um problema enfrentado pelas indústrias que utilizam leito fluidizado parcialmente ou na totalidade de seus processos, tais como petroquímicas e farmacêuticas. Tal atrito é caracterizado pela ruptura ou desgaste involuntário das partículas durante a manipulação, processamento e armazenamento dos sólidos, sendo este manifestado pela formação de poeira e degradação do produto. Existem três tipos de atrito, definidos como: mecânico, térmico e químico. Neste trabalho, estudou-se o atrito mecânico de partículas sólidas de Cloreto de Sódio (NaCl), pertencentes a categoria D da classificação de Geldart em um leito fluidizado gasoso. O equipamento experimental utilizado foi composto de uma coluna de acrílico tridimensional de 0,092 m de diâmetro interno, acoplada a um sistema de coleta interligado por um ciclone. O material particulado foi caracterizado pelo diâmetro das partículas, massa específica, porosidade e esfericidade, e analisado através de técnicas de peneiramento, picnometria gasosa, porosimetria de mercúrio e a razão entre os diâmetros inscritos e circusncrito, respectivamente. Um planejamento fatorial completo 23 foi aplicado com o objetivo de verificar a influência de diferentes variáveis sobre a taxa de atrito. As variáveis estudadas foram: o diâmetro médio da partícula...

Losing a language in childhood : a longitudinal case study on language attrition

Flores, Cristina
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
Published online: 30 July 2014; This paper is based upon a longitudinal study of L2 attrition in a bilingual child who grew up in an L2 migration background (Germany) and moved to the country of origin (Portugal) at the age of nine, experiencing a dominance shift from the L2 to the L1. The study aims to analyze the effects of language loss in L2 German. Data collection started 3 weeks after the child's immersion in the Portuguese setting and ended 18 months later. Results show first effects of language attrition after 5 months of reduced exposure to German; 18 months later the informant showed severe word retrieval difficulties and was unable to produce complete sentences in her L2. The findings thus confirm the conclusions of other studies on child language attrition, which attest to strong effects of attrition when the loss of contact with the target language occurs in childhood.

Attrition of english as a consequence of the influence of spanish

Medina Moreno, Sergio A.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
The linguistic process by which the mother tongue is deteriorated has been called attrition. This study analyzes those factors that have been traditionally associated as cause of L1 attrition. By means of two different measurement tests, our participants’ production of language is studied in detail. In addition, a thorough analysis of their personal and professional background is provided in order to verify or reject those factors, with special emphasis on those that seem to prevent the occurrence of the attrition process.; El proceso lingüístico por el que la lengua materna se deteriora se conoce como attrition. En este estudio se analizan los factores que tradicionalmente se han asociado como causantes de attrition de la primera lengua. Mediante dos pruebas diferentes, la producción de lenguaje de los participantes de este estudio es analizada al detalle. Además de ello, un exhaustivo análisis de las trayectorias personales y profesionales de cada uno de los participantes ha permitido confirmar o descartar dichos factores, con especial hincapié a aquellos que parecen prevenir la aparición de este proceso.