Página 1 dos resultados de 385 itens digitais encontrados em 0.133 segundos

Determinants and Dynamics of Schooling and Child Labor in Bolivia

Grigoli, Francesco; Sbrana, Giacomo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
This paper investigates the determinants of primary school enrollment, attendance and child labor in Bolivia from 1999 to 2007. The analysis also aims at identifying the substitution and complementary relationships between schooling and working. Although enrollment rates show a significant improvement, lack of attendance remains an issue. The empirical results reveal that the increase in enrollment is led by indigenous children and those living in urban areas. Moreover, contrary to common belief, being extremely poor and indigenous are the main determinants of school attendance. Although extremely poor children increased their school attendance, they were not able to reduce child labor. However, for indigenous children school attendance and child labor were substitutes, increasing schooling and reducing child labor.

Income Shocks and Adolescent Mental Health

Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
In this paper, the authors investigate the effect of positive income shocks on the mental health of adolescent girls using experimental evidence from a cash transfer program in Malawi. They find that the provision of monthly cash transfers had a strong beneficial impact on the mental health of school-age girls during the two-year intervention. Among baseline schoolgirls who were offered unconditional cash transfers, the likelihood of suffering from psychological distress was 38 percent lower than the control group, while the same figure was 17 percent if the cash transfers offers were made conditional on regular school attendance. The authors find no impact on the mental health of girls who had already dropped out of school at baseline. The beneficial effects of cash transfers were limited to the intervention period and dissipated quickly after the program ended.

Education and Conflict Recovery : The Case of Timor Leste

Justino, Patricia; Leone, Marinella; Salardi, Paola
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
The Timor Leste secession conflict lasted for 25 years. Its last wave of violence in 1999, following the withdrawal of Indonesian troops, generated massive displacement and destruction with widespread consequences for the economic and social development of the country. This paper analyzes the impact of the conflict on the level and access to education of boys and girls in Timor Leste. The authors examine the short-term impact of the 1999 violence on school attendance and grade deficit rates in 2001, and the longer-term impact of the conflict on primary school completion of cohorts of children observed in 2007. They compare the educational impact of the 1999 wave of violence with the impact of other periods of high-intensity violence during the 25 years of Indonesian occupation. The short-term effects of the conflict are mixed. In the longer term, the analysis finds a strong negative impact of the conflict on primary school completion among boys of school age exposed to peaks of violence during the 25-year long conflict. The effect is stronger for boys attending the last three grades of primary school. This result shows a substantial loss of human capital among young males in Timor Leste since the early 1970s...

Time Allocation in Rural Households : The Indirect Effects of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs

Hasan, Amer
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Conditional cash transfers are being heralded as effective tools against the intergenerational transmission of poverty. There is substantial evidence on the positive effects of these transfers. Analysts are only now beginning to investigate the indirect effects these programs generate. This paper examines the effect of a gender-targeted conditional cash transfer program on the time allocation of mothers in rural program-eligible households. Using a fixed effects difference-in-differences estimator, the author finds that program eligibility is associated with an increase of 120 minutes of housework per typical school day by mothers of eligible children in the stipend district when compared with mothers of eligible children in the non-stipend district. There is a 100-minute reduction in the amount of time mothers report spending on children s needs. The intent-to-treat effect of the program suggests no change in the amount of time spent on paid work or sleep.

Gender-targeted Conditional Cash Transfers : Enrollment, Spillover Effects and Instructional Quality

Hasan, Amer
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
This paper considers the effects of a gender-targeted conditional cash transfer program for girls in classes 6 to 8. It finds that the program is successful in increasing the enrollment of girls in classes 6 to 8 as intended. It also finds evidence to suggest that the program generated positive spillover effects on the enrollment of boys. This success does, however, appear to be poised to come at a cost. The student-teacher ratio in treated districts is also climbing. This suggests that in the absence of active steps to address these increasing student-teacher ratios, instructional quality is likely to suffer. The success of the program appears to be driven by enrollment increases in urban schools. This suggests the need for a reassessment of the targeting criteria in rural schools.

Getting Girls into School : Evidence from a Scholarship Program in Cambodia

Filmer, Deon; Schady, Norbert
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Increasing the schooling attainment of girls is a challenge in much of the developing world. In this study, we evaluate the impact of a program that gives scholarships to girls making the transition between the last year of primary school and the first year of secondary school in Cambodia. We show that the scholarship program increased the enrollment and attendance of recipients at program schools by about 30 percentage points. Larger impacts are found among girls with the lowest socioeconomic status at baseline. The results are robust to a variety of controls for observable differences between scholarship recipients and nonrecipients, to unobserved heterogeneity across girls, and to selective transfers between program schools and other schools. We conclude that there is substantial potential for demand-side interventions in lower-income countries like Cambodia.

International Migration, Economic Development and Policy

Özden, Çağlar; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
This volume reflects the expansion of the World Bank Research Program on International Migration and Development into new substantive and geographic areas. It presents a new global migration database and includes studies of the determinants and impact of return and circular migration, the impact of the flow of ideas on fertility, host country policies and their impact on immigrants, and the impact of international migration and remittances on poverty and other development indicators. The studies cover countries from Latin America, North Africa, South Asia, the South Pacific, and Western Europe, and show that the impact of migration on education and health tends to benefit girls more than boys, that its impact on labor force participation tends to be stronger for women than men, that return migrants tend to do better than non-migrants, and that fertility has tended to decline in countries whose migration has been to the West and has failed to do so in countries whose migration has been to the Gulf. The purpose of the case studies is to illustrate and clarify many theoretical mechanisms and to advance understanding of the impact of different migration policies...

Getting Girls into School : Evidence from a Scholarship Program in Cambodia

Filmer, Deon; Schady, Norbert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
Increasing the schooling attainment of girls is a challenge in much of the developing world. The authors evaluate the impact of a program that gives scholarships to girls making the transition between the last year of primary school and the first year of secondary school in Cambodia. They show that the scholarship program had a large, positive effect on the school enrollment and attendance of girls. Their preferred set of estimates suggests program effects on enrollment and attendance at program schools of 30 to 43 percentage points. Scholarship recipients were also more likely to be enrolled at any scchool (not just program schools) by a margin of 22 to 33 percentage points. The impact of the Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction (JFPR) program appears to have been largest among girls with the lowest socioeconomic status at baseline. The results are robust to a variety of controls for observable differences between scholarship recipients and nonrecipients, to unobserved heterogeneity across girls, and to selective attrition out of the sample.

The Economic Participation of Adolescent Girls and Young Women : Why Does It Matter?

Morrison, Andrew; Sabarwal, Shwetlena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
This note summarizes available research on the impact of schooling and employment of adolescent girls and young women on earnings and poverty reduction, demographic outcomes, child development outcomes, and female empowerment. It identifies key implications of this research for the formulation of public policy.

An Evaluation of the Performance of Regression Discontinuity Design on PROGRESA

Buddelmeyer, Hielke; Skoufias, Emmanuel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
While providing the most reliable method of evaluating social programs, randomized experiments in developing and developed countries alike are accompanied by political risks and ethical issues that jeopardize the chances of adopting them. In this paper the authors use a unique data set from rural Mexico collected for the purposes of evaluating the impact of the PROGRESA poverty alleviation program to examine the performance of a quasi-experimental estimator, the Regression Discontinuity Design (RDD). Using as a benchmark the impact estimates based on the experimental nature of the sample, we examine how estimates differ when we use the RDD as the estimator for evaluating program impact on two key indicators: child school attendance and child work. Overall the performance of the RDD was remarkably good. The RDD estimates of program impact agreed with the experimental estimates in 10 out of the 12 possible cases. The two cases in which the RDD method failed to reveal any significant program impact on the school attendance of boys and girls were in the first year of the program (round 3). RDD estimates comparable to the experimental estimates were obtained when we used as a comparison group children from non-eligible households in the control localities.

Addressing Gender Inequalities in Curriculum and Education : Review of Literature and Promising Practices to Inform Education Reform Initiatives in Thailand

Levtov, Ruti
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
In Thailand and worldwide, despite increases in educational enrollment, rigid gender norms dictating appropriate roles and behaviors contribute to the persistence of the gender inequalities. Since education systems are embedded in the broader social context, they reflect the inequalities that exist in society. The structure and content of schooling, textbooks, curricular choices, sex distribution of teachers and administrators, teacher attitudes and behaviors, classroom and discipline practices, and the presence of violence, reflect discriminatory and harmful social norms about the appropriate roles and opportunities for boys and girls (Connell, 1996, 2000, 2010). At the same time, schools have enormous potential to effect social change, transform gender relations, expanding the range of possibilities for both boys and girls (UNGEI, 2012a). This report provides a brief review of the literature and of interventions to promote gender equity through education in several specific areas: textbooks and curriculum; teacher distribution...

The Resilience of Women in Higher Education in Afghanistan

Kosha, Afifa; Oriya, Spozhmay; Nabi, Tahira; Halim, Sabera; Hofyani, Sohaila; Liwal, Abida; Safi, Najibullah; Sahak, Mohamad Nadir; Noormal, Bashir
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Female access to higher education in Afghanistan is has been and continues to be limited. At the basic education level, the country has made great advances since 2000; it increased access from 900,000 students in 2000, almost all boys, to 6.7 million students in 2009, and girl s enrollment increased from 5,000 under the Taliban to 2.4 million in the same time period (Afghanistan, Ministry of Education 2009-2010). Seventy-one percent are currently enrolled in primary and middle school (Grades 1-9) and 29 percent are enrolled in secondary education (Grades 10-12; Samady 2013). The post-secondary gains for girls have already increased, as 120,000 girls have graduated from secondary school, and 15,000 have enrolled in universities (George W. Bush Institute 2013). Every year, more than 100,000 secondary school graduates write the Kankor, the nationwide higher education entrance exam, but due to insufficient spaces and limited capacity, only about half of those students find a spot at the government universities and colleges (UN Women 2013). Of the total number of university students...

The Spirit of Boldness; Lessons from the World Bank’s Adolescent Girls Initiative

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
The adolescent girl’s initiative (AGI) was motivated by the idea that vocational training and youth employment programs tailored to the needs of girls and young women can improve the economic empowerment and agency. By putting that idea into practice in a number of ways, the AGI pilots are making it possible to learn about the demand for such programs and whether in their current form they are a feasible and (in some cases) cost-effective means of meeting their objectives. Adolescent females in lower-income countries face a difficult environment in their path toward economic empowerment, a critical dimension of adulthood. Females, especially from low-income countries, want to participate in programs to support their economic empowerment. Effective programs shared certain features that made it possible for them to reach adolescent girls and young women and successfully assess and impart the skills that they needed.

The school reentry decision on poor girls: structural estimation and policy analysis using PROGRESA database

Valdés, Nieves
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
In this paper I present a dynamic structural model of girls' schooling choices and estimate it using the Mexican PROGRESA database. This structural approach allows evaluating the efectiveness of several policies to increase school reentry rates for girls in low-income households. To increase school attendance among poor children in developing countries, policy makers have implemented conditional cash transfers programs. Although transfers have been successful in keeping girls at school, they do not increase school attendance among girls who have dropped out of school. Cash transfer programs may fail because most of these poor girls leave school to stay at home helping in housework, rather than working for a salary. Results suggest that effective policies to increase school reentry rates for poor girls are free access to community nurseries and kindergartens, and increasingg the availability of secondary schools.

Knowledge on Fire : Attacks on Education in Afghanistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Education Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
This study was conducted in a desire to better understand the nature of threats and attacks on education and offer recommendations for improving the ability of stakeholders to mitigate, and whenever possible, prevent, future attacks, with particular regard to the participation of communities in that process. Communities in Afghanistan are largely involved in the management and daily life of schools, as well as in their protection. Specifically, through an analysis of the nature of attacks and possible ways to mitigate risks by increased community involvement in protection of schools, the report seeks to contribute to: 1) increased security for students, teachers and other education personnel, 2) increased community involvement in and responsibility for school management, and 3) improved enrollment of students. Girls' education is clearly targeted more than boys; findings from this research indicate that the main perpetrators against the education of girls are the armed insurgency or internal community members. The roles that respondents see for the communities are numerous...

Measuring the economic gain of investing in girls : the girl effect dividend

Chaaban, Jad; Cunningham, Wendy
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
Although girls are approximately half the youth population in developing countries, they contribute less than their potential to the economy. The objective of this paper is to quantify the opportunity cost of girls' exclusion from productive employment with the hope that stark figures will lead policymakers to reconsider the current underinvestment in girls. The paper explores the linkages between investing in girls and potential increases in national income by examining three widely prevalent aspects of adolescent girls' lives: early school dropout, teenage pregnancy and joblessness. The countries included in the analysis are: Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Paraguay, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. The authors use secondary data to allow for some comparability across countries. They find that investing in girls so that they would complete the next level of education would lead to lifetime earnings of today's cohort of girls that is equivalent to up to 68 percent of annual gross domestic product. When adjusting for ability bias and labor demand elasticities...

Incentivizing Schooling for Learning : Evidence on the Impact of Alternative Targeting Approaches

Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Filmer, Deon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
This paper evaluates a primary school scholarship program in Cambodia with two different targeting mechanisms, one based on poverty level and the other on baseline test scores ("merit"). Both targeting mechanisms increased enrollment and attendance. However, only the merit-based targeting induced positive effects on test scores. The paper shows that the asymmetry of response is unlikely to have been driven by differences between recipients' characteristics. Higher student and family effort among beneficiaries of the merit-based scholarships suggest that the framing of the scholarship mattered for impact. The results suggest that in order to balance equity and efficiency, a two-step targeting approach might be preferable: first, target low-income individuals, and then, among them, target based on merit.

Social Exclusion and the Gender Gap in Education

Lewis, Maureen; Lockheed, Marlaine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Despite a sharp increase in the share of girls who enroll in, attend, and complete various levels of schooling, an educational gender gap remains in some countries. This paper argues that one explanation for this gender gap is the degree of social exclusion within these countries, as indicated by ethno-linguistic heterogeneity, which triggers both economic and psycho-social mechanisms to limit girls' schooling. Ethno-linguistic heterogeneity initially was applied to explaining lagging economic growth, but has emerged in the literature more recently to explain both civil conflict and public goods. This paper is a first application of the concept to explain gender gaps in education. The paper discusses the importance of female education for economic and social development, reviews the evidence regarding gender and ethnic differences in schooling, reviews the theoretical perspectives of various social science disciplines that seek to explain such differences, and tests the relevance of ethnic and linguistic heterogeneity in explaining cross-country differences in school attainment and learning. The study indicates that within-country ethnic and linguistic heterogeneity partly explains both national female primary school completion rates and gender differences in these rates...

The Effect of Commercial Sanitary Pad Use on School Attendance and Health of Adolescents in Western Kenya

Stopford, Amy Louise
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%

This mixed-method cross-sectional study evaluated the effect of commercial sanitary pads on school attendance and symptoms of vaginal infections in rural Kenyan adolescents aged 11-18. It also provides contextual information that situates the data gathered on school attendance and vaginal infections in the broader experience of girls managing their menstruation. A sequential design was used for this study with a total of 8 qualitative focus groups and a quantitative survey. A total of 482 girls were surveyed, with 321 who were currently attending school and 151 who had dropped out of school. Qualitative data from focus groups was analyzed using applied thematic analysis, while the effect of commercial sanitary pads as well as the effect of using other items on school attendance and symptoms of vaginal infections was estimated using logistic regression analysis. Overall, girls reported that menstruation negatively affects their experience at school and in the classroom and causes an array of negative emotions. Girls also conveyed having to often leave school to change or bathe due to menstrual leaks and missing class lessons as a result. Poor concentration in class attributed to menstrual pain and worry over potential leaks was also mentioned. Lastly...

Educational effects of widening access to the academic track: a natural experiment

Machin, Erin; McNally, Sandra
Fonte: Centre for Economics of Education, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economics of Education, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2007 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
It is difficult to know whether widening access to schools which provide a more academically-orientated, general education makes a difference to average educational achievement. Although, there has been a shift in this direction in many OECD countries, reforms have been difficult to evaluate because they are often accompanied by other important changes to the educational system or because they have been introduced at the same time across regions. However, the consequences of such reform are deeply controversial and very much a current policy issue. In particular, contenders argue that an increase in access to the ‘academic’ track harms the quality of education for everyone (through contextual effects) without improving the prospects of those enabled to attend the more academic track. In this paper, we make use of a unique natural experiment to identify the net effect of widening access to schools which provide a more academically-orientated, general education on overall education outcomes. The reform consists of widening access to the more academic track within one specific province (Northern Ireland) at a particular point in time. This is the only differential change that happens across the regions considered – England and Northern Ireland – which otherwise have a similar curriculum with the same national examination for students at age 16 and 18. The reform enabled a very significant increase in the number of Northern Irish pupils who could attend the more academic track (‘grammar schools’) at the end of primary school...