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Less or more intensive crop arable systems of Alentejo region of Portugal: What is the option to sustainable production?

Marques, C; Baptista, F; Silva, LL; Murcho, D; Rosado, M; Silva, JR; Peça, JO
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long. Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional system. On the one hand reduced and no tillage systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves. On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage of crop cycle or always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels. To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and alternative no tillage and irrigation systems and analyze their farm economic results as well their energy efficiency and environmental impacts. The analysis of the impact of no tillage and irrigation on arable land production system showed that both alternatives contributed to cost savings and profit earnings, energy savings and reduced GHG emissions, increasing physical and economic factor efficiency. Research and technological development of both options are worthwhile to promote competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop production systems of the Alentejo region of Portugal.

Development and application of bio-economic modelling to compare silvoarable, arable and forestry systems in three European countries

Palma, J.H.N.; Graves, A.R.; Burgess, P.J.; Herzog, F.; Moreno, G.; Bertomeu, M.; Dupraz, C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.76%
Silvoarable agroforestry could promote use of trees on farms in Europe, but its likely effect on production, farm profitability, and environmental services is poorly understood. Hence, from 2001 to 2005, the Silvoarable Agroforestry for Europe project developed a systematic process to evaluate the biophysical and economic performance of arable, forestry, and silvoarable systems in Spain, France, and The Netherlands. A biophysical model called “Yield-SAFE” was developed to predict long-term yields for the different systems and local statistics and expert opinion were used to derive their revenue, costs, and pre- and post-2005 grant regimes. These data were then used in an economic model called “Farm-SAFE” to predict plot- and farm-scale profitability. Land equivalent ratios were greater than one, showing Yield-SAFE predicted that growing trees and crops in silvoarable systems was more productive than growing them separately. Pre-2005 grants in Spain and The Netherlands penalised silvoarable systems, but post-2005 grantswere more equitable. In France,walnut and poplar silvoarable systems were consistently the most profitable system under both grant regimes. In Spain, holm oak and stone pine silvoarable systemswere the least profitable system under pre-2005 grants...

Farmland bird response to land use changes: the role of habitat fragmentation

Reino, Luís Miguel Nunes Valente Afonso
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.8%
Doutoramento em Engenharia Florestal - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; Socioeconomical changes from recent decades in Mediterranean farmland habitats have caused the abandonment of less fertile arable land in many regions. Together, these relatively recent changes in land use patterns have progressively resulted in the loss and fragmentation of many arable habitats for farmland birds. In this thesis I evaluated the consequences of habitat fragmentation driven by land use changes in a pseudo-steppe area in Southern Portugal. Land use changes included afforestation of arable habitats, land abandonment and land intensification. I outlined different approaches to study the effects of the mentioned changes in the farmland community in the Special Protection Area of Castro Verde. Overall results suggested that changes like afforestation may have opposite impacts in the community. Indeed, bird diversity within the area increased, including positive effects in woodland, farmland and ground-nesting birds. Conversely, steppe birds were negatively affected, including species of conservation concern. Also, this study showed that grassland specialists (e.g., Melanocorypha calandra) are very sensitive to current trends of habitat fragmentation. Moreover both habitat fragmentation and grazing regimes are major drivers of grassland breeding densities. Finally...

Enhancement of Late Successional Plants on Ex-Arable Land by Soil Inoculations

Carbajo, Vanesa; den Braber, Bowy; van der Putten, Wim H.; De Deyn, Gerlinde B.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.89%
Restoration of species-rich grasslands on ex-arable land can help the conservation of biodiversity but faces three big challenges: absence of target plant propagules, high residual soil fertility and restoration of soil communities. Seed additions and top soil removal can solve some of these constraints, but restoring beneficial biotic soil conditions remains a challenge. Here we test the hypotheses that inoculation of soil from late secondary succession grasslands in arable receptor soil enhances performance of late successional plants, especially after top soil removal but pending on the added dose. To test this we grew mixtures of late successional plants in arable top (organic) soil or in underlying mineral soil mixed with donor soil in small or large proportions. Donor soils were collected from different grasslands that had been under restoration for 5 to 41 years, or from semi-natural grassland that has not been used intensively. Donor soil addition, especially when collected from older restoration sites, increased plant community biomass without altering its evenness. In contrast, addition of soil from semi-natural grassland promoted plant community evenness, and hence its diversity, but reduced community biomass. Effects of donor soil additions were stronger in mineral than in organic soil and larger with bigger proportions added. The variation in plant community composition was explained best by the abundances of nematodes...

Financial Services for Developing Small-Scale Irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Larson, Gunnar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
Food insecurity and income poverty are rampant in Sub-Saharan Africa. Thirty-one percent of children under the age of five are malnourished and some 72 percent of the population lives on less than US$2 day. Forty-one percent lives on less than US$1 day. The impoverished and hungry are concentrated disproportionately in rural areas and rely mainly on the consumption and sale of agricultural produce for their food and income. Africa has experienced increasing dependency on food imports that its countries cannot afford. Yet an estimated 700,000 hectares of arable land in Africa remains uncultivated. It is land that could become productive through small-scale irrigation using basic technology to draw on small-water resources, such as tube wells, and dambos. The technologies can be applied to cultivate smallholder plots of up to five hectares. Employing them will enable up to 4 million low-income households to intensify agricultural production and increase productivity. Small-scale irrigation can increase agricultural productivity and production...

Priorities for Sustainable Growth : A Strategy for Agriculture Sector Development in Tajikistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
Agriculture sector growth has made a powerful contribution to post-war economic recovery in Tajikistan, accounting for approximately one third of overall economic growth from 1998 to 2004. Sector output increased by 65 percent in real terms during this period, and has now returned to the level extant at independence in 1990. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) has also increased, by 3 percent per year. Despite this progress, there is legitimate concern that this growth is unsustainable. Evidence suggests that it has been driven largely by the external factors noted above, rather than substantive changes to resources, incentives and the behavior of factor and commodity markets. First, an extensive program of policy reform, particularly in the area of land ownership, has yet to make a substantial impact on the incentive structure for agricultural workers cultivating the majority of arable land. Second, sustainable growth requires positive net investment. Third, commodity markets remain weak, with a limited capacity to translate increased demand into improved production incentives. And fourth...

Priorities for Sustainable Growth : A Strategy for Agriculture Sector Development in Tajikistan, Technical Annex 3. Livestock Sector Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
Agriculture sector growth has made a powerful contribution to post-war economic recovery in Tajikistan, accounting for approximately one third of overall economic growth from 1998 to 2004. Sector output increased by 65 percent in real terms during this period, and has now returned to the level extant at independence in 1990. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) has also increased, by 3 percent per year. Despite this progress, there is legitimate concern that this growth is unsustainable. Evidence suggests that it has been driven largely by the external factors noted above, rather than substantive changes to resources, incentives and the behavior of factor and commodity markets. First, an extensive program of policy reform, particularly in the area of land ownership, has yet to make a substantial impact on the incentive structure for agricultural workers cultivating the majority of arable land. Second, sustainable growth requires positive net investment. Third, commodity markets remain weak, with a limited capacity to translate increased demand into improved production incentives. And fourth...

Priorities for Sustainable Growth : A Strategy for Agriculture Sector Development in Tajikistan, Technical Annex 6. Rural Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.69%
Agriculture sector growth has made a powerful contribution to post-war economic recovery in Tajikistan, accounting for approximately one third of overall economic growth from 1998 to 2004. Sector output increased by 65 percent in real terms during this period, and has now returned to the level extant at independence in 1990. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) has also increased, by 3 percent per year. Despite this progress, there is legitimate concern that this growth is unsustainable. Evidence suggests that it has been driven largely by the external factors noted above, rather than substantive changes to resources, incentives and the behavior of factor and commodity markets. First, an extensive program of policy reform, particularly in the area of land ownership, has yet to make a substantial impact on the incentive structure for agricultural workers cultivating the majority of arable land. Second, sustainable growth requires positive net investment. Third, commodity markets remain weak, with a limited capacity to translate increased demand into improved production incentives. And fourth...

Land Tenure for Social and Economic Inclusion in Yemen : Issues and Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
The report, Land Tenure for Social and Economic Inclusion in Yemen: Issues and Opportunities was completed in December 2009. The report addresses the problems of land ownership in Yemen and the various social and economic problems associated with the system of land ownership. Property rights under Yemeni Law are expressed both in custom and statute, but both are informed by shari a (Islamic law), which provides the basic property categories for land in Yemen. There are unfortunately no reliable official statistics for the amount of land within these categories, or how much arable land (a small percentage of total land area) falls within each. It is clear however that certain groups suffer from disadvantages in accessing land and land rights. Daughters are disadvantaged by shari a rules which limit their inheritance shares to only half that of a son. Youth, unable to inherit until the demise of their parents and lacking the capital to buy land, lack access to land and other employment opportunities, which endangers social stability. There are occupational castes (artisans) who are discriminated in land holdings and ethnic minorities...

Ukraine : Soil Fertility to Strengthen Climate Resilience

Fileccia, Turi; Guadagni, Maurizio; Hovhera, Vasyl; Bernoux, Martial
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC and FAO, Rome Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC and FAO, Rome
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.68%
Ukraine is renowned as the breadbasket of Europe thanks to its black soils ( Chernozem black because of the high organic matter content) which offer exceptional agronomic conditions. One-third of the worldwide stock of the fertile black soils, which cover more than half of Ukraine s arable land, a large variety of climatic zones, and favourable temperature and moisture regimes, offers attractive conditions for the production of a large range of crops including cereals and oilseeds. Ukraine s proximity to large and growing neighbouring markets the Russian Federation and the European Union and access to deep sea ports at the Black Sea, provide direct access to world markets, especially large grain importers in the Middle East and North Africa.

Less or More Intensive Crop Arable Systems of Alentejo Region of Portugal: what is the sustainable option?

Marques,Carlos; Baptista,Fátima; Silva,Luis Leopoldo; Murcho,Dina; Rosado,Maurícia
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long. Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional system. On the one hand reduced and no tillage systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves. On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage of crop cycle or always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels. To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and alternative no tillage and irrigation systems and analyze their farm economic results as well as their energy efficiency and environmental impacts. The analysis of the impact of no tillage and irrigation on arable land production system showed that both alternatives contributed to cost savings and profit earnings, energy savings and reduced GHG emissions, increasing physical and economic factor efficiency. Research and technological development of both options are worthwhile to promote competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop production systems of the Alentejo region in Portugal.

Land Policy Dialogues : Addressing Urban-Rural Synergies in World Bank Facilitated Dialogues in the Last Decade

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
Land policy, administration and management are areas of strong client demand for technical advice and operational support. This review sought to help the Bank better position itself to present coherent advice on policy, institutional arrangements and practice. The potential implications are a lowering of reputational risk to the Bank; greater efficiency in the process including joint data gathering; and building of greater momentum and ownership of national land policy dialogues. The review found that dialogues are not as divergent as initially thought. Positions that are central to the Bank's message on tenure security, land market efficiencies, administrative integration, proactive and economically efficient land use management and encouragement of rental markets, all receive consonant reflection from the prescriptive policy advice generated by the Bank. The review notes that especially in democratic environments, policy prescriptions are to be judged in the dynamics of political economy and that land is one component where the bargaining becomes most contested. Finally the review suggests the need to go beyond the desk review that was possible in this undertaking and to use more extensive consultations with task team leaders and sector managers to convert the background paper produced under the current exercise into a position paper with a wider audience.

Turkmenistan : An Assessment of Leasehold-based Farm Restructuring

Lerman, Zvi; Brooks, Karen
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
Turkmenistan's unique approach to land reform and farm restructuring has produced a significant shift to individual or household-based farming, with more than three-quarters of the arable land leased to individual households or small groups. Most leaseholders consider this land to be rightfully theirs, and they expect to keep it in the future, either as private owners, or through extension of their leasehold. However, individual production is administratively circumscribed by a pervasive system of state orders and central planning. The lease contracts rigidly specify the crop that each leaseholder is required to produce (typically cotton or wheat) and set a specific quantity target for delivery to the state at prices much below the level of prices on international markets. Managers and leaseholders universally express the view that the prices they receive from the state for wheat and cotton are too low, and identify the chance to sell freely at open market proces as a key factor that would improve the economic situation on farms. Both managers and leaseholders expressed enthusiasm for the reform at the time of the survey. This is a natural psychological reaction to the dramatic transition to a new system...

Searching for the 'Grail'; Can Uganda's Land Support its Prosperity Drive?

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.73%
Over the past twenty years, Uganda’s population density has been increasing rapidly, placing significant pressure on the use of land. Uganda now has a population density of 194 persons per square kilometer of arable land, compared to 80 in Kenya and 116 in Ghana. At present, the majority of Uganda’s population still lives in rural areas, where the main source of livelihood is agriculture. However, the proportion of the population living in urban areas has increased significantly and will continue to increase into the future, with urban centers being the main driver of economic growth and transformation into higher value added activities. The highest rates of growth in population density are recorded in Uganda’s central region. It is essential that Uganda changes the manner in which it manages its land if the majority of its population is to achieve a higher level of prosperity through the healthy transformation of the agricultural sector and a shift towards higher value, more productive economic activities more generally. Through the formulation and implementation of smart policies...

Women’s Access to Land in Mauritania; Problématique de l’accès des femmes a la propriété foncière en Mauritanie : etude de cas en préparation du (COP) pour promouvoir le genre; A Case Study in Preparation for the COP

Bal, Salamata; Baro, Mamadou; O'Sullivan, Niamh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
Mauritania is a vast country covering over a million square kilometers, where a relatively small population of 3.5 million people lives on just one-fifth of the country’s total area. With extremely advanced desertification, the country is particularly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and other external shocks. The main sources of income in Mauritania are agriculture, which is either irrigated or rain-fed, and livestock. This is especially the case in the Senegal River Valley, where people make their living farming, raising livestock, and fishing, while mining is prevalent in the north. Arable land is therefore one of the country’s main resources, but it is also a major source of contention due to increasing urbanization and the limited availability of arable land. This presentation relies on the key recommendations emphasized in the Land Governance Framework Report (LGAF), published by the World Bank in 2014. This report established a far-reaching and more inclusive national land policy that strengthens the security of land tenure for vulnerable groups...

Securing Africa's Land for Shared Prosperity : A Program to Scale Up Reforms and Investments

Byamugisha, Frank F. K.
Fonte: Washington, DC: Agence Française de Développement and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: Agence Française de Développement and the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
This is covers land administration and reform in Sub-Saharan Africa, and is highly relevant to all developing countries around the world. It provides simple practical steps to turn the hugely controversial subject of "land grabs" into a development opportunity by improving land governance to reduce the risks of dispossessing poor landholders while ensuring mutually beneficial investors' deals. This book shows how Sub Saharan Africa can leverage its abundant and highly valuable natural resources to eradicate poverty by improving land governance through a ten point program to scale up policy reforms and investments at a cost of USD 4.5 billion. And it`s points out formidable challenges to implementation including high vulnerability to land grabbing and expropriation with poor compensation as about 90 percent of rural lands in Sub Saharan Africa are undocumented, but also timely opportunities since high commodity prices and investor interest in large scale agriculture have increased land values and returns to investing in land administration. It argues that success in implementation will require participation of many players including Pan-African organizations...

Efecto de la manipulación de la diversidad sobre el establecimiento de comunidades vegetales en tierras de cultivo abandonadas en la dehesa salmantina.

Alvarez Díaz, Jimmy Edgard
Fonte: Universidad de Salamanca; CSIC - Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca (IRNASA) Publicador: Universidad de Salamanca; CSIC - Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca (IRNASA)
Tipo: Tesis Formato: 10276864 bytes; application/msword
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
293 págs.-- Tesis de la Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Biología Animal, Parasitología, Ecología, Edafología y Química Agrícola y del Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC).; [ES] Se estudió la sucesión de las comunidades vegetales establecidas experimentalmente en tierras de cultivo abandonadas durante siete años de muestreo, bajo el desarrollo del proyecto CLUE (CHANGING LAND USAGE, Enhancement of biodiversity and ecosystem funtioning). En este tipo de tierras, las malas hierbas de cultivo que dominan la sucesión inicial, se convierten en una fuerza limitante de la dinámica de la vegetación ya que ralentizan la vuelta a las condiciones naturales previas al cultivo. Para contrarrestar su impacto negativo, se manipuló la diversidad de especies mediante la siembra de plantas características de estadios más tardíos de la sucesión natural, en dos tratamientos de siembra: uno con 4 especies o baja diversidad (BD) y otro con 15 especies o alta diversidad (AD), que se compararon entre sí y con condiciones naturales (CN) siguiendo un diseño de bloques completamente aleatorizados. Sólo cuatro de las quince especies sembradas fueron dominantes durante la mayor parte del tiempo examinado...

Country Partnership Framework for the Plurinational State of Bolivia for the Period FY16-FY20

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Country Focus :: Country Assistance Strategy Document
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.62%
Bolivia’s distinct characteristics and aspirations are a key for understanding its development trajectory. Bolivia is one of the countries with the highest share of indigenous population, representing a tapestry of different groups with different historical, cultural and economic features, with a significant influence in policy decision making. The country is landlocked and one of the most sparsely populated in the world. As a result, long distances to the nearest seaports and markets and a challenging topography pose important natural constraints to economic expansion, and hamper broad-based and inclusive growth. Bolivia is also wealthy in natural resources, not only in hydrocarbon and in mining but in forestry and arable land, with high potential for growth, which make it vulnerable to commodity price shocks. In addition, in the last decade, the country has experienced a profound economic and political paradigm shift, enshrined in the 2009 Constitution, which has been predominantly driven by a state-led development model geared at addressing the social aspirations of Bolivians. The Agenda Patriótica provides the overall policy vision to 2025 and includes 13 strategic pillars. The PDES contains a five-year rolling plan with policy actions and budgets to operationalize the Agenda Patriótica. The overarching development agenda of the Government is still...

Less or more intensive crop arable systems of Alentejo region of Portugal: What is the option to sustainable production?

Marques, C.; Baptista, F.; Silva, L.L.; Murcho, D.; Rosado, M.
Fonte: Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural Publicador: Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Competitiveness of traditional arable crop system of Alentejo region of Portugal has been questioned for long. Discussion and research on the sustainability of the system has evolved on two contrasted alternative options for production technologies to traditional system. On the one hand reduced and no tillage systems aim to more extensive technical operations reducing costs and maintaining production, or even to increase it in the long run as soil fertility improves. On the other hand, input intensification using irrigation, as a complement in the last stage of crop cycle or always when needed, aimed to increase system production levels. To evaluate competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop system we evaluated traditional rotation technology and alternative no tillage and irrigation systems and analyze their farm economic results as well as their energy efficiency and environmental impacts. The analysis of the impact of no tillage and irrigation on arable land production system showed that both alternatives contributed to cost savings and profit earnings, energy savings and reduced GHG emissions, increasing physical and economic factor efficiency. Research and technological development of both options are worthwhile to promote competitiveness and sustainability of arable crop production systems of the Alentejo region in Portugal.

Dynamics of arable land requirements for food in South Africa: From 1961 to 2007

Luan,Yibo; Cui,Xuefeng; Ferrat,Marion; Nath,Reshmita
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.69%
Food consumption puts pressure on natural resources and arable land. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of land requirements for food in South Africa from 1961 to 2007 and investigated the relationships between dietary patterns, yield, cropping intensity, population and the area of required land using the thought experiment method. Strong population growth and the development of agricultural technology (indicated by yield) accounted for more than a 2.5-fold increase in the total land requirements for food from 1961 to 2007. Before the 1990s, the increase in crop yields enabled constant land requirements, whereas, after the 1990s, the combined effect of agricultural technology and population growth, together with a small contribution from dietary changes, led to an increase in the land requirements for food. Our findings confirm that the variation in land requirements for food is a complex, non-linear function of agricultural production techniques, population growth and dietary patterns and show that the complex relationship between dietary pattern changes, and economic development challenges future predictions of land requirements for food in South Africa.