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Lipoxin A(4) attenuates zymosan-induced arthritis by modulating endothelin-1 and its effects

CONTE, F. P.; MENEZES-DE-LIMA JR., O.; VERRI JR., W. A.; CUNHA, F. Q.; PENIDO, C.; HENRIQUES, M. G.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.36%
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) is a lipid mediator involved in the resolution of inflammation. Increased levels of LXA(4) in synovial fluid and enhanced expression of the formyl peptide receptor 2/lipoxin A(4) receptor (FPR2/ALX) in the synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis patients have been reported. Endothelins (ETs) play a pivotal pro-inflammatory role in acute articular inflammatory responses. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory role of LXA(4), during the acute phase of zymosan-induced arthritis, focusing on the modulation of ET-1 expression and its effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The anti-inflammatory effects of LXA(4), BML-111 (agonist of FPR2/ALX receptors) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) pre- and post-treatments were investigated in a murine model of zymosan-induced arthritis. Articular inflammation was assessed by examining knee joint oedema; neutrophil accumulation in synovial cavities; and levels of prepro-ET-1 mRNA, leukotriene (LT)B(4), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and the chemokine KC/CXCL1, after stimulation. The direct effect of LXA(4) on ET-1-induced neutrophil activation and chemotaxis was evaluated by shape change and Boyden chamber assays respectively. KEY RESULTS LXA(4), BML-111 and ASA administered as pre- or post-treatment inhibited oedema and neutrophil influx induced by zymosan stimulation. Zymosan-induced preproET-1 mRNA...

Alkaline sulfite/anthraquinone pretreatment followed by disk refining of Pinus radiata and Pinus caribaea wood chips for biochemical ethanol production

Franco, Heriberto; Ferraz, André Luís; Milagres, Adriane Maria Ferreira; Carvalho, Walter de; Freer, Juanita; Baeza, Jaime; Teixeira Mendonca, Regis
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
BACKGROUND: Alkaline sulfite/anthraquinone (ASA) cooking of Pinus radiata and Pinus caribaea wood chips followed by disk refining was used as a pretreatment for the production of low lignified and high fibrillated pulps. The pulps produced with different delignification degrees and refined at different energy inputs (250, 750 and 1600 Wh) were saccharified with cellulases and fermented to ethanol with Saccharomyces cerevisiae using separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) or semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) processes. RESULTS: Delignification of ASA pulps was between 25% and 50%, with low glucans losses. Pulp yield was from 70 to 78% for pulps of P. radiata and 60% for the pulp of P. caribaea. Pulps obtained after refining were evaluated in assays of enzymatic hydrolysis. Glucans-to-glucose conversion varied from 20 to 70%, depending on the degree of delignification and fibrillation of the pulps. The best ASA pulp of P. radiata was used in SHF and SSSF experiments of ethanol production. Such experiments produced maximum ethanol concentration of 20 g L-1, which represented roughly90% of glucose conversion and an estimated amount of 260 L ethanol ton(-1) wood. P. caribaea pulp also presented good performance in the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation but...

Análise farmacogenômica de pacientes submetidos à dupla antiagregação plaquetária; Pharmacogenomics analysis of patients undergoing double platelet antiagregation

Luchessi, André Ducati
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/08/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.47%
O presente estudo avaliou o perfil farmacogenômico de 338 pacientes, sob terapia antiagregante. Os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento prévio com AAS (100mg/dia) e clopidogrel (75mg/dia) por no mínimo cinco dias antes da angioplastia coronária. Os indivíduos com resposta considerada indesejada <30% de inibição de PRU (do inglês, P2RY12 Reaction Unit) para clopidogrel e >550 ARU (do inglês, Aspirin Reaction Unit), foram considerados como não respondedores. As concentrações plasmáticas dos antiagregantes foram determinadas por cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massa do tipo triploquadrupolo (LC-MS/MS). A taxa da inibição da agregação plaquetária foi medida utilizando-se o sistema VerifyNow®. A expressão gênica global das células totais do sangue periférico foi avaliada pela tecnologia de microarranjos de DNA Human Exon ST 1.0 Array. Características genotípicas dos pacientes também foram avaliadas pelo sistema Sequenom®. Assim, foi possível obter como resultados a identificação de 64% e 10% para pacientes não respondedores ao clopidogrel e AAS respectivamente, sendo que para o primeiro foi possível identificar a associação desta não resposta a variáveis clínicas como diabetes (p = 0...

Estudo bioquímico em modelo animal de hiper-homocisteínemia severa : papel protetor do ácido acetilsalicílico

Graeff, Jeferson Scarpari
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.67%
O acúmulo tecidual de homocisteína (Hcy) ocorre na homocistinúria clássica, um erro inato do metabolismo dos aminoácidos. Pacientes afetados por esta doença apresentam alterações neurológicas e cardiovasculares. Os mecanismos pelos quais a Hcy exerce os efeitos neuro e cardiotóxicos ainda não foram totalmente esclarecidos, entretanto, alguns trabalhos mostram que a hiper-homocisteínemia crônica induz estresse oxidativo e altera parâmetros inflamatórios em cérebro e coração de ratos. Por outro lado, o ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS) apresenta ação anti-inflamatória e antioxidante. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do pré-tratamento com AAS sobre parâmetros de estresse oxidativo no coração de ratos submetidos à administração aguda de Hcy. Ratos Wistar de 22 dias receberam pré-tratamento com AAS (100mg/Kg) e/ou solução de bicarbonato de sódio 1,1% (controle) uma vez ao dia pela via intraperitoneal durante 7 dias; no 8º dia receberam uma única injeção subcutânea de Hcy (0,6 μmol /g peso corporal) ou solução de bicarbonato de sódio tamponada. Uma hora após a injeção, os ratos foram mortos e o coração dissecado. Os resultados demonstraram que a administração aguda de Hcy alterou os parâmetros de estresse oxidativo...

Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of UR-12746, a novel 5-ASA conjugate, on acute and chronic experimental colitis in the rat

Gálvez, Julio; Garrido, Margarita; Merlos, Manuel; Torres, Maria Isabel; Zarzuelo, Antonio
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
The present study was undertaken to investigate the intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of UR-12746 on the acute and chronic stages of a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the rat. UR-12746 is a novel, locally-acting compound which combines, through an azo bond, 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) and UR-12715, a potent platelet activating factor (PAF)-antagonist.UR-12746 oral pretreatment of colitic rats (50 and 100 mg kg−1) reduced acute colonic damage when evaluated 2 days after colonic insult.Postreatment for 4 weeks with UR-12746 (50 and 100 mg kg−1) resulted in a faster recovery of the damaged colonic mucosa, which was macroscopically significant from the third week.The intestinal anti-inflammatory effect of UR-12746 was associated with a decrease in leukocyte infiltration in the colonic mucosa, which was evidenced both biochemically, by a reduction in myeloperoxidase activity, and histologically, by a lower leukocyte count after morphometric analysis. This effect was higher than that seen with sulphasalazine, when assayed at the same doses and in the same experimental conditions.Several mechanisms can be involved in the beneficial effects showed by UR-12746: inhibition of leukotriene B4 synthesis in the inflamed colon...

Anti-inflammatory drugs and endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression in murine vascular beds

Mori, N; Horie, Y; Gerritsen, M; Anderson, D; Granger, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.37%
Background—Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterised by an intense infiltration of leucocytes that is mediated by adhesion molecules expressed on the surface of activated endothelial cells. 
Aims—To determine whether drugs used in the treatment of IBD, specifically dexamethasone (DEX), 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), methotrexate (MTX), and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), alter the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ECAMs). 
Methods—The expression of P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular CAM 1(VCAM-1) in different vascular beds of C57Bl/6J mice was measured using the dual radiolabelled monoclonal antibody technique. 
Results—Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elicited a profound increase in the expression of all ECAMs in the mesentery, small intestine, caecum, and distal colon. The LPS induced increase in CAM expression was not significantly affected by prior treatment with either MTX or 6-MP. However, pretreatment with either DEX or 5-ASA significantly attenuated LPS induced increases in expression of P- and E-selectin, and VCAM-1 in the majority of tissues evaluated. DEX also blunted the LPS induced increase in ICAM-1 expression in the caecum and distal colon. DEX...

Antihistamine Pretreatment to Reduce Incidence of Withdrawal Movement After Rocuronium Injection

Lee, Ho Jun; Han, Sung Jin; Kim, Heezoo; Lee, Il Ok; Kong, Myoung Hoon; Kim, Nan Suk; Lim, Sang Ho; Lee, Mi Kyoung
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.99%
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of antihistamine therapy for withdrawal movements caused by rocuronium injection. One hundred seventy one ASA I-II adults undergoing elective surgery were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Patients in the control group (Group C) were premedicated with 2 mL normal saline, and those in the antihistamine group (Group A) were pre-medicated with 2 mL (45.5 mg) pheniramine maleate. After the administration of thiopental sodium 5 mg/kg, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was injected. Withdrawal movements were assessed using a four-grade scale. The administration of antihistamine reveals lower grade of withdrawal movement after rocuronium injection.

Pharmacological intervention against bubble-induced platelet aggregation in a rat model of decompression sickness

Pontier, Jean-Michel; Vallée, Nicolas; Ignatescu, Mihaela; Bourdon, Lionel
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.47%
Decompression sickness (DCS) with alterations in coagulation system and formation of platelet thrombi occurs when a subject is subjected to a reduction in environmental pressure. Blood platelet consumption after decompression is clearly linked to bubble formation in humans and offers an index for evaluating DCS severity in animal models. Previous studies highlighted a predominant involvement of platelet activation and thrombin generation in bubble-induced platelet aggregation (BIPA). To study the mechanism of the BIPA in DCS, we examined the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), heparin (Hep), and clopidogrel (Clo), with anti-thrombotic dose pretreatment in a rat model of DCS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 208) were randomly assigned to one experimental group treated before the hyperbaric exposure and decompression protocol either with ASA (3×100 mg·kg−1·day−1, n = 30), Clo (50 mg·kg−1·day−1, n = 60), Hep (500 IU/kg, n = 30), or to untreated group (n = 49). Rats were first compressed to 1,000 kPa (90 msw) for 45 min and then decompressed to surface in 38 min. In a control experiment, rats were treated with ASA (n = 13), Clo (n = 13), or Hep (n = 13) and maintained at atmospheric pressure for an equivalent period of time. Onset of DCS symptoms and death were recorded during a 60-min observation period after surfacing. DCS evaluation included pulmonary and neurological signs. Blood samples for platelet count (PC) were taken 30 min before hyperbaric exposure and 30 min after surfacing. Clo reduces the DCS mortality risk (mortality rate: 3/60 with Clo...

Antiplatelet pretreatment does not increase hematoma volume in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage

Lauer, Arne; Schlunk, Frieder; Van Cott, Elizabeth M; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Lo, Eng H; Foerch, Christian
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.62%
While oral anticoagulants are associated with greater hematoma expansion and higher mortality rates in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), there is ongoing discussion whether pretreatment with antiplatelet drugs also worsens prognosis. Using an experimental model of ICH, we investigated the effects of antiplatelet pretreatment on hematoma volume and functional outcome. CD-1 mice were treated with acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA, 60 mg/kg per 24 hours), clopidogrel (22.5 mg/kg per 24 hours), or both (ASA+clopidogrel) through drinking water for 3 days (n=20 per group). Thereafter, platelet aggregation was found to be significantly reduced. Untreated mice and mice pretreated with warfarin served as controls. A stereotactic injection of collagenase into the right striatum was used to induce ICH. Twenty-four hours after ICH induction, hematoma volume was measured to be 15.0±4.4 μL in controls, 14.1±5.3 μL in ASA mice, 16.8±5.1 μL in clopidogrel mice, and 16.4±5.1 μL in ASA+clopidogrel animals. These differences were not statistically significant. However, mice pretreated with warfarin revealed largely increased hematoma volumes (25.0±7.4 μL versus controls, P=0.001). Neurologic outcome was not different between antiplatelet-pretreated animals and untreated controls. Our results suggest that plasmatic coagulation rather than platelet function is the most critical element for preventing hematoma expansion in acute ICH. Future therapeutic strategies may take these findings into account.

Long-term aspirin pretreatment in the prevention of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

Akyazi, Ibrahim; Eraslan, Evren; Gülçubuk, Ahmet; Ekiz, Elif Ergül; Çırakli, Zeynep L; Haktanir, Damla; Bala, Deniz Aktaran; Özkurt, Mete; Matur, Erdal; Özcan, Mukaddes
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.16%
AIM: To investigate the effects of long term pretreatment with low-, medium- and high-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) on a model of acute pancreatitis (AP) induced in rats.

Autophagy is required for preconditioning by the adenosine A1 receptor-selective agonist CCPA

Yitzhaki, Smadar; Huang, Chengqun; Liu, Wayne; Lee, Youngil; Gustafsson, Åsa B.; Mentzer, Robert M.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.99%
We have shown that the cellular process of macroautophagy plays a protective role in HL-1 cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion (sI/R) (Hamacher-Brady et al. in J Biol Chem 281(40):29776–29787). Since the nucleoside adenosine has been shown to mimic both early and late phase ischemic preconditioning, a potent cardioprotective phenomenon, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adenosine on autophagosome formation. Autophagy is a highly regulated intracellular degradation process by which cells remove cytosolic long-lived proteins and damaged organelles, and can be monitored by imaging the incorporation of microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3) fused to a fluorescent protein (GFP or mCherry) into nascent autophagosomes. We investigated the effect of adenosine receptor agonists on autophagy and cell survival following sI/R in GFP-LC3 infected HL-1 cells and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. The A1 adenosine receptor agonist 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyl-adenosine (CCPA) (100 nM) caused an increase in the number of autophagosomes within 10 min of treatment; the effect persisted for at least 300 min. A significant inhibition of autophagy and loss of protection against sI/R measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)...

5-Aminosalicylic Acid Inhibits Acute Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Colitis in Rats

Vigna, Steven R.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.73%
We tested the hypothesis that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) inhibits toxin A-induced generation of colonic leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and toxin A colitis in rats. Isolated colonic segments in anesthetized rats were treated intraluminally with toxin A for 3 hours with or without 30 minutes of pretreatment with either 5-ASA or sulfapyridine and then colonic tissue levels of LTB4 were measured and inflammation was assessed. Separately, sulfasalazine was administered to rats in their drinking water for 5 days, isolated colonic segments were then prepared, toxin A was administered, and inflammation was assessed as before. Pretreatment with 5-ASA inhibited toxin A-induced increased tissue LTB4 concentration in the colon. Sulfasalazine and 5-ASA but not sulfapyridine significantly inhibited toxin A colitis. However, pretreatment with 5-ASA did not protect against direct TRPV1-mediated colitis caused by capsaicin. Toxin A stimulated the release of substance P (SP), and this effect was also inhibited by sulfasalazine and 5-ASA but not by sulfapyridine. Thus, toxin A stimulates colonic LTB4 resulting in activation of TRPV1, release of SP, and colitis. Inhibition of 5-LO by 5-ASA disrupts this pathway and supports the concept that LTB4 activation of TRPV1 plays a role in toxin A colitis.

Estimation of Potentially Toxic Elements Contamination in Anthropogenic Soils on a Brown Coal Mining Dumpsite by Reflectance Spectroscopy: A Case Study

Gholizadeh, Asa; Borůvka, Luboš; Vašát, Radim; Saberioon, Mohammadmehdi; Klement, Aleš; Kratina, Josef; Tejnecký, Václav; Drábek, Ondřej
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.99%
In order to monitor Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in anthropogenic soils on brown coal mining dumpsites, a large number of samples and cumbersome, time-consuming laboratory measurements are required. Due to its rapidity, convenience and accuracy, reflectance spectroscopy within the Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) region has been used to predict soil constituents. This study evaluated the suitability of Vis-NIR (350–2500 nm) reflectance spectroscopy for predicting PTEs concentration, using samples collected on large brown coal mining dumpsites in the Czech Republic. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) and Support Vector Machine Regression (SVMR) with cross-validation were used to relate PTEs data to the reflectance spectral data by applying different preprocessing strategies. According to the criteria of minimal Root Mean Square Error of Prediction of Cross Validation (RMSEPcv) and maximal coefficient of determination (R2cv) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD), the SVMR models with the first derivative pretreatment provided the most accurate prediction for As (R2cv) = 0.89, RMSEPcv = 1.89, RPD = 2.63). Less accurate, but acceptable prediction for screening purposes for Cd and Cu (0.66 ˂ R2cv) ˂ 0.81, RMSEPcv = 0.0.8 and 4.08 respectively...

Mitochondrial-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Play a Vital Role in the Salicylic Acid Signaling Pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana

Nie, Shengjun; Yue, Haiyun; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
Plant mitochondria constitute a major source of ROS and are proposed to act as signaling organelles in the orchestration of defense response. At present, the signals generated and then integrated by mitochondria are still limited. Here, fluorescence techniques were used to monitor the events of mitochondria in vivo, as well as the induction of mitochondrial signaling by a natural defensive signal chemical salicylic acid (SA). An inhibition of respiration was observed in isolated mitochondria subjected to SA. The cytochrome reductase activity analysis in isolated mitochondria demonstrated that SA might act directly on the complex III in the respiration chain by inhibiting the activity. With this alteration, a quick burst of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) was stimulated. SA-induced mtROS caused mitochondrial morphology transition in leaf tissue or protoplasts expressing mitochondria-GFP (43C5) and depolarization of membrane potential. However, the application of AsA, an H2O2 scavenger, significantly prevented both events, indicating that both of them are attributable to ROS accumulation. In parallel, SA-induced mtROS up-regulated AOX1a transcript abundance and this induction was correlated with the disease resistance, whereas AsA-pretreatment interdicted this effect. It is concluded that mitochondria play an essential role in the signaling pathway of SA-induced ROS generation...

Effects of dexmedetomidine pretreatment on heme oxygenase-1 expression and oxidative stress during one-lung ventilation

Gao, Shenqiang; Wang, Yuelan; Zhao, Jun; Su, Aiping
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
Purpose: This study aimed to explore effects of dexmedetomidine pretreatment on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and oxidative stress during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in lung cancer patients. Methods: Fifty patients with lung carcinoma (ASA I-II, 40-65 years old, body mass index [BMI] < 30 kg/m2) undergoing pulmonary lobectomy were enrolled. They were divided randomly into two equal groups before anaesthesia induction to receive either intravenous injection of 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine for 20 min (Dexmedetomidine) or not (Control). Results: The results showed no difference in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and bispectral index (BIS) between the two groups, as well as liquid intake and output volume (LIO), duration of OLV and time from surgery beginning to excision of pathological tissues (P > 0.05). Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in Dexmedetomidine group were lower than that of Control at OLV 60 and 90 (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression level of HO-1 were higher in Dexmedetomidine group than in Control (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine pretreatment could upregulated expression of HO-1 in lung tissue and reduce oxidative stress and inflammation during OLV. Thus dexmedetomidine played a role in protecting lung injury by promoting HO-1 expression.

Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation at Jiaji points reduce abdominal pain after colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial

Chen, Yanqing; Wu, Weilan; Yao, Yusheng; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Qiuyan; Qiu, Liangcheng
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.16%
Background: Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) at Jiaji acupuncture points has therapeutic potential for relieving viscera pain and opioid-related side effects. This prospective, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of TEAS on abdominal pain after colonoscopy. Methods: Consecutive outpatients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II underwent selective colonoscopy were randomly assigned into two groups for either TEAS or sham pretreatment. The primary outcomes were the incidence of abdominal pain after colonoscopy. The secondary outcomes included the incidence of abdominal distension, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), duration of PACU stay, and patient’s satisfaction and acceptance. Results: Among the 229 patients analyzed, fewer occurrence of post-procedural abdominal pain (11.4% vs 25.2%, P = 0.007) and distension (1.8% vs 7.8%, P = 0.032) were observed in TEAS group, when compared with the sham group. The duration of PACU stay was significant shortened in TEAS group (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients’ satisfaction score to medical service was higher (P < 0.001), and their acceptance to colonoscopy was improved (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Pretreatment with TEAS can reduce post-procedural discomfort...

Pré-tratamento de bagaço de cana com CO2 supercrítico na presença de etanol e líquido iônico : pré-otimização das variáveis do processo e avaliação da acessibilidade do substratos produzidos

Silveira, Marcos Henrique Luciano
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 130f. : il. algumas color., tabs., grafs.; application/pdf
PORTUGUêS
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.2%
Orientador : Prof. Dr. Luiz Pereira Ramos; Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Exatas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química. Defesa: Curitiba, 24/02/2014; Inclui referências; Resumo: Uma nova tecnologia de pré-tratamento de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar foi desenvolvida empregando dióxido de carbono supercrítico e etanol (scCO2/EtOH) na presença de acetato de 1-butil-metil-imidazólio (Bmim[OAc]). Os experimentos foram realizados por 2 h variando a temperatura (110 a 180 °C), a pressão (195 a 250 bar) e a quantidade de Bmim[OAc] em relação à massa seca de material (0:1 a 1:1 Bmim[OAc]/bagaço). De acordo com os resultados, a concentração de Bmim[OAc] e a pressão do sistema favorecem a deslignificação e o aumento no teor de anidroglucose no substrato, ao passo que o aumento da temperatura favorece a diminuição no teor de anidroxilose no substrato. Os melhores resultados proporcionaram 41 % de deslignificação gerando um substrato com teor de 74 % de polissacarídeos. Como resultado da deslignificação, ocorreu o aumento da acessibilidade do substrato à hidrólise enzimática, que gerou conversão de 70 % de glucanas em glucose e 92 % de xilanas em xilose após 12 h de reação quando empregados 10 mg g-1 de Cellic CTec2® (Novozymes) por substrato seco. Os líquidos iônicos (LI) contendo ânion acetato foram mais fáceis de recuperar após o pré-tratamento com scCO2/EtOH do que o LI contendo ânion cloreto...

EFFECTS OF ANTIPLATELET AGENTS ON PLATELETS EXPOSED TO SHEAR STRESS

HARDWICK, ROBERT ALAN
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.78%
Shear stress levels of the order of those associated with artifical heart valves and extracorporeal circulatory devices are sufficient to stimulate platelets to aggregate, to release chemicals that potentiate aggregation and blood coagulation, to cause impairment of platelet function, and to induce platelet lysis. There is evidence that certain drugs, called antiplatelet agents, alter platelet behavior in a way that reduces adhesion, aggregation, and secretion while causing no significant adverse effects on hemostasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of antiplatelet agents on the response of platelets subjected to a well-defined shear stress field produced by a rotational viscometer. Antiplatelet agents studied include aspirin (acetysalicylic acid, or ASA), prostaglandin E(,1) (PGE(,1)) in combination with theophylline, and prostaglandin I(,2) (PGI(,2), or prostacyclin) in combination with theophylline. ASA inhibits the formation of thromboxane A(,2), a potent endogenous platelet aggregating agent, by irreversibly acetylating the platelet enzyme cyclo-oxygenase at its active site. PGE(,1) and PGI(,2) stimulate the platelet enzyme adenyl cyclase to convert platelet ATP to cyclic-AMP, which is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Theophylline inhibits the platelet enzyme phosphodiesterase...

The Ability of PAS, Acetylsalicylic Acid and Calcium Disodium EDTA to Protect Against the Toxic Effects of Manganese on Mitochondrial Respiration in Gill of Crassostrea virginica

Crawford, Sherine; Davis, Kiyya; Saddler, Claudette; Joseph, Jevaun; Catapane, Edward J.; Carroll, Margaret A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.2%
Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that at excessive levels in brain causes Manganism, a condition similar to Parkinson's disease. Previously we showed that Mn had a neurotoxic effect on the dopaminergic, but not serotonergic, innervation of the lateral ciliated cells in the gill of the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica. While the mechanism of action of Mn toxicity is not completely understood, studies suggest that Mn toxicity may involve mitochondrial damage and resulting neural dysfunction in the brain’s dopaminergic system. In this study we utilized micro-batch chambers and oxygen probes to measure oyster gill mitochondrial respiration in the presence of Mn and potential Mn blockers. The addition of Mn to respiring mitochondria caused a dose dependent decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption. Pretreating mitochondria with calcium disodium EDTA (caEDTA), p aminosalicylic acid (PAS) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) before Mn additions, provided full protection against the toxic effects of Mn. While mitochondrial pretreatment with any of the 3 drugs effectively blocked Mn toxicity, none of the drugs tested was able to reverse the decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption seen in Mn treated mitochondria. The study found that high levels of Mn had a toxic effect on gill mitochondrial O2 consumption and that this effect could be blocked by the drugs caEDTA...

Re-examination of hexose-transporter inhibition and labelling by hexose isothiocyanates.

Rees, W D; Gliemann, J; Holman, G D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/1987 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.47%
We have re-examined hexose-transport inhibition by hexose isothiocyanates and find that the inhibition is incomplete, probably because of decomposition of the reagent. The inhibition type is 'mixed', because hexose-transporter ligands such as maltose and cytochalasin B only give partial protection from inhibition. This suggests that a liganded-transporter-hexose isothiocyanate ternary complex is formed. We have compared the labelling of red-blood-cell membranes by [14C]MITC (D-maltose isothiocyanate) with the labelling obtained using a photoaffinity probe (ASA-BMPA [2-N-(4-azidosalicyloyl)-1,3-bis-(D-mannos-4'-yloxy)-2 -propylamine]) which gives specific labelling of the hexose transporter in band 4.5. [14C]MITC gives a partially D-glucose-displaceable labelling of a band 3 component in the same cell preparations which show ASA-BMPA labelling of band 4.5. This eliminates the possibility that band 4.5 labelling can only occur when the HITC (hexose isothiocyanate) binding protein in band 3 is proteolysed. HITC pretreatment does not decrease ASA-BMPA labelling of the exofacial site of band 4.5. This is also consistent with the formation of ternary complex. However, HITC pretreatment inhibits both reversible and photoactivated covalent [3H]cytochalasin B binding to band 4.5. These results suggest that...