Página 1 dos resultados de 2025 itens digitais encontrados em 0.127 segundos

Climate Change Governance

Meadowcroft, James
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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85.82%
Climate change governance poses difficult challenges for contemporary political/administrative systems. These systems evolved to handle other sorts of problems and must now be adapted to handle emerging issues of climate change mitigation and adaptation. This paper examines long-term climate governance, particularly in relation to overcoming "institutional inertia" that hampers the development of an effective and timely response. It argues that when the influence of groups that fear adverse consequences of mitigation policies is combined with scientific uncertainty, the complexity of reaching global agreements, and long time frames, the natural tendency is for governments to delay action, to seek to avoid antagonizing influential groups, and to adopt less ambitious climate programs. Conflicts of power and interest are inevitable in relation to climate change policy. To address climate change means altering the way things are being done today - especially in terms of production and consumption practices in key sectors such as energy...

Addressing Climate Change in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

Cervigni, Raffaello; Pariente-David, Silvia; Rigaud, Kanta K.; Holten, Johanne; Coma Cunill, Roger
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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85.83%
The brief includes the following headings: Middle East and North Africa (MENA) vulnerability to climate change; World Bank program - overall approach; reducing vulnerability; carbon emissions and low carbon growth; promoting low-carbon growth; and region-wide activities.

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Mozambique

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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95.82%
This report is part of a broader global study, the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC), which has two principal objectives: (a) to develop a global estimate of adaptation costs for informing international climate negotiations; and (b) to help decision makers in developing countries assess the risks posed by climate change and design national strategies for adapting to it. The purpose of this study is to assist the Government of Mozambique in its efforts to understand the potential economic impacts of climate change and to support its efforts to develop sound policies and investments in response to these potential impacts. The Mozambique Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) study selected four sectors that are believed to be vulnerable to climate change: (1) agriculture, which employs over 70 percent of the population; (2) energy, particularly hydropower generation, which is dependent on water runoff; (3) transport infrastructure, notably roads; and (4) coastal areas, which do not conform to a "sector" but characterize specific geographical areas vulnerable to floods and storm surges directly and indirectly related to sea level rise. The report ends with a discussion of seven lessons learned from the study. Volume 1contains the final report...

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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95.88%
To address these objectives, the study was conducted on two parallel tracks: (1) a global tracka top-down approach, in which national databases were used to generate aggregate estimates at a global scale, drawing on a wide variety of sector studies; and (2) a country level track: a bottom-up approach, in whichsub-national data were aggregated to generate estimates at economywide, sectoral, and local levels. This Synthesis Report integrates and summarizes the key findings of a global study report and seven country case study reports covering Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique, Samoa, and Vietnam(Figure ES-1). By providing information on lessons learned and insights gained on adaptation to climate change from global, country, and sector-level analyses,the hope is to help policymakers worldwide prioritize actions, along with developing a robust, integrated approach for greater resilience to climate risks. The Report begins with the concepts and methodology used for analyses in both the global and the country case studies...

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Samoa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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85.82%
Over the last two decades Samoa has suffered major damage from two cyclones in 1990-91, minor damage from a third cyclone in 2004, and an earthquake tsunami in 2009. Changes in the scale and impact of these types of natural disasters are likely to be important consequences of climate change for the country because the increases in sea level and in average sea surface temperatures will increase theintensity and damage from major storms. Other potential impacts are linked to changes in the weather patterns associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The primary concern focuses on the impact on agriculture, especially in periods of lower precipitation following strong El Niño episodes.This study examines the consequences of an increase in average temperatures of up to 1°C by 2050 and up to 2.75°C by 2100 for the frequency and intensity of major cyclones that hit the islands. Estimates of the economic damage caused by storms in the past have been used to calibrate a damage function that yields an estimated increase in the expected value of economic damage as the peak wind speeds for storms with return periods of 10...

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Ghana, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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95.83%
The report is organized as follows. The next section puts the study into context by briefly discussing the global EACC study and the EACC methodology, which was applied in this study at a more disaggregated level. The section highlights the differential impacts of climate change among different regions of the world, including Africa. Chapter three presents an overview of the methodology used, including the key assumptions. An effort has been made to present this information in nontechnical language where possible. The more technical aspects of the study can be found in the annexes. The sector results are contained in chapter four. The chapter begins with an overview of the Ghanaian economy, followed by the climate projections for Ghana and the overall economic impacts. Next, the results for each sector are presented in three parts: climate change impacts, the adaptation options, and the adaptation costs. The final chapter concludes with a summary and policy implications.

Municipal Vulnerability to Climate Change and Climate-Related Events in Mexico

Borja-Vega, Christian; de la Fuente, Alejandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.82%
A climate change vulnerability index in agriculture is presented at the municipal level in Mexico. Because the index is built with a multidimensional approach to vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity), it represents a tool for policy makers, academics and government alike to inform decisions about climate change resilience and regional variations within the country. The index entails baseline (2005) and prediction (2045) levels based on historic climate data and future-climate modeling. The results of the analysis suggest a wide variation in municipal vulnerability across the country at baseline and prediction points. The vulnerability index shows that highly vulnerable municipalities demonstrate higher climate extremes, which increases uncertainty for harvest periods, and for agricultural yields and outputs. The index shows at baseline that coastal areas host some of the most vulnerable municipalities to climate change in Mexico. However, it also shows that the Northwest and Central regions will likely experience the largest shifts in vulnerability between 2005 and 2045. Finally...

The Need for Multiple Types of Information to Inform Climate Change Assessment

Toman, Michael
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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85.87%
Information on ecosystem characteristics as well as economic statistics is needed to more fully inform decision makers on the impacts of climate change on human well-being. Climate change risks involve potentially large and irreversible as well as highly uncertain impacts that need to be evaluated with information that complements cost-benefit analysis. Information on the irreversibility of impacts also is relevant for evaluating implications for intergenerational equity. In addition, climate change is subject to a large degree of Knightian uncertainty, making it useful to understand how individuals perceive and evaluate climate change risks.

Beyond Downscaling : A Bottom-Up Approach to Climate Adaptation for Water Resources Management

Garcia, L.E.; Matthews, J.H.; Rodriguez, D.J.; Wijnen, M.; DiFrancesco, K.N.; Ray, P.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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85.85%
This report focuses on how we achieve water sustainability over long timescales - decades, even centuries from now. These timescales are important and relevant to our decisions about planning, infrastructure, and institutions today. Many of the methods we use to manage water, directly or indirectly, commit us to future decision pathways and restrict us from making other, alternative decisions. Across the first four chapters, this report describes the challenges of including climate change in water management decision-making and provides an overview of current practices in the adaptation field. After considering the pros and cons of these practices, the book concludes with a framework for an adaptation approach supported by Alliance for Global Water Adaptation (AGWA).

Romania - A Risk Analysis and Screening Approach for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.87%
The current report is a milestone for preparing the Romanian climate change (CC) action plan. A CC action plan should be based on the consolidation and coordination of both mitigation and adaptation measures and options. An important step in the elaboration of such a plan is the selection of appropriate actions. This selection requires the involvement of competent authorities in the key sectors, including, in the case of Romania, transport, energy, urban, water, agriculture, and forestry. The screening approaches are used to facilitate a transparent decision-making process in various fields such as environmental impacts, dangerous substances, environmental footprint of products, or CC actions. The report is structured as follows: section one gives introduction. Section two summarizes the usage of screening approaches in the field of CC and environment by different European Union (EU) member states and by the European Commission. Section three discusses the main categories of mitigation and adaption measures that can be included in a CC action plan. Section four presents the screening approach and process and describes several complementary tools (multi-criteria analysis...

Prioritizing engagement for sustainable adaptation to climate change: An example from natural resource management in South Australia

Bardsley, D.; Rogers, G.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Inc Publicador: Taylor & Francis Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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95.76%
This article describes a regional approach to climate change adaption that focuses on engaging the natural resource management community. In a world tempered by increasing climatic uncertainty as a result of projected climate change, natural resource management practitioners are looking for approaches to respond through effective adaptation, yet the availability of practical tools to guide and inform their decision-making processes is limited. The social learning approach described was developed between the South Australian Government and the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board. The approach successfully engaged stakeholders and provided a foundation upon which informed adaptation planning and action could take place. Techniques ranged from direct relationship building and participatory action learning, through to a regional vulnerability analysis and the development and application of a comprehensive regional adaptation response framework to guide future decisions.; Douglas K. Bardsley, Geoffrey P. Rogers

Water and Climate Adaptation Plan for the Sava River Basin; Annex 3. Guidance Note on Adaptation to Climate Change for Hydropower

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.81%
This report presents the water and climate adaptation plan (WATCAP) developed for the Sava river basin (SRB) as result of a study undertaken by the World Bank. The WATCAP is intended to help to bridge the gap between the climate change predictions for the SRB and the decision makers in current and planned water management investment projects that will be affected by changing climate trends. The purpose of the report is to: (i) assist stakeholders and decision makers in assessing and planning for the risks generated by climate change impacts on water resources; (ii) provide a basis for future plans and studies of adaptation to climate change impacts in the SRB; and (iii) stimulate cooperation and debate across the basin toward additional and more detailed studies on climate change impacts at the regional and basin scale. The SRB is projected to experience small increases in water use by the public water supply, industry, energy, and agricultural and irrigation sectors. However, it is widely expected that new hydropower plants (HPPs) will be constructed in the near future...

Science, ideology and climate change.

Callaghan, Peta
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
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85.85%
The science of anthropogenic climate change (ACC) is not new, but has been built up like any science over the course of more than a century. Despite this, ACC has only been marked by controversy since the 1970s (Kellogg, I987), when it became apparent that action must be taken to reduce emissions of greenhouse gasses. Subsequent debate has ensued not only around the type of action necessary to reduce humanity's impact on the climate, but around the accuracy of the theory itself. This thesis aims to explore this debate and the scientific, social and political nature of ACC using a mixed methods approach. The first chapter of the thesis provides a review of the social science literature, to address the broad question: what contributes to the debate around the reality of ACC? I review literature examining the nature of ACC scepticism, contrarianism and denial, the range of positions exisiting with this alternative attitudinal and discursive space, the prevalence of such positions, and the connection such positions have with traditional conservative ideology. In addition, I review literature highlighting how collective views on ACC have changed over time, in line with the political and social events that naturally transpire, before reviewing literature focused on issues of morality and ethics around the ACC problem. From here I highlight areas for further inquiry...

Looking Beyond the Horizon : How Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Responses Will Reshape Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Sutton, William R.; Srivastava, Jitendra P.; Neumann, James E.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.82%
This volume presents a synthesis of the multi-country collaborative program of analytical and advisory activities titled reducing vulnerability to climate change in European and Central Asian (ECA) agricultural systems. Climate change and its impacts on agricultural systems and rural economies are already evident throughout the ECA region. Adaptation measures now in use in the region-largely piecemeal efforts-would be insufficient to prevent impacts on agricultural production over the coming decades. Interest is growing among governments and many of their development partners to gain a better understanding of the exposure, sensitivities, and impacts of climate change at the farm level, and to develop and prioritize adaptation measures to build resilience to the potentially adverse consequences. Agricultural production is inextricably tied to climate, making agriculture one of the most climate-sensitive of all economic sectors. In many countries, such as the four examined in this work, the risks of climate change for the agricultural sector are a particularly immediate and important problem because the majority of the rural population depends either directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. The risks of climate change cannot be effectively dealt with and the opportunities cannot be effectively exploited without a clear plan for aligning agricultural policies with climate change...

Development and Climate Change : A Strategic Framework for the World Bank Group

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.82%
The framework provided a road map for climate action for the World Bank Group (WBG) over fiscal years 2009-11, setting out the WBG's objectives, principles, areas of focus, and major initiatives in the field of climate change. The framework was organized around six action areas: 1) supporting climate actions in country-led development processes; 2) mobilizing additional concessional and innovative finance; 3) facilitating the development of market-based financing mechanisms; 4) leveraging private sector resources; 5) supporting accelerated development and deployment of new technologies; and 6) stepping up policy research, knowledge, and capacity building. Climate change is one of the multiple stressors that affect the environment and impact on income and welfare. Further, its impact is worsened by other environmental damages. Looking ahead, strategies to combat climate change have to account for the continued need for rapid growth in developing countries. In this context, the World Bank is now looking at climate change in a holistic manner...

Development and Climate Change : A Strategic Framework for the World Bank Group, Technical Annexes for FY09-11

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.83%
The framework provided a road map for climate action for the World Bank Group (WBG) over fiscal years 2009-11, setting out the WBG's objectives, principles, areas of focus, and major initiatives in the field of climate change. The framework was organized around six action areas: 1) supporting climate actions in country-led development processes; 2) mobilizing additional concessional and innovative finance; 3) facilitating the development of market-based financing mechanisms; 4) leveraging private sector resources; 5) supporting accelerated development and deployment of new technologies; and 6) stepping up policy research, knowledge, and capacity building. Climate change is one of the multiple stressors that affect the environment and impact on income and welfare. Further, its impact is worsened by other environmental damages. Looking ahead, strategies to combat climate change have to account for the continued need for rapid growth in developing countries. In this context, the World Bank is now looking at climate change in a holistic manner...

Climate Change and Fiscal Policy : A Report for APEC

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.84%
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies display large variation in terms of income per capita. The richest APEC economies have an income per capita about twenty times higher than the poorest ones. So far most work on fiscal policy and climate change has been written with developed economies in mind. This report on the use of fiscal policies for mitigating and adapting to climate change effects corrects that bias with a particular focus on the developing economies of APEC. It also plays close attention to lessons that could be learnt from the advanced economies of APEC and elsewhere. On mitigation, the report notes that achieving the ambitious targets adopted by APEC economies will depend crucially the choice of fiscal policy instruments. These choices will depend, in turn, on the characteristics of developing economies, particularly of their energy sectors. Specifically, mitigation in developing countries requires a broad-based response with four key components. First, carbon pricing will be critical...

Pro-Poor Adaptation to Climate Change in Urban Centers : Case Studies of Vulnerability and Resilience in Kenya and Nicaragua

Moser, Caroline; Norton, Andrew; Stein, Alfredo; Georgieva, Sophia
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.87%
The objective of this economic sector work (ESW) is to address these gaps by piloting a methodology capable of quickly and cost-effectively introducing into adaptation planning processes an appreciation of the significance of climate change impacts for poor people in informal urban settlements. Specifically in the two case study sites (Mombasa in Kenya and Esteli in Nicaragua) sought to: a) make visible climate change impacts of various kinds on poor people; b) illustrate what poor households, small businesses and groups in communities are doing to cope with such climate change impacts (experienced as increasingly variable and capricious weather patterns); and c) identify how policy and institutional systems can best build on local realities to develop pro-poor urban climate change adaptation actions, particularly relating to resilience. The report introduces an asset-based framework to analyze the vulnerability of urban poor people to severe weather events whose frequency or intensity climate change may be increasing...

Social Dimensions of Climate Change : Equity and Vulnerability in a Warming World

Mearns, Robin; Norton, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.83%
Climate change is widely acknowledged as foremost among the formidable challenges facing the international community in the 21st century. It poses challenges to fundamental elements of our understanding of appropriate goals for social and economic policy, such as the connection of prosperity, growth, equity, and sustainable development. This volume seeks to establish an agenda for research and action built on an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and the key social dimensions of vulnerability, social justice, and equity. The volume is organized as follows. This introductory chapter first sets the scene by framing climate change as an issue of social justice at multiple levels, and by highlighting equity and vulnerability as the central organizing themes of an agenda on the social dimensions of climate change. Chapter two leads off with a review of existing theories and frameworks for understanding vulnerability, drawing out implications for pro-poor climate policy. Understanding the multilayered causal structure of vulnerability then can assist in identifying entry points for pro-poor climate policy at multiple levels. Building on such analytical approaches...

A Risk Management Approach to Climate Adaptation in China

Sall, Chris
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.9%
This discussion paper provides the analytical backdrop for a series of papers on managing climate- and weather-related risks in China. It reviews and synthesizes the growing literature on risk-based management approaches to climate change adaptation and offers guidance on a process for decision making. Managing risks from severe weather, present-day climate variability, and future climate change is integral to China's development. While the effects of future climate change are deeply uncertain, this uncertainty should not preclude action. Risk management is in essence a process for designing, implementing, and evaluating policies in the face of such uncertainty. The paper begins by defining key concepts and establishes the context for climate risk management and adaptation in China. It then outlines a step-by-step process for a risk centered approach to adaptation. The focus of the process is on planning for adaptation, not policy implementation. The papers that follow in the series take the general framework set out by this paper and apply it to different sectors...