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A proto-história,como motivação para fruição da paisagem – oportunidade para interpretação do território de Faílde

Santos, Susana Isabel dos Anjos Afonso
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.89%
O presente trabalho aborda o valor da arqueologia, e mais concretamente da Proto-história, como motivação para a fruição da paisagem e como oportunidade para a sua interpretação, bem como as principais características deste património no território do concelho de Bragança, os seus principais investigadores e a sua distribuição. Este conhecimento é o ponto de partida para a elaboração de todo um programa de fruição da paisagem com base em percursos pedestres que se pretendem, simultaneamente, valorizados pela beleza do espaço natural e rural percorrido, pelo conforto e gratificação inerente à atividade física, e pelo desafio intelectual que significa a interpretação do domínio do território pelo homem ao longo dos tempos. O surgir do turismo arqueológico trouxe uma nova forma de observar e interpretar a paisagem. Assim sendo, faremos um estudo geral da arqueologia que em conjunto com a ecologia permitem abordar especificamente o caso de estudo da aldeia de Faílde; uma vez que se trata de uma zona bastante rica em termos arqueológicos e paisagísticos, o que permite demonstrar as oportunidades para o futuro desenvolvimento do projeto de turismo arqueológico. Desta forma, iremos criar uma “aliança” entre arqueologia e turismo...

gamma Cassiopeiae: an X-ray Be star with personality

OLIVEIRA, R. Lopes de; SMITH, M. A.; MOTCH, C.
Fonte: EDP SCIENCES S A Publicador: EDP SCIENCES S A
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.89%
An exciting unsolved problem in the study of high energy processes of early type stars concerns the physical mechanism for producing X-rays near the Be star gamma Cassiopeiae. By now we know that this source and several ""gamma Cas analogs"" exhibit an unusual hard thermal X-ray spectrum, compared both to normal massive stars and the non-thermal emission of known Be/X-ray binaries. Also, its light curve is variable on almost all conceivable timescales. In this study we reanalyze a high dispersion spectrum obtained by Chandra in 2001 and combine it with the analysis of a new (2004) spectrum and light curve obtained by XMM-Newton. We find that both spectra can be fit well with 3-4 optically thin, thermal components consisting of a hot component having a temperature kT(Q) similar to 12-14 keV, perhaps one with a value of similar to 2.4 keV, and two with well defined values near 0.6 keV and 0.11 keV. We argue that these components arise in discrete (almost monothermal) plasmas. Moreover, they cannot be produced within an integral gas structure or by the cooling of a dominant hot process. Consistent with earlier findings, we also find that the Fe abundance arising from K-shell ions is significantly subsolar and less than the Fe abundance from L-shell ions. We also find novel properties not present in the earlier Chandra spectrum...

Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma

Luvizuto, Eloa R.; Silva, Jorge B. G. da; Luvizuto, Gisele C. R.; Pereira, Flavia P.; Faco, Eduardo F. S.; Sedlacek, Paulo; Poi, Wilson Roberto
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: E7-E10
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.89%
The peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is a common gingival growth usually arising from the interdental papilla. The anterior maxilla is the most common location of involvement. The etiology and pathogenesis of POF remains unknown. Some investigators consider it a neoplastic process, whereas others argue that it is a reactive process; in either case, the lesion is thought to arise from cells in the periodontal ligament. Trauma or local irritants, such as dental plaque, calculus, microorganisms, masticatory force, ill-fitting dentures, and poor quality restorations, have been implicated in the etiology of POF. The recommended treatment is the excisional biopsy; however, it can leave a defect if the procedure is not followed by a subepithelial connective tissue graft. The main objective of this article was to present a clinical case of excisional biopsy of a POF followed by a subepithelial connective tissue graft to correct the defect caused by the biopsy. The biopsy defect was satisfactorily repaired, and the lesion has not recurred after 6 years of follow-up.

Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

Deregt, D; Loewen, K G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic disease, and a disease resembling mucosal disease that is apparently caused solely by noncytopathic virus. Although a good understanding of the roles of the 2 biotypes in the production of persistent infections and the precipitation of mucosal disease has been obtained, there are still unanswered questions regarding the origin of cytopathic viruses and the mechanism by which they cause pathological changes in cells. It is apparent, however, that cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses arise by mutation of noncytopathic viruses, and it is known that p80 is the marker protein for cytopathic viruses. The previous distinction between mild bovine viral diarrhea and fatal mucosal disease has been eroded with the emergence of new virulent bovine viral diarrhea viruses. The new diseases pose a threat to the cattle industry and present a new challenge for investigators. Index Veterinarius (1984-1994) and Medline (1985-1994) databases and personal files updated since 1987 from BIOSIS Previews and Biosciences Information Services were used to search the literature.

Intra-consortium data sharing in multi-national, multi-institutional genomic studies: gaps and guidance

Singh, Jerome Amir; Daar, Abdallah S.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
Growing investments in health research by governments and charitable organizations have fueled an increase in collaborative research projects between investigators from affluent and developing countries. Current international guidelines are silent on common intra-consortium data-sharing issues that arise in the context of such collaborations. A lack of guidance on intra-consortium data sharing threatens to undermine the success of crucial research ventures. In this work we outline some of the practical problems commonly faced by investigators working in multi-institutional, international genomic collaborations and offer recommendations on these issues. A data sharing policy should be prospectively negotiated and concluded between collaborators as early as possible. Sponsors of research, including those from developing countries, should issue detailed guidance on the above and related issues as doing so will facilitate research and catalyze scientific progress.

Conflict of Interest in the Evaluation and Dissemination of “Model” School-based Drug and Violence Prevention Programs

Gorman, Dennis M.; Conde, Eugenia
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.03%
Conflict of interest refers to a set of conditions in which professional judgment concerning the validity of research might be influenced by a secondary competing interest. The competing interest that has received most attention in the literature addressing the prevalence and effects of such conflicts on the practice of empirical research has been that of financial relationships between investigators and research sponsors. The potential for conflicts of interest to arise in the evaluation of drug prevention programs was raised by Moskowitz in this journal in 1993, but to date there has been no attempt made to estimate the scope of this problem. The present study addressed this issue using a sample of “model” school-based drug and violence prevention interventions by first, identifying the types or relationships that exist between program developers and program distributors, and, second, by assessing how many of the evaluations of these programs published in peer-reviewed journals had been conducted by the developers of the programs compared to independent evaluation teams. The data presented indicate that there are relatively few published evaluations that do not involve program developers and that there are few instances in which there is complete separation between the program developer and program distributor. Using the open systems model of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Research Integrity as a framework...

Both Sides of the Coin: Randomization from the Perspectives of Physician-Investigators and Patient-Subjects

Yap, Tsiao Yi; Kassimatis, Kathleen A.; Kodish, Eric
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.08%
Randomization is the “gold standard” design for clinical research trials, and is accepted as the best way to reduce bias. Although some controversy remains over this matter, we believe equipoise is the fundamental ethical requirement for conducting a randomized clinical trial. Despite much attention to the ethics of randomization, the moral psychology of this study design has not been explored. This paper analyzes the ethical tensions that arise from conducting these studies, and examines the moral psychology of this design from the perspectives of physician-investigators and patient-subjects. We conclude with a discussion of the practical implications of this analysis.

Family-based Gene-by-Environment Interaction Studies: Revelations and Remedies

Shi, Min; Umbach, David M.; Weinberg, Clarice R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
Bias can arise in case-control studies of genotype effects if the underlying population is structured (genetically stratified or admixed). Nuclear-family-based studies enjoy robustness against such bias, provided that inference conditions properly on the parents. Investigators have extended family-based methods to study gene-by-environment interactions, regarding such extensions as retaining robustness. We demonstrate via simulations that, if population structure involves the exposure, nuclear-family-based analyses of gene-by-exposure interaction remain vulnerable to inflated Type I error rates through subtle dependencies that investigators have failed to appreciate. Motivated by the Two Sister Study, an ongoing study of families affected by young-onset breast cancer, we consider a design that supplements the case-parents design with a sibling who is not genotyped but provides exposure data. If, in the population at large, inheritance is Mendelian and genotypes do not influence propensity for exposure, then this four-person (or tetrad) structure permits the study of genetic effects, exposure effects, and genotype-by-exposure interactions. We show for a dichotomous exposure that, when exposure of an unaffected sibling is available, a modification to the analysis of case-sib or tetrad data re-establishes robustness for tests of multiplicative gene-by-environment interaction. We also use simulations to assess the power for detecting interaction across a range of scenarios...

PATHOLOGY of POST PRIMARY TUBERCULOSIS of the LUNG: AN ILLUSTRATED CRITICAL REVIEW

Hunter, Robert L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.03%
Post primary tuberculosis occurs in immunocompetent adults, is restricted to the lungs and accounts for 80% of all clinical cases and nearly 100% of transmission of infection. The supply of human tissues with post primary tuberculosis plummeted with the introduction of antibiotics decades before the flowering of research using molecular methods in animal models. Unfortunately, the paucity of human tissues prevented validation of the models. As a result, it is a paradigm of contemporary research that caseating granulomas are the characteristic lesion of all tuberculosis and that cavities form when they erode into bronchi. This differs from descriptions of the preantibiotic era when many investigators had access to thousands of cases. They reported that post primary tuberculosis begins as an exudative reaction: a tuberculous lipid pneumonia of foamy alveolar macrophages that undergoes caseation necrosis and fragmentation to produce cavities. Granulomas in post primary disease arise only in response to old caseous pneumonia and produce fibrosis, not cavities. We confirmed and extended these observations with study of 104 cases of untreated tuberculosis. In addition, studies of the lungs of infants and immunosuppressed adults revealed a second type of tuberculous pneumonia that seldom produces cavities. Since the concept that cavities arise from caseating granulomas was supported by studies of animals infected with Mycobacterium bovis...

Increasing pulse wave velocity in a realistic cardiovascular model does not increase pulse pressure with age

Mohiuddin, Mohammad W.; Rihani, Ryan J.; Laine, Glen A.; Quick, Christopher M.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
The mechanism of the well-documented increase in aortic pulse pressure (PP) with age is disputed. Investigators assuming a classical windkessel model believe that increases in PP arise from decreases in total arterial compliance (Ctot) and increases in total peripheral resistance (Rtot) with age. Investigators assuming a more sophisticated pulse transmission model believe PP rises because increases in pulse wave velocity (cph) make the reflected pressure wave arrive earlier, augmenting systolic pressure. It has recently been shown, however, that increases in cph do not have a commensurate effect on the timing of the reflected wave. We therefore used a validated, large-scale, human arterial system model that includes realistic pulse wave transmission to determine whether increases in cph cause increased PP with age. First, we made the realistic arterial system model age dependent by altering cardiac output (CO), Rtot, Ctot, and cph to mimic the reported changes in these parameters from age 30 to 70. Then, cph was theoretically maintained constant, while Ctot, Rtot, and CO were altered. The predicted increase in PP with age was similar to the observed increase in PP. In a complementary approach, Ctot, Rtot, and CO were theoretically maintained constant...

‘Intention-to-treat’ meets ‘missing data’: implications of alternate strategies for analyzing clinical trials data

Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.08%
True intention-to-treat analyses are rare in reports of randomized clinical trials. To highlight the complex issues that arise in conducting and interpreting data from intention-to-treat analyses in studies with substantial levels of protocol violation (e.g. attrition, noncompliance, or withdrawal of participants), data from a clinical trial of treatment for cocaine dependence were analyzed using three strategies to manage missing data: Strategy 1 addressed the effectiveness of treatments based on data collected from participants up to the point of dropout. Strategy 2 addressed the effectiveness of treatments based on data from the full intended duration of the protocol including data collected after participant dropout. The third strategy used a more novel approach, which used an intention-to-treat strategy for the full duration of the trial and the full sample, but also evaluated the effect of treatment retention outcomes by including an independent variable to reflect active treatment retention as a time-varying covariate. Conclusions about the relative efficacy of the study treatments varied to some extent depending on the analytic strategy used. These findings suggest that investigators should make every effort to conduct intent-to-treat analyses...

Generation of Beta Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: Potential for Regenerative Medicine

Nostro, Maria Cristina; Keller, Gordon
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.03%
The loss of beta cells in Type I Diabetes ultimately leads to insulin dependence and major complications that are difficult to manage by insulin injections. Given the complications associated with long-term administration of insulin, cell-replacement therapy is now under consideration as an alternative treatment that may someday provide a cure for this disease. Over the past 10 years, islet transplantation trials have demonstrated that it is possible to replenish beta cell function in Type I Diabetes patients and, at least temporarily, eliminate their dependency on insulin. While not yet optimal, the success of these trials has provided proof-of-principle that cell replacement therapy is a viable option for treating diabetes. Limited access to donor islets has launched a search for alternative source of beta cells for cell therapy purposes and focused the efforts of many investigators on the challenge of deriving such cells from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Over the past five years, significant advances have been made in understanding the signaling pathways that control lineage development from hPSCs and as a consequence, it is now possible to routinely generate human insulin producing cells from both hESCs and hiPSCs. While these achievements are impressive...

Australasian resuscitation of sepsis evaluation (ARISE): A multi-centre, prospective, inception cohort study

Peake, S.; Bailey, M.; Bellomo, R.; Cameron, P.; Cross, A.; Delaney, A.; Finfer, S.; Higgins, A.; Jones, D.; Myburgh, J.; Syres, G.; Webb, S.; Williams, P.
Fonte: Elsevier Sci Ireland Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Sci Ireland Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
AIM: Determine current resuscitation practices and outcomes in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with sepsis and hypoperfusion or septic shock in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ). METHODS: Three-month prospective, multi-centre, observational study of all adult patients with sepsis and hypoperfusion or septic shock in the ED of 32 ANZ tertiary-referral, metropolitan and rural hospitals. RESULTS: 324 patients were enrolled (mean [SD] age 63.4 [19.2] years, APACHE II score 19.0 [8.2], 52.5% male). Pneumonia (n=138/324, 42.6%) and urinary tract infection (n=98/324, 30.2%) were the commonest sources of sepsis. Between ED presentation and 6hours post-enrolment (T6hrs), 44.4% (n=144/324) of patients received an intra-arterial catheter, 37% (n=120/324) a central venous catheter and 0% (n=0/324) a continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO(2)) catheter. Between enrolment and T6hrs, 32.1% (n=104/324) received a vasopressor infusion, 7.4% (n=24/324) a red blood cell transfusion, 2.5% (n=8/324) a dobutamine infusion and 18.5% (n=60/324) invasive mechanical ventilation. Twenty patients (6.2%) were transferred from ED directly to the operating theatre, 36.4% (n=118/324) were admitted directly to ICU, 1.2% (n=4/324) died in the ED and 56.2% (n=182/324) were transferred to the hospital floor. Overall ICU admission rate was 52.4% (n=170/324). ICU and overall in-hospital mortality were 18.8% (n=32/170) and 23.1% (n=75/324) respectively. In-hospital mortality was not different between patients admitted to ICU (24.7%...

The Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) trial statistical analysis plan

Delaney, A.; Peake, S.; Bellomo, R.; Cameron, P.; Holdgate, A.; Howe, B.; Higgins, A.; Presneill, J.; Webb, S.
Fonte: Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine Publicador: Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
The Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) study is an international, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of early goal-directed therapy compared with standard care for patients presenting to the emergency department with severe sepsis. In keeping with current practice, and considering aspects of trial design and reporting specific to non-pharmacological interventions, our plan outlines the principles and methods for analysing and reporting the trial results. The document is prepared before completion of recruitment into the ARISE study, without knowledge of the results of the interim analysis conducted by the data safety and monitoring committee and before completion of the two related international studies. Our statistical analysis plan was designed by the ARISE chief investigators, and reviewed and approved by the ARISE steering committee. We reviewed the data collected by the research team as specified in the study protocol and detailed in the study case report form. We describe information related to baseline characteristics, characteristics of delivery of the trial interventions, details of resuscitation, other related therapies and other relevant data with appropriate comparisons between groups. We define the primary...

Australasian Resuscitation In Sepsis Evaluation trial statistical analysis plan

Delaney, A.; Peake, S.; Bellomo, R.; Cameron, P.; Holdgate, A.; Howe, B.; Higgins, A.; Presneill, J.; Webb, S.
Fonte: Blackwell Science Asia Pty Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Science Asia Pty Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.4%
BACKGROUND The Australasian Resuscitation In Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) study is an international, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of early goal-directed therapy compared with standard care for patients presenting to the ED with severe sepsis. OBJECTIVE In keeping with current practice, and taking into considerations aspects of trial design and reporting specific to non-pharmacologic interventions, this document outlines the principles and methods for analysing and reporting the trial results. The document is prepared prior to completion of recruitment into the ARISE study, without knowledge of the results of the interim analysis conducted by the data safety and monitoring committee and prior to completion of the two related international studies. METHODS The statistical analysis plan was designed by the ARISE chief investigators, and reviewed and approved by the ARISE steering committee. The data collected by the research team as specified in the study protocol, and detailed in the study case report form were reviewed. Information related to baseline characteristics, characteristics of delivery of the trial interventions, details of resuscitation and other related therapies, and other relevant data are described with appropriate comparisons between groups. The primary...

Bench-to-bedside review: the evaluation of complex interventions in critical care

Delaney, A.; Angus, D.C.; Bellomo, R.; Cameron, P.; Cooper, D.J.; Finfer, S.; Harrison, D.A.; Huang, D.T.; Myburgh, J.A.; Peake, S.L.; Reade, M.C.; Webb, S.A.R.; Yealy, D.M.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
Complex interventions, such as the introduction of medical emergency teams or an early goal-directed therapy protocol, are developed from a number of components that may act both independently and inter-dependently. There is an emerging body of literature advocating the use of integrated complex interventions to optimise the treatment of critically ill patients. As with any other treatment, complex interventions should undergo careful evaluation prior to widespread introduction into clinical practice. During the development of an international collaboration of researchers investigating protocol-based approaches to the resuscitation of patients with severe sepsis, we examined the specific issues related to the evaluation of complex interventions. This review outlines some of these issues. The issues specific to trials of complex interventions that require particular attention include determining an appropriate study population and defining current treatments and outcomes in that population, defining the study intervention and the treatment to be used in the control group, and deploying the intervention in a standardised manner. The context in which the research takes place, including existing staffing levels and existing protocols and procedures...

Goal-directed resuscitation for patients with early septic shock

Peake, S.L.; Delaney, A.; Bailey, M.; Bellomo, R.; Cameron, P.A.; Cooper, D.J.; Higgins, A.M.; Holdgate, A.; Howe, B.D.; Webb, S.A.R.; Williams, P.; ARISE Investigators; ANZICS Clinical Trials Group
Fonte: Massachussetts Medical Society Publicador: Massachussetts Medical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
BACKGROUND: Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) has been endorsed in the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign as a key strategy to decrease mortality among patients presenting to the emergency department with septic shock. However, its effectiveness is uncertain. METHODS: In this trial conducted at 51 centers (mostly in Australia or New Zealand), we randomly assigned patients presenting to the emergency department with early septic shock to receive either EGDT or usual care. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 90 days after randomization. RESULTS: Of the 1600 enrolled patients, 796 were assigned to the EGDT group and 804 to the usual-care group. Primary outcome data were available for more than 99% of the patients. Patients in the EGDT group received a larger mean (±SD) volume of intravenous fluids in the first 6 hours after randomization than did those in the usual-care group (1964±1415 ml vs. 1713±1401 ml) and were more likely to receive vasopressor infusions (66.6% vs. 57.8%), red-cell transfusions (13.6% vs. 7.0%), and dobutamine (15.4% vs. 2.6%) (P<0.001 for all comparisons). At 90 days after randomization, 147 deaths had occurred in the EGDT group and 150 had occurred in the usual-care group, for rates of death of 18.6% and 18.8%...

Our Sun. IV. The Standard Model and Helioseismology: Consequences of Uncertainties in Input Physics and in Observed Solar Parameters

Boothroyd, Arnold I.; Sackmann, I. -Juliana
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/10/2002
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.03%
Helioseismology provides a powerful tool to explore the deep interior of the Sun: for example, the adiabatic sound speed can be inferred with an accuracy of a few parts in 10,000. This has become a serious challenge to theoretical models of the Sun. Therefore, we have undertaken a self-consistent, systematic study of sources of uncertainties in the standard solar model, which must be understood before the helioseismic observations can be used as constraints on theory. We find that the largest uncertainty in the sound speed in the solar interior, namely, 3 parts in 1000, arises from uncertainties in the observed photospheric abundances of the elements; uncertainties of 1 part in 1000 arise from (1) the 4% uncertainty in the OPAL opacities, (2) the 5% uncertainty in the basic pp nuclear reaction rate, (3) the 15% uncertainty in the diffusion constants for the gravitational settling of helium, and (4) the 50% uncertainties in diffusion constants for the heavier elements. (Other investigators have shown that similar uncertainties arise from uncertainties in the interior equation of state and in rotation-induced turbulent mixing.) The predicted pre-main-sequence solar lithium depletion is a factor of order 20 (an order of magnitude larger than that predicted by earlier models that neglected gravitational settling and used older opacities)...

Young and Early Career Investigators: Report from a Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise Working Group

Dan H. Barouch; Thumbi Ndung’u; Galit Alter; Timothy Cardozo; Bhavna Chohan; Jacques Fellay; Nicole Frahm; Jonathan Fuchs; Alasdair Leslie; Yong Liu; Penny L. Moore; Raul Rabadan
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.28%
The scientific challenges facing HIV-1 vaccine development are unprecedented in the history of vaccinology. As a result, investigators, funders, and other stakeholders generally agree that “game-changing” ideas are required. While innovation can certainly arise from investigators at all career stages, young and early-career investigators, defined as those under 40 years of age or within 10 years of their final degree or clinical training, are especially key contributors of novel and transformative ideas. Young and early-career investigators bring energy, enthusiasm, and fresh perspectives that are unbiased by prevailing dogma and that are essential to scientific progress.

Young and Early Career Investigators: Report from a Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise Working Group

Dan H. Barouch; Thumbi Ndung’u; Galit Alter; Timothy Cardozo; Bhavna Chohan; Jacques Fellay; Nicole Frahm; Jonathan Fuchs; Alasdair Leslie; Yong Liu; Penny L. Moore; Raul Rabadan
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.28%
The scientific challenges facing HIV-1 vaccine development are unprecedented in the history of vaccinology. As a result, investigators, funders, and other stakeholders generally agree that “game-changing” ideas are required. While innovation can certainly arise from investigators at all career stages, young and early-career investigators, defined as those under 40 years of age or within 10 years of their final degree or clinical training, are especially key contributors of novel and transformative ideas. Young and early-career investigators bring energy, enthusiasm, and fresh perspectives that are unbiased by prevailing dogma and that are essential to scientific progress.