Página 1 dos resultados de 6216 itens digitais encontrados em 0.143 segundos

Prospects for biodiversity conservation in the Atlantic Forest: Lessons from aging human-modified landscapes

TABARELLI, Marcelo; AGUIAR, Antonio Venceslau; RIBEIRO, Milton Cezar; METZGER, Jean Paul; PERES, Carlos A.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
Recent global assessments have shown the limited coverage of protected areas across tropical biotas, fuelling a growing interest in the potential conservation services provided by anthropogenic landscapes. Here we examine the geographic distribution of biological diversity in the Atlantic Forest of South America, synthesize the most conspicuous forest biodiversity responses to human disturbances, propose further conservation initiatives for this biota, and offer a range of general insights into the prospects of forest species persistence in human-modified tropical forest landscapes worldwide. At the biome scale, the most extensive pre-Columbian habitats across the Atlantic Forest ranged across elevations below 800 masl, which still concentrate most areas within the major centers of species endemism. Unfortunately, up to 88% of the original forest habitat has been lost, mainly across these low to intermediate elevations, whereas protected areas are clearly skewed towards high elevations above 1200 masl. At the landscape scale, most remaining Atlantic Forest cover is embedded within dynamic agro-mosaics including elements such as small forest fragments, early-to-late secondary forest patches and exotic tree mono-cultures. In this sort of aging or long-term modified landscapes...

Efeito da fragmentação florestal na predação de sementes da palmeira jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana) em florestas semidecíduas do estado de São Paulo. ; The effect of forest fragmentation on Syagrus romanzoffiana (palmae) seed predation in semi-deciduous forest.

Fleury, Marina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/08/2003 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.82%
O processo de fragmentação florestal, além do isolamento e da redução de hábitat, produz um aumento do microhábitat de borda. Este aumento leva à gradual perda de diversidade devido a alterações abióticas e bióticas fazendo com que remanescentes florestais não comportem a mesma diversidade que hábitats contínuos. O estabelecimento de espécies vegetal depende crucialmente do local onde as sementes são depositadas no ambiente, porém muito pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos da fragmentação florestal para a manutenção das características abióticas e bióticas dos microhábitats e seus efeitos na sobrevivência de sementes pós-dispersas, uma vez que a maioria dos estudos foi conduzida em florestas contínua. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da fragmentação florestal na predação de sementes da palmeira Syagrus romanzoffiana (“jerivá”) em três microhábitats (clareira, borda e interior de mata), testando oito fragmentos de Floresta Semidecídua (de 9,5 a 33.845 ha). Os objetivos deste trabalho foram os de avaliar (1) se existe diferenças bióticas e abióticas entre os microhábitats de borda, interior de mata e clareira; (2) se o tamanho do fragmento florestal exerce influência para a manutenção das características do microhábitats amostrados; (3) se os microhábitats testados diferem na sobrevivência de sementes de S. romanzoffiana pós-dispersas; (4) se o tamanho do fragmento influencia na taxa de predação de sementes; (5) quais das características estruturais avaliadas estão relacionadas com a predação de sementes de S. romanzoffiana e (6) quais as características estruturais que estão correlacionadas com o tamanho do fragmento. Foi concluído que fragmentos menores que 20 ha não possuem diferenças abióticas e bióticas por extrapolação da borda da mata a todo o fragmento...

Diversidade e estrutura genética de Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) J.F. Macbr. em áreas em processo de restauração florestal e remanescentes de Mata Atlântica; Genetic diversity and structure of Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) J. F. Macbr. in areas under forest restoration process and natural remnants of the Atlantic rain forest

Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/04/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
A Mata Atlântica é considerada mundialmente um dos biomas prioritários para conservação, devido à elevada riqueza de sua biodiversidade. A preservação da vegetação natural deve estar associada à restauração florestal, de modo que se possa assegurar a continuidade desta rica biota. No Brasil, grande parte dos projetos de restauração florestal realizados até agora tem se preocupado apenas em buscar diversidade florística, contemplando uma baixa diversidade genética em sua implantação, o que têm criado muitos problemas relativos à viabilidade biológica de suas comunidades. O presente trabalho se propôs a realizar um estudo comparando a diversidade genética (utilizando marcadores SSR, cpSSR e AFLP) da espécie arbórea Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) J. F. Macbr. em duas áreas em processo de restauração florestal e dois remanescentes naturais de floresta estacional semidecidual da Mata Atlântica do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A partir da biblioteca genômica construída, foram obtidos 12 locos SSR. A heterozigosidade média esperada no equilíbrio de Hardy Weinberg (HE = 0,494) foi maior do que a heterozigosidade observada (HO = 0,251) em todas as populações, indicando taxa relativamente alta de endogamia (FIS = 0...

Caça e consumo de carne silvestre na Amazônia Oriental: determinantes e efeitos na percepção do valor da floresta; Bushmeat hunting and consumption in Eastern Amazonia: drivers and effects on the perception of forest value

Torres, Patricia Carignano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/12/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
A extração de produtos florestais é uma estratégia de sustento importante para populações que vivem próximas a remanescentes de florestas tropicais. Entre estes produtos, a carne silvestre é fonte importante de proteína e renda monetária. A sobreçaca, no entanto, pode levar à extinção local de espécies, comprometendo a integridade das florestas tropicais e o sustento de populações humanas. Como consequência, pode também levar à diminuição do valor atribuído às florestas pelos moradores, incentivando a sua conversão a outras formas de uso da terra. Sabe-se que fatores econômicos, como renda monetária e riqueza, são determinantes importantes da caça e do consumo de carne silvestre. Porém, tem sido sugerido que o efeito destes indicadores econômicos dependa do contexto ambiental - em especial, a cobertura florestal, associada à disponibilidade de animais para caça e a distância ao centro urbano, associada ao acesso a outras fontes de renda e proteína - e do contexto cultural, em particular, a região de origem dos moradores. No entanto, estudos prévios não consideraram todos estes fatores simultaneamente. Além disso, pouco ainda se sabe sobre qual o valor atribuído às florestas por populações rurais e sua relação com a caça e o consumo de carne silvestre. Através de questionários estruturados aplicados por meio de entrevista à população rural de uma região extensa e heterogênea na Amazônia oriental...

Padrões de distribuição, estrutura e contexto de manchas florestais em um mosaico de campo e floresta no planalto sul brasileiro; Patterns of forest patch distribution, structure and context in a grassland-forest mosaic in southern Brazil

Matte, Ana Luiza Leichter
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
Processos ecológicos e antrópicos interagem e produzem padrões estruturais de manchas de vegetação, os quais, por sua vez, atuam sobre os processos ecológicos devido à influência da estrutura e do contexto da paisagem sobre estes processos. A região do Planalto das Araucárias se caracteriza por uma paisagem em mosaico, onde manchas florestais se misturam à matriz campestre, como resultado de um processo natural de expansão florestal. É provável que este processo não ocorra uniformemente na paisagem, dadas as características de relevo e a proximidade de áreas fontes (floresta contínua). Os padrões estruturais de manchas florestais estão baseados no processo natural de formação da paisagem (manchas) e na alteração desses por antropização (fragmentos). Este estudo inicialmente objetivou identificar e diferenciar tipos de manchas florestais através de características estruturais e de contexto na paisagem. Posteriormente, foi avaliada a hipótese de que a ocorrência das manchas florestais seja uma resposta aos padrões de umidade do solo, mediados pela declividade do terreno, orientação solar sul e proximidade de talvegues, através de um modelo espacial de probabilidade de ocorrência de manchas para a região de estudo. Para tanto...

Contribution of forest species to the floristic composition of a forested savanna in southeastern Brazil

Pinheiro, Marcelo Henrique Ongaro; Monteiro, Reinaldo
Fonte: Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology Publicador: Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 763-774
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); A heterogeneidade florística do cerrado pode sofrer influência de espécies florestais oriundas de matrizes vegetacionais próximas, sendo as matas de galeria uma das vias para essa ocupação. A expansão florestal por áreas savânicas pode ser explicada por tal fenômeno. As espécies arbustivo-arbóreas presentes na área estudada, na cidade de Bauru, Estado de São Paulo, e em 14 diferentes localidades abrigando cerrado sensu stricto e cerradão, foram definidas como florestais a partir de listagens florísticas das fitocenoses em questão. As porcentagens de ocorrência de espécies florestais nas localidades analisadas variaram de zero a 4,5%. A proximidade de matrizes florestais, a ocorrência de incêndios e critérios de inclusão utilizados foram alguns dos fatores que podem ter influenciado tal variação.; Based on studies of floristic lists the contribution of forest tree and shrub species in a forested savanna area in the city of Bauru, State of São Paulo, and in 14 different places sheltering cerrado sensu stricto and cerradão in Brazil is defined as the evidence of forest species causing a change of cerrado heterogeneity. The percentages of occurrence of forest species in the locations analyzed varied from zero to 4.5%. The proximity of different forest matrices...

Viabilidade genética de restaurações florestais : diversidade e estrutura genética em Myroxylon peruiferum L.f; Genetic feasibility of forest restorations : genetic diversity and structure in Myroxylon peruiferum L.f

Kaiser Dias Schwarcz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
A degradação ecológica e o desflorestamento são processos que se iniciaram há muito tempo e cuja história confunde-se com a da agricultura. A Mata Atlântica é a segunda maior floresta tropical em ocorrência e importância na América do Sul, possuindo grande diversidade biológica e altos níveis de endemismo. A ocupação desordenada da Mata Atlântica causou sua redução a 11,26% de sua área original, com distribuição de forma fragmentada pelo território brasileiro. A destruição da Mata Atlântica tem resultado na eliminação de muitas populações e, potencialmente, na erosão da diversidade genética de diversas espécies. Essa combinação de alto endemismo e forte ameaça de extinção, faz com que a Mata Atlântica seja considerada um hotspot para a conservação. Nas últimas décadas a recuperação de ecossistemas degradados recebeu a atenção da comunidade científica, dando origem ao campo do conhecimento chamado Ecologia da Restauração, que se dedica aos estudos teóricos dos princípios, práticas, resultados e conseqüências de projetos de restauração. O estudo e monitoramento de áreas de restauração florestal é essencial para melhorar as técnicas de restauração em ecossistemas tropicais e subtropicais. Para que uma determinada espécie se perpetue em uma área em processo de restauração...

Critérios e indicadores de sustentabilidade para o manejo florestal na Amazônia brasileira aplicados em 20 áreas de manejo florestal no norte do Estado do Mato Grosso; Criteria and indicators for a sustainable forest management in the Brazilian Amazon applied in 20 areas of forest management in Mato Grosso State

Ferreira, Marcos Antônio Camargo
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Tese
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
Tese (doutorado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, 2012.; Nas últimas décadas, o uso de coerentes critérios e indicadores para avaliar a sustentabilidade do manejo florestal se tornou cada vez mais importante. Pode-se definir que os critérios e indicadores (C&I) são conceitos chaves no desenvolvimento de sistemas efetivos de informação e comunicação que se apresentam como marco referencial para definir, monitorar e avaliar o manejo florestal sustentável. Este trabalho aborda as iniciativas de criação de critérios e indicadores no Brasil, em especial o histórico dos indicadores utilizados pelo IBAMA e a NBR15789:2008. A NBR 15789: 2008 possui em seu escopo um conjunto de critérios e indicadores, incluindo os Principio de sustentabilidade, mas não possui verificadores de campo para aferição. O IBAMA possui apenas verificadores, não há indicadores, critérios e nem princípios de sustentabilidade explícitos na Norma de Execução do nº 1 do IBAMA. Assim foi necessária a harmonização de diferentes iniciativas, uma vez que não é clara a hierarquização dos C&I nacionais, para responder se os princípios de sustentabilidade do manejo florestal sustentável...

Software development for forest growth models and management. CORKFITS: web based growth simulator

Surový, Peter; Vones, Petr; Ribeiro, Nuno Almeida
Fonte: Japan Society of Forest Planning Press Publicador: Japan Society of Forest Planning Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
New methods of forest management and the study of their impact on sustainability are strongly dependent on realistic mathematical modelling. The complexity of the models however, makes the use of computational power, and thus the incorporation of knowledge from computer science and research, indispensable. In this paper we wish to demonstrate the development of a simulator for the growth and production of cork oak woodlands – montados. The software is divided into three sub-modules, sharing a common core, with functions and mathematical operations. The desktop client allows for repeated operations for more intense calculations, and statistical operations for modelling purposes. The web version is intended to be used by final users in forest practice. It permits simulation of inventory data based on individual tree measurements, and inventory data based on plot description with a reduced amount of detail (number of trees per ha, diameter structure, etc.) The last module allows the incorporation of the cork model into other software by means of SOAP protocol, via web services. It conforms to the WS-I Basic Profile 1.1, to ensure interoperability among the largest number of clients. This module allows other developers to use the cork oak growth-model in their software...

Developing Post-Fire Eucalyptus globulus Stand Damage and Tree Mortality Models for Enhanced Forest Planning in Portugal

Marques, Susete; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi; Borges, José G.; Botequim, Brigite; Oliveira, Manuela; Tomé, José; Tomé, Margarida
Fonte: The Finnish Society of Forest Science · The Finnish Forest Research Institute Publicador: The Finnish Society of Forest Science · The Finnish Forest Research Institute
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.67%
Forest and fire management planning activities are carried out mostly independently of each other. This paper discusses research aiming at the development of methods and tools that can be used for enhanced integration of forest and fire management planning activities. Specifically, fire damage models were developed for Eucalyptus globulus Labill stands in Portugal. Models are based on easily measurable forest characteristics so that forest managers may predict post-fire mortality based on forest structure. For this purpose, biometric data and fire-damage descriptors from 2005/2006 National Forest Inventory plots and other sample plots within 2006, 2007 and 2008 fire areas were used. A three-step modelling strategy based on logistic regression methods was used. In the first step, a model was developed to predict whether mortality occurs after a wildfire in a eucalypt stand. In the second step the degree of damage caused by wildfires in stands where mortality occurs is quantified (i.e. percentage of mortality). In the third step this mortality is distributed among trees. Data from over 85 plots and 1648 trees were used for modeling purposes. The damage models show that relative damage increases with stand basal area. Tree level mortality models indicate that trees with high diameters...

Computer-based tools for supporting forest management. The experience and the expertise world-wide

Borges, J.G.; Nordstrom, E.M.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Hujala, T.; Trasobares, A.
Fonte: Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences Publicador: Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences
Tipo: Livro
Publicado em 29/06/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.68%
Report of Cost Action FP 0804 Forest Management Decision Support Systems (FORSYS); Computer-based tools for supporting forest management. The experience and the expertise world-wide answers a call from both the research and the professional communities for a synthesis of current knowledge about the use of computerized tools in forest management planning. According to the aims of the Forest Management Decision Support Systems (FORSYS) (http://fp0804.emu.ee/) this synthesis is a critical success factor to develop a comprehensive quality reference for forest management decision support systems. The emphasis of the book is on identifying and assessing the support provided by computerized tools to enhance forest management planning in real-world contexts. The book thus identifies the management planning problems that prevail world-wide to discuss the architecture and the components of the tools used to address them. Of importance is the report of architecture approaches, models and methods, knowledge management and participatory planning techniques used to address specific management planning problems. We think that this synthesis may provide effective support to research and outreach activities that focus on the development of forest management decision support systems. It may contribute further to support forest managers when defining the requirements for a tool that best meets their needs. The first chapter of the book provides an introduction to the use of decision support systems in the forest sector and lays out the FORSYS framework for reporting the experience and expertise acquired in each country. Emphasis is on the FORSYS ontology to facilitate the sharing of experiences needed to characterize and evaluate the use of computerized tools when addressing forest management planning problems. The twenty six country reports share a structure designed to underline a problem-centric focus. Specifically...

Spatial Overlap between Environmental Policy Instruments and Areas of High Conservation Value in Forest

Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M.; Barton, David N.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments...

Romania : Forest Sector Rapid Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
Romania relies on the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) to achieve its commitments to the European Union (EU) 2020 targets. The use of the European Agriculture and Rural Development Fund (EARDF) requires that at least 30 percent of the budget allocated for rural development as part of the National Rural Development Plan (NRDP) be spent on the environment and addressing climate change. The forest sector rapid assessment reviews key issues in the forest sector to determine how the sector can contribute to mitigating and adapting to climate change. The assessment reviews the sector ministries measures for the 2014-2020 structural operational programs (SOPs) and NRDP to determine whether they are climate positive. The latter is an important condition for using EU structural cohesion funds (SCF) for 2014-2020. The assessment identifies operational programs and sector plans that can support the climate change objectives and fulfill the EU ex ante conditionalities for the SCF (2014-2020). The assessment also provides a basis for refining the measures in order to respond to the climate change requirement. The reimbursable advisory service phase will involve more in-depth work on the sector...

Hunting of Wildlife in Tropical Forests : Implications for Biodiversity and Forest Peoples

Bennett, Elizabeth L.; Robinson, John G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.87%
The study addresses the importance of wildlife to people, and as a resource of nutritional, economic, and socio-cultural values, and examines the complexities of hunting in tropical forests. It also expresses that today, such hunting is rarely sustainable, because of declining forest areas, which decreases wildlife populations; because of changes among human populations in the tropical forests, who have increasingly become more sedentary; because of cultural changes, where social taboos against hunting certain species are breaking down, and systems of traditional hunting territories are disappearing; and, because environmental economic changes, prod the commercialization of wildlife hunting in these areas. The study explores the multifaceted, and complex problem of hunting, suggesting solutions must be area specific, based on detailed knowledge of hunting patterns, ecology, and local socio-cultural conditions. Recommendations include: establishment of national networks to manage protected, and extractive reserves areas...

A Legal and Institutional Framework for Sustainable Management of Forest Resources in Southern Sudan : Policy note

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.72%
This policy note was prepared in response to a request from the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS) for World Bank assistance in developing legislative and institutional policies and strategies that will take advantage of the potential of the region's forest resources to contribute to poverty alleviation, food security, sustainable agriculture, economic growth, and to protection of forest-related environmental services such as climate, biodiversity, water, and wildlife resources. The note is intended to: (a) take stock of the current situation on the ground, including identifying the legislative, institutional, governance, and policy reforms needed to create an enabling environment for both public and private-sector investment. This should help in contributing to improved understanding of the currently underutilized potential of Southern Sudan's forest resources; (b) analyze what has worked and what has not worked prior to and since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA); and (c) suggest priority solutions and actions towards revitalizing the forestry sector. Key policy issues addressed in this note include: 1) strengthening forest resource information and knowledge base; 2) developing a coherent legislative and policy framework...

The Rainforests of Cameroon : Experience and Evidence from a Decade of Reform; Forets tropicales humides du Cameroun : une decennie de reformes

Topa, Giuseppe; Karsenty, Alain; Megevand, Carole; Debroux, Laurent
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
In 1994, the Government of Cameroon introduced an array of forest policy reforms, both regulatory and market-based, to support a more organized, transparent, and sustainable system for accessing and using forest resources. This report describes how these reforms played out in the rainforests of Cameroon. The intention is to provide a brief account of a complex process and identify what worked, what did not, and what can be improved. The barriers to placing Cameroon's forests at the service of its people, its economy, and the environment originated with the extractive policies of successive colonial administrations. The barriers were further consolidated after independence through a system of political patronage and influence in which forest resources became a coveted currency for political support. These deeply entangled commercial and political interests have only recently, and reluctantly, started to diverge. In 1994, the government introduced an array of forest policy reforms, both regulatory and market based. The reforms changed the rules determining who could gain access to forest resources...

India : Alleviating Poverty through Forest Development

Kumar, Nalini; Saxena, Naresh; Alagh, Yoginder; Mitra, Kinsuk
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.87%
This case study, one of six evaluations in a series of country case studies, aims to understand the implementation of the 1991 Forest Strategy in World Bank operations and to obtain the views of the various stakeholders in the country about the involvement of the Bank. Each country study examines the overall development of the country's forest sector. This naturally includes the environmental impacts on forests, such as degradation, bio-diversity loss, and deforestation as well as encompassing the economic uses of forests, particularly the management of forest resources for production, the role of forest development in poverty alleviation, and the impacts of forest research and development. The report takes a multi-disciplinary approach that discusses economic, social, political, institutional, and financial issues, and is based on evidence from the literature; review of project documents and files; extensive interviews with Bank and other donor agency staff, specialists, forest officials, beneficiaries; and field visits. The report analyzes the interactions among the Bank's country assistance strategy...

Managing the Miombo Woodlands of Southern Africa : Policies, Incentives and Options for the Rural Poor, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
Miombo woodlands stretch across Southern Africa in a belt from Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the west to Mozambique in the east. The miombo region covers an area of around 2.4 million km. In some areas, miombo has been highly degraded as a result of human use (southern Malawi and parts of Zimbabwe), while in others, it remains relatively intact (such as in parts of northern Mozambique, and in isolated areas of Angola and the DRC). From a conventional forester's perspective, miombo is fundamentally uninteresting. It supports relatively few good commercial timber species. The management of commercial species has been problematic. The best areas were logged over long ago. Except in a few areas, remaining commercially viable stocks are relatively small and difficult to access. Public forestry institutions have, for the most part, failed to put in place effective management systems for forests, preferring instead to limit their role to regulation and revenue collection, rather than to management per se. The objectives of this paper are threefold...

Impact of Costa Rica's Program of Payments for Environmental Services on Land Use

Sills, Erin; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Ferraro, Paul; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Carrasco, Luis; Ortiz, Edgar; Cordero, Silvia; Caldwell, Katie; Andam, Kwaw
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
Costa Rica's Program of Payments for Environmental Services (Pago de Servicios Ambientales, PSA) provides a unique opportunity to evaluate direct payments as a conservation policy tool. This paper reports evidence on how much more forest has been conserved in Costa Rica as a result of PSA contracts with landowners. Such evidence requires estimating a counterfactual outcome: how much forest would have been preserved if there had been no payments. By applying rigorous program evaluation methods that have been recommended for identifying the causal effects of conservation policies, we find that the PSA program does result in a small but statistically significant increase in the area of forest conserved.

Areas of endemism in the southern central Andes

Aagesen,Lone; Bena,Maria J.; Nomdedeu,Soledad; Panizza,Adela; López,Ramiro P.; Zuloaga,Fernando O.
Fonte: Darwiniana, nueva serie Publicador: Darwiniana, nueva serie
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.55%
This paper analyzes the distribution of vascular plants species endemic to the southern central Andes (south-western Bolivia and north-western Argentina). All 540 species endemic to the study regions (approx. 720600 km²) have been included in the analysis. The main part of the endemic species is found in semiarid habitats between 1500-3500 m asl pointing to the topographically complex plateau, slope, and valley system of the southern central Andes as the main locations for its endemic flora. The distribution of the endemic species within arid sites is in contrast with that of vascular plant diversity in general, as the most diverse habitat of the region is the moist subtropical Tucumano-Bolivian Yungas forest of the eastern Andes slope. A total of 17 well defined and partly overlapping distribution patterns were indentified. The broadest distribution pattern defines a general area of endemism for the southern central Andes. This area extends through nearly the entire region and is defined by species that are widespread within the region in desert to sub-humid environments of the high Andes, slopes, or valleys. Nearly all other areas of endemism are nested within this broad distribution pattern as successively north-south overlapping areas along the slopes and valleys of the Andes and the Pampeanas Range. Despite the distributional bias of endemism towards the arid sites almost half of the endemic species are restricted to a few high endemic areas that lie in juxtaposition to the main rainfall zones. These areas contain the widest habitat ranges in terms of altitude and rainfall within the region with the endemic species being equally variable in altitude and moisture requirements. Previous defined phytogeographic units were not recognized among the distribution patterns. However...