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In vitro evaluation, in vivo quantification, and microbial diversity studies of nutritional strategies for reducing enteric methane production

Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Louvandini, Helder; Sallam, Sobhy Mohamed Abdallah Hassan; Silva Bueno, Ives Claudio da; Mui, Tsai Siu; Oliveira Figueira, Antonio Vargas de
Fonte: SPRINGER; DORDRECHT Publicador: SPRINGER; DORDRECHT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.75%
The main objective of the present work was to study nutritive strategies for lessening the CH4 formation associated to ruminant tropical diets. In vitro gas production technique was used for evaluating the effect of tannin-rich plants, essential oils, and biodiesel co-products on CH4 formation in three individual studies and a small chamber system to measure CH4 released by sheep for in vivo studies was developed. Microbial rumen population diversity from in vitro assays was studied using qPCR. In vitro studies with tanniniferous plants, herbal plant essential oils derived from thyme, fennel, ginger, black seed, and Eucalyptus oil (EuO) added to the basal diet and cakes of oleaginous plants (cotton, palm, castor plant, turnip, and lupine), which were included in the basal diet to replace soybean meal, presented significant differences regarding fermentation gas production and CH4 formation. In vivo assays were performed according to the results of the in vitro assays. , when supplemented to a basal diet (Tifton-85 hay sp, corn grain, soybean meal, cotton seed meal, and mineral mixture) fed to adult Santa Ines sheep reduced enteric CH4 emission but the supplementation of the basal diet with EuO did not affect ( > 0.05) methane released. Regarding the microbial studies of rumen population diversity using qPCR with DNA samples collected from the in vitro trials...

"Produção de óleo diesel limpo a partir do gás natural: estudo de viabilidade técnico-econômica para a instalação de uma planta GTL (gas-to-liquids) no Brasil"; Production of liquid hydrocarbons employing Natural Gas: a study of the technical and economical feasibility of a GTL plant in Brazil

Callari, Roberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2007 PT
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45.97%
CALLARI. R. Produção de óleo diesel limpo a partir do gás natural: estudo de viabilidade técnico-econômica para a instalação de uma planta gtl (gas-to-liquids) no Brasil. 2007. 84 p. Tese de Mestrado ? Programa Interunidades de Pós-Graduação em Energia. Universidade de São Paulo. A tecnologia de produção de combustíveis sintéticos iniciou seu desenvolvimento a partir de 1919, na Alemanha, tendo o carvão mineral como insumo para a gaseificação. Este processo conhecido como Gas-To-Liquids (GTL) é uma transformação química que gera produtos líquidos e estáveis à temperatura e pressão ambientes. Essa transformação pode ser realizada no próprio local de produção do gás, evitando investimentos e problemas ambientais na construção de gasodutos. No Brasil, o gás natural apresenta crescente incremento da sua produção, e forte aumento das suas reservas, tanto associado quanto não-associado ao petróleo. Dessa forma, como as estruturas de plataformas normalmente se localizam em áreas remotas, torna-se custoso o aproveitamento desse gás que é liberado pela produção do óleo, sendo o mesmo queimado ou ventado. Devido às restrições estabelecidas pela legislação ambiental, a queima do gás natural nas plataformas de produção passa a ser problemática e crítica. Este trabalho visa avaliar a economicidade da implantação de uma planta para a produção de GTL no Brasil...

Composição química, produção in vitro de gases da fermentação entérica e ácidos graxos de cadeia curta de gramineas forrageiras tropicais; Chemical composition, in vitro rumen gas production, short chain volatile fatty acids of tropical forage grasses

Nguluve, Damião Wetimane
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/12/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
A análise de alimentos para ruminantes consite na caracterização da sua composição química, que varia em função da edafoclimatologia e manejo agrotécnico ao longo do tempo. O manejo de desfolhação (28 e 42 dias), o genótipo e estações constituem fonte de variação da degradabilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS), acúmulo de gases no rúmen (PG), metano (CH4) e do perfil dos ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (AGCC), com reflexos na eficiência da produção animal. A introdução dessas práticas no cultivo dos gêneros Brachiarias e Cynodon pode disponibilizar forragem de boa qualidade nutricional, com baixos teores de fibra. As dietas baseadas nas gramíneas tropicais são ricas e fibra e trazem controvérsias nos sistemas de produção de ruminantes, pela emissão de dióxido de carbono (CO2) e de CH4 entéricos, com efeito de estufa (GEE) na atmosfera, proposto para reduzir pela comunidade internacional. Contudo, a mitigação dos GEE exige a quantificação da sua produção por área, animal e por ano. Econmicamente, o CH4 enterico é uma perda de 2-12% de energia que poderia ser convertida em produto animal. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever e explicar os efeitos da frequência de desfolhação (28 e 42 dias)...

Methane production of two roughage and total mixed ration as influenced by cellulase and xylanase enzyme addition

Gemeda,Belete Shenkute; Hassen,Abubeker
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
In recent decades supplementation of animal feeds with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes has substantially improved digestibility and animal performance. However, information related to associated methane production is limited and inconsistent. This study evaluated the effect of cellulase and xylanase enzymes on in vitro methane production of Eragrostis curvula hay, maize (Zea mays) stover and a total mixed ration (TMR) at seven levels of the two enzymes. Feed samples were incubated for 2, 12, 24 and 48 h in an in vitro batch culture with buffer and rumen fluid, and fibrolytic enzymes. Gas production was measured using a pressure transducer connected to a data tracker, while methane gas was analysed using a gas chromatograph which was calibrated with standard CH4 and CO2. Increases in the level of enzyme application resulted in increases in gas volume, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, dry matter (DM) disappearance and associated increases in methane production. The linear increase in percentage and volume of methane production in tandem with increases in level of enzyme application might be due to increased fermentation, and organic matter degradability that resulted in a shift in VFA production towards acetate. Considering the efficiency of DM and neutral detergent fiber degradation and production of associated VFA with levels of enzymes...

Variability in gas production by Escherichia coli in enrichment media and its relationship to pH.

Meadows, P S; Anderson, J G; Patel, K; Mullins, B W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1980 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
Variability in gas production in multiple subcultures of Escherichia coli was assessed in two selective enrichment media and in lactose peptone water. Considerable variability occurred with all media at 37 and 44 degrees C. Addition of buffer increased gas production and decreased variability. The relationships between pH, growth, and gas production were complex. In buffered media, viable counts increased by 269 x 10(6) to 382 x 10(6)/U of pH fall, whereas in unbuffered media, they increased by 9.45 x 10(6) to 30.37 x 10(6)/U of pH fall. In buffered and unbuffered media, pH fell as gas production rose. However, variability in gas production among individual subcultures was not associated with changes in pH.

Inserção de fornecedores locais como fonte de desempenhos em custos de transação e legitimidade: estudo de caso na cadeia produtiva do petróleo e gás do Rio Grande do Norte

Costa, Antônio Rufino da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração; Políticas e Gestão Públicas; Gestão Organizacional Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração; Políticas e Gestão Públicas; Gestão Organizacional
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
The inclusion of local suppliers in production chains has considerable impact on its performance, but most notably in its main actors. The results of this process may be of different kinds and can be analyzed from economic or institutional approaches. This study aimed to verify the existence of different performances of Petrobras due to the inclusion of local suppliers in the oil and gas production chain in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, from the viewpoints of transaction costs and the Institutional Theory. In order to this, were made the characterization of the PROMINP, the description of its actions and results, the mapping of its institutional context of reference, and identification of results obtained by Petrobras in terms of transaction costs and legitimacy. The theoretical framework is based on authors dealing with industrial concentration, as like Marshall, Krugman, Porter and Schmitz, from the sociological perspective of neoinstitucional theory, as like DiMaggio and Powell and Scott and Meyer, and transaction costs, as like Williamson. This is a qualitative research, with data collection done by consulting secondary fonts and semi-structured interviews with nineteen actors of three groups, namely: actors involved in actions of the program...

Vietnam : Framework for Thermal BOT Tenders and Strategy for Gas Coordination and Harmonization with Market Roadmap, Volume 1

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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45.84%
The purpose of this Volume 1 report is to explore how development of the gas andelectricity sectors can be better coordinated within this dynamic environment. In particular,this report aims to: Briefly outline the gas resources and developments in Vietnam, and describe the current institutional arrangements for the gas sector and how they relate to overall gas and electricity planning; Identify key gas sector issues as they relate to gas and electricity sector planning in general and BOT electricity generation project development, and in particular identify the development and operating risks for a BOT electricity generation project developer and suggest mitigation measures for these risks ;Suggest mechanisms to improve gas and electricity planning coordination. Present a case study that illustrates some of the gas and electricity planning issues and how these would be addressed if the suggested planning changes were implemented. This assignment has been undertaken during a period of unprecedented change in Vietnam. The electricity sector is part way through the complex process of introducing a market. In global world energy markets...

Cameroonian LP Gas Sector Study

Belgedj, Mourad; Merklein, H.A.; Nkoto-Angoula, Joël
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
This study is a small-scale follow-up to an earlier World Bank study that analyzed the market failure of LPG in Nigeria and developed a roadmap to develop the use of LPG in that country to its full potential. Given the success of the Nigerian LPG work, it seemed obvious that other oil and gas-producing countries could benefit from the insights gained in Nigeria. Not unlike Nigeria, Cameroon has a thriving oil industry, yet it continues to flare most of its associated gas, burning more than enough LPG in the process to meet all its domestic needs and leave more for exports, while at the same time, it is importing LPG at world prices. Clearly, ifany country qualifies for an LPG policy review, it is Cameroon.

Associated Gas Utilization via miniGTL

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
The flaring of natural gas produced as part of crude oil production operations is a well-known practice which increasingly becomes a non-acceptable option around the globe. In 2010, the Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership (GGFR) at the World Bank reported that nearly 5TCF (trillion standard cubic feet or 135 billion cubic meters) of associated gas (AG) was flared worldwide, equal to 20 percent of US consumption emitting 320MM tons of unnecessary CO2 into the atmosphere. This paper provides a high-level overview of the status of gas conversion technologies that are developed for, or are applicable to, the monetization of associated gas. Gas conversion technology is but one out of about half a dozen options to manage or utilize AG such as gas re-injection, power production, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. More than 15 technologies were evaluated analyzing the overall technology approach, the strengths and weaknesses of the technology, commercial readiness and technical risk along with product acceptance issues and high level economic attractiveness. The gas volume application range was from sub 1 MMscfd (million standard cubic feet per day) to a maximum of 25MMscfd with the sweet spot at 15MMscfd. The in depth evaluation was based on both publicly available information from websites...

Associated Gas Monetization via miniGTL

Fleisch, Theodor Hermann
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
The large scale conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels (GTL) and chemicals (GTC), collectively called ‘miniGTL’ for convenience in this report - has been practiced for decades. For instance, a world scale GTL plant can convert 300 MMscfd of gas into 30,000bpd of diesel or gasoline while a world scale methanol plant produces about 2500tpd of methanol from about 75 MMscfd of gas. Over the last few years, miniGTL technologies have been developed to monetize smaller volumes of gas (less than 25 MMscfd) and thereby offer opportunities to extinguish flares. The engineering of such plants focuses on modular design, simplicity, automation and robustness of operation. In our first study reported in February 2012, a small number of companies with commercially viable options were identified, while others needed more time for RD to demonstrate their technologies. Now, two years later, Oberon Fuels, Velocys and CompactGTL are on the brink of multiple commercial plants. The progress of all companies reviewed in our first report will be discussed. This report contains the most comprehensive study of miniGTL technologies available today. Over 24 companies have been reviewed and are described in some detail. The goal of this study is the identification of companies that provide relatively low risk...

Azerbaijan : Issues and Options Associated with Energy Sector Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
The energy sector plays a significant role in the overall economy of Azerbaijan, as in other transition countries, and the World Bank's experience suggests that without energy sector reform and financial viability the transition process is much more difficult and delayed. The objective of this report, therefore, is to outline the issues and options facing Azerbaijan as it develops and implements its agenda for reform of the energy sector in order to inform the country's dialogue on this subject and the associated decision making process. The report focuses on seven key topics: Oil Revenue Management; The Petroleum Sector; The Gas Sector; The Power Sector; The Regulatory Environment; Energy and the Environment; And Social Issues in the Energy Sector. Each section of the report can be read as a stand-alone document; as a result there is some duplication between sections. Each section includes a summary followed by a more detailed discussion of the issues and options. Moreover three appendices are included. The first discusses the factors influencing oil prices, the second outlines the liberalization process and the regulatory models adopted for the gas sector in a number of locations and the third summarizes The State Program for the Development of the Fuel and Energy Sector of the Azerbaijan Republic (2005 - 2015).

Optimal Transition from Coal to Gas and Renewable Power under Capacity Constraints and Adjustment Costs

Lecuyer, Oskar; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
This paper studies the optimal transition from existing coal power plants to gas and renewable power under a carbon budget. It solves a model of polluting, exhaustible resources with capacity constraints and adjustment costs (to build coal, gas, and renewable power plants). It finds that optimal investment in renewable energy may start before coal power has been phased out and even before investment in gas has started, because doing so allows for smoothing investment over time and reduces adjustment costs. Gas plants may be used to reduce short-term investment in renewable power and associated costs, but must eventually be phased out to allow room for carbon-free power. One risk for myopic agents comparing gas and renewable investment is thus to overestimate the lifetime of gas plants -- e.g., when computing the levelized cost of electricity -- and be biased against renewable power. These analytical results are quantified with numerical simulations of the European Commission's 2050 energy roadmap.

Yemen : A Natural Gas Incentive Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
Yemen is planning to export gas through Yemen Liquefied Natural Gas (YLNG) starting from 2009. Yemen is also aiming to develop the domestic gas market, in particular gas-to-power. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) export revenue and domestic gas sales are expected to partially offset the decline in crude oil revenue from currently producing fields. The development of a gas sector has the potential to substantially contribute to Yemen's economic growth and fiscal revenue generation. Because of the high risk and considerable investment involved in developing a gas sector, attracting foreign capital and expertise will be essential. To this end, in addressing the public interest and developing the preferred policies, Yemen should ensure that decisions on project development and technologies will be based on their economic merits, and gas will be allowed to find its highest value market.

Harnessing African Natural Gas : A New Opportunity for Africa's Energy Agenda?

Santley, David; Schlotterer, Robert; Eberhard, Anton
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.89%
Sub-Saharan Africa's persistent power shortages act as a severe constraint on its economic and human development. Over the last several years, a series of major offshore gas discoveries in Mozambique and Tanzania have rekindled interest in expanding the use of natural gas to address the continent's power shortages. Once thought of as a Nigeria-only story, gas-to power in Sub-Saharan Africa is now being considered in a continent-wide context, both as a supplement to Africa's abundant hydropower resources and as a replacement for more carbon intensive coal and liquid fuels. But the concentration of gas resources in just a few countries and the virtual absence of gas transportation infrastructure create economic challenges to the wider adoption of gas as a power generation fuel, particularly in smaller countries that cannot achieve economies of scale in gas production and transportation. As a result, the timeline between the discovery of gas and its commercialization is often measured in decades. This study examines the economic conditions facing policy makers...

Regulatory Reform in Mexico's Natural Gas Industry : Liberalization in the Context of a Dominant Upstream Incumbent

Rosellon, Juan; Halpern, Jonathan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
The natural gas industry combines activities with natural monopoly characterisitics with those that are potentially competitive. Pipeline transport and distribution, which have natural monopoly characterisitcs, require regulation of price and non-price behavior. Production is a contestable activity, but in a few countries (including Mexico) it remains a state monopoly. Gas marketing is also contestable, but the presence of a dominant, upstream, vertically integrated incumbent may pose significant barriers to entry. Market architecture decisions--such as horizontal structure, regional development, and the degree of vertical integration--are also crucial. The authors report that Mexico has undertaken structural reform in the energy sector more slowly than many other countries, but it has introduced changes to attract private investment in natural gas transport and distribution. These changes were a response to the rapid growth in demand for natural gas (about 10 percent a year) in Mexico, which was in turn a response to economic development and the enforcement of environmental regulations. The new regulatory framework provides incentives for firms to invest and operate efficiently and to bear much much of the risk associated with new projects. It also protects captive consumers and improves general economic welfare. The continued vertical integration of the state-owned company Pemex and its statutory monopoly in domestic production posed a challenge to regulators. Their response in liberalizing trade...

Regional Gas Trade Projects in Arab Countries, Volumes 1 and 2

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
Arab countries hold about 29 percent of the world's proven gas reserves, but every country (except Qatar and Algeria) is short of the gas supply needed to meet its current and projected demand. The rapid growth in gas demand is mostly a consequence of a sharp increase in electricity consumption. Gas trade in the Arab world has been dominated by the objective of exporting gas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to points in Asia, Europe, and North America. Gas trade within the region is limited to rather small volumes, moved from Algeria to Tunisia and Morocco; from Egypt to Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon; and from Qatar to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) - all through pipelines. The shortage of gas in the Arab countries has become more pronounced, justifying the higher gas prices needed to secure imported gas or to encourage domestic gas production. Such changes in the landscape provide an impetus for the Arab world to optimize the region's gas resources, at least partly on the basis of meeting growing regional demand. The objective of this study is to assist the attempt by: (i) identifying the opportunities for gas trade through cross-border gas pipelines and LNG; (ii) assessing the economic and political aspects of the identified projects; (iii) presenting financing and implementation schemes that utilize the synergy between the public and private sector in project formulation and development; and (iv) reviewing the legal...

Vietnam - Gas Sector Development Framework : Final Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Vietnam's gas sector is at a critical point. Vietnam's gas industry, from the producing field to the end-user, is already a vital component of the nation's energy economy and has the potential for major growth. Successes in the past decade have created a strong prospective demand for gas. However, Vietnam has begun to experience gas shortages. If the gas sector is to meet the rising demand for gas, there are challenges that must be addressed promptly. If certain key decisions are not made soon, these gas shortages can be expected to worsen with potentially serious economic impacts. To achieve its stated objectives for developing national gas resources, Vietnam must seek to create a 'moving train' of projects that will convert gas resources into proven reserves and production. It must also stimulate investment in the development of the requisite pipeline infrastructure as well as incentivize investment in gas consuming loads downstream such as power plants. And this will require gas pricing in consuming sectors (particularly the electricity sector) to be appropriately linked with gas pricing in the upstream gas exploration and production sector. Much remains to be done if Vietnam is to realize the potential it sees in its gas resources. This report proposes a vision...

Review of the Master Plan for Gas Development in Southern Vietnam

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
This report is prepared under contract to the World Bank as part of a review of PetroVietnam's (PV's) Gas Master Plan (GMP) for Southern Vietnam for the period 2006-2015, with an orientation to 2020. The review is to consider, in particular, the realism of the Master Plan, whether it represents the best use of resources both natural and financial and the sustainability of the plan in the context of development in Southern Vietnam. It should review constraints and opportunities and identify any shortcomings which are critical to achievement of the GMP. This Workshop Version Report has been prepared following the receipt of comments on a previous Inception Report from the World Bank and Vietnam's Ministry of Industry (MOI) and is an updated version of that report.

Economics and Politics of Shale Gas in Europe

Chyong, Chi Kong; Reiner, David M.
Fonte: International Association for Energy Economics Publicador: International Association for Energy Economics
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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45.87%
This is the accepted manuscript. The final version will be available from the IAEE at http://www.iaee.org/en/publications/eeeparticle.aspx?id=80.; In the wake of the dramatic growth in shale gas production in the United States, interest in shale gas exploration in Europe has been driven primarily by concerns over industrial competitiveness and energy security. A number of studies have been carried out to understand the success factors underpinning the US shale gas revolution and how this success could be replicated in Europe. Most of these studies focus on the macroeconomic and energy market impact of a possible shale gas production in Europe. These studies are in general sceptical about the prospects of shale gas development relative to other gas supply options to Europe. By considering the other options available in greater detail and exploring the stochastic nature of shale gas exploration and production as they apply to production economics, we conclude that this scepticism may be overstated. Apart from political opposition that has shut down shale gas exploration in a number of European member states because of concerns over environmental risks, in some countries notably the UK, the combination of political support and a large...

An Assessment of the Potential Costs and Benefits to New Jersey from Shale Gas Extraction in Pennsylvania and an Examination of Cost Mitigation Strategies

Melillo, Jacqueline
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' Project
Publicado em 29/09/2011 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Shale gas extraction in the United States has increased considerably over the last three years. President Obama and many Republican and Democratic members of Congress hail this increase as vital to energy security and a substantial step toward energy independence. Concurrently, numerous environmental organizations have voiced concerns about the effects shale gas extraction has on water resources and air quality. The Marcellus Shale, which underlies much of the Northeast, is a rock formation that has become a major source of shale gas. Pennsylvania, in particular, has seen shale gas extraction increase from 9,800,000 Mcf (thousand cubic feet) in 2008 to 271,800,000 Mcf in the six month period between July 2010 and December 2010, the latest time period for which data is available. Production in Pennsylvania is projected to increase even more in future years. New Jersey has no substantial shale gas plays, but it abuts the Marcellus Shale deposit, and is downwind (especially during the winter) and downstream from shale gas development in Pennsylvania. To date, no studies examining the economic and environmental benefits New Jersey will realize, or the environmental costs New Jersey will incur as a result of this shale gas extraction...