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A elusão tributária e os limites à requalificação dos negócios jurídicos; Tax audidance and the limits applicable to the reclassification of activities by tax authorities or the Brazilian tax legislator

Germano, Livia de Carli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/05/2010 PT
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36.22%
O presente estudo examina os limites à requalificação dos negócios jurídicos no Brasil, seja pelas autoridades fiscais seja pelo legislador tributário (infraconstitucional) com a criação de regras específicas e gerais para o controle da elusão fiscal. Para tanto, considera-se a elusão fiscal como figura autônoma, buscando-se identificar os critérios para a delimitação desta zona cinzenta existente entre a conduta contra legem (evasão) e aquela que não contraria, quer direta quer indiretamente, o ordenamento (elisão), e que corresponde à prática de atos aparentemente lícitos mas que ferem indiretamente o ordenamento. A identificação de tais critérios coloca em relevo a importância da causa dos negócios jurídicos e a noção de ilicitude atípica que qualifica os atos e negócios aparentemente lícitos porém desprovidos de causa, engendrados exclusivamente com vistas à economia de tributos. Analisa-se então como o ordenamento positivo brasileiro trata esta categoria de atos e negócios, buscando delimitar o que a administração fiscal está autorizada a fazer no combate à elusão fiscal. Em seguida, passa-se ao exame do controle da elusão fiscal realizado pela via legislativa, analisando-se os limites ao estabelecimento de regras específicas de prevenção ou de correção da elusão baseadas em ficções e presunções...

O domínio polar ártico perante o direito internacional público; The arctic polar dominium under international law

Cardoso, Luis Fernando de Paiva Baracho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
A presente dissertação tem como objetivo o estudo da situação jurídica do Ártico perante o direito internacional público, o que nos leva tanto à análise dos regimes jurídicos internacionais aplicáveis quanto à sua eventual coordenação e aplicação por um ente jurídico internacional de cooperação próprio, o Conselho do Ártico. Para tanto, teremos como referenciais paradigmáticos o direito internacional dos espaços e o direito internacional do meio ambiente. Sendo assim, iniciamos apresentando uma série de categorias jurídicas fundamentais a fim de elucidar o estudo proposto. Entre tais categorias jurídicas, a de território e a de espaços internacionais (direito internacional dos espaços), por um lado, e a de espaço ambiental internacional e a de área de interesse comum da humanidade (direito internacional do meio ambiente) são as mais importantes. Em seguida, analisamos o Ártico perante o direito internacional dos espaços, levando em consideração os seus dois domínios principais, o terrestre e o marítimo. No capítulo posterior, abordamos o Ártico perante o direito internacional do meio ambiente, por meio da identificação e estudo dos principais tratados aplicáveis ao ecossistema ártico. Com isso...

Problemas da competência internacional e do direito aplicável no direito de insolvência internacional da União Europeia e do Mercosul

Bondarczuk, Eduardo Henrique
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
O presente trabalho se propõe a identificar os problemas e apresentar as soluções já encontradas referentes à Competência Internacional e ao Direito Aplicável no Direito de Insolvência Internacional da União Europeia e do Mercosul. Na primeira parte do trabalho se apresenta alguns conceitos importantes a serem utilizados no mesmo. Na segunda parte, busca-se analisar os problemas e soluções encontrados no âmbito da União Europeia em razão do Regulamento 1346/2000. Na última parte, expõe-se a situação do Mercosul, suas características e obstáculos em assuntos do Direito de Insolvência Internacional. Paralelamente são apresentadas inter-relações entre esse direito nas duas regiões.; This research has the purpose of identify the problems and to clarify the solutions already found in the following theme: “The International Jurisdiction and the Applicable Law of the International Insolvency Law in European Union and in Mercosul”. In the first part of this composition, it is showed a few important concepts that will be used in the text. Secondly, it is analyzed the problems and solutions found in the European Union according to the Regulation 1346/2000. Finally, it is exposed the situation of Mercosul, its characteristics and obstacles in the subject of International Insolvency Law. At the same time it is presented the relationship between these subjects in the two different regions.

La désignation de la loi applicable en matière de successions internationales : la professio juris en droit international privé québécois et comparé

Ghozlan, Stéphanie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
Alors qu’un éternel débat oppose les défenseurs de la scission et ceux de l’unité successorale, la professio juris donne une nouvelle perspective à la question de la détermination du droit applicable à une succession internationale, à travers le prisme de l’autonomie de la volonté et de la prévisibilité juridique. En conférant au de cujus la faculté de désigner lui-même le droit qui régira sa succession, elle lui permet d’écarter la règle de conflit objective au profit d’un ou de plusieurs rattachements de son choix et d’éviter l’incertitude reliée à l’appréciation des rattachements objectifs au moment du décès. Instaurée au Québec en 1994, cette institution n’existe que dans quelques États. Quoique présentant des intérêts indéniables en termes de planification, la professio juris a éveillé la crainte que le de cujus ne l’utilise que pour éluder les règles impératives du droit objectivement applicable, dont ses dispositions protectrices comme la réserve héréditaire. Deux types de limites à la professio juris ont ainsi émergé, restreignant l’éventail de lois parmi lesquelles le de cujus peut choisir et proscrivant ensuite certains effets de la désignation. Ce mémoire repose sur l’étude comparative des balises instituées dans plusieurs législations qui connaissent la professio juris...

The Transit Regime for Landlocked States : International Law and Development Perspectives

Uprety, Kishor
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
This study traces the development of the international law related to the free access of landlocked States to and from the sea. Part I is a brief introduction to economic, institutional, and development-related challenges faced by landlocked States. Part II examines doctrines and theories that have influenced the evolution of the legal regime that applies to landlocked States. Part III reviews the progress the international community has achieved over the decades in devising legal mechanisms to address the problems these States face. It discusses enforcement of the right of access, in particular, the administrative, institutional, and technical mechanisms used. The study further analyzes bilateral treaties and agreements dealing with the question of transit in different continents. These agreements aimed at facilitating transit between landlocked States and their transit neighbors provide for regimes that are tailored to the specific geopolitical and socioeconomic needs of the parties. The study also discusses the different international resolutions bearing on cooperation between landlocked States and the role of multilateral institutions. Finally...

Retrospectivity and the rule of law / C. Sampford ; with the assistance of J. Louise, S. Blencowe, and T. Round

Sampford, C.; Louise, J.; Blencowe, S.; Round, T.
Fonte: Oxford University Press; USA Publicador: Oxford University Press; USA
Tipo: Livro
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Retrospective rule-making has few supporters and many opponents. Defenders of retrospective laws generally do so on the basis that they are a necessary evil in specific or limited circumstances, for example to close tax loopholes, to deal with terrorists or to prosecute fallen tyrants. Yet the reality of retrospective rule making is far more widespread than this, and ranges from ’corrective’ legislation to ’interpretive regulations’ to judicial decision making. The search for a rational justification for retrospective rule-making necessitates a reconsideration of the very nature of the rule of law and the kind of law that can rule, and will provide new insights into the nature of law and the parameters of societal order. This book examines the various ways in which laws may be seen as retrospective and analyses the problems in defining retrospectivity. In his analysis Dr Charles Sampford asserts that the definitive argument against retrospective rule-making is the expectation of individuals that, if their actions today are considered by a future court, the applicable law was discoverable at the time the action was performed. The book goes on to suggest that although the strength of this ’rule of law’ argument should prevail in general...

The Interrelationship between EU Law And Private International Law in Contractual Obligations: Private autonomy, overriding mandatory provisions and a European justice area

KUIPERS, Jan-Jaap
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
The aim of this research is to analyse the interrelationship between Private International Law and European Union law in the area of contractual obligations. The Rome I Regulation on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations is used to delimit the scope of research. The material rules of Rome I will be discussed in order to demonstrate that the instrument follows the traditional European conflict of laws approach without any specific orientation towards internal market objectives. The influence of Union law upon PIL goes however beyond positive harmonisation, being the codification of conflict of law norms on the European level. In the analysis of the effects of Union law upon the conflict of law process, a distinction will be drawn between international and =European‘ contracts. As regards international contracts Rome I could be used to establish the international scope of application of secondary Union law when the contract involves a link with a third country. However the legislator seems to have given preference to an autonomous approach based upon the object and purpose of the relevant instrument. These directives create nuisance in the conflict of law process and it will be proposed to integrate sector specific scope rules in Rome I. With regard to contracts that exclusively have connections with two or more Member States it will be analysed to what extent rules of contract law are caught by the fundamental freedoms. It will be argued that primary law does not favour ex ante the application of the law of a specific Member State...

Data protection and European private international law

BRKAN, Maja
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
The objective of this working paper is to point out actual and potential obstacles to effective protection of the fundamental right to data protection, created by rules on jurisdiction and applicable law, and to put forward solutions for removing those obstacles with regard to data protection. More precisely, the working paper first elaborates on categories of litigation in the field of data protection in order to identify potential claimants, defendants and competent administrative and judicial authorities that may decide on those remedies. Furthermore, building upon these categories of litigation, the working paper seeks to determine jurisdictional issues regarding data protection litigation within the EU, elaborating concretely on potential competent courts in case a data subject wants to file a private enforcement claim against a controller processing his personal data. Finally, the working paper addresses issues of applicable law in data protection litigation, dealing with questions such as the possibility of agreements on applicable law, the questions of applicable law if the controller is situated within the EU and the questions of extraterritorial application of EU data protection law if the controller is established outside of the EU. The working paper concludes with final remarks on the above issues.

Derecho aplicable al fondo de la controversia en el arbitraje comercial internacional

S??nchez Lorenzo, Sixto A.
Fonte: AEPDIRI Publicador: AEPDIRI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
El Derecho applicable al fondo de la controversia en el arbitraje commercial internacional cumple una doble funci??n integrativa e interpretativa en relaci??n con el tratamiento legal de los contratos y obligaciones entre las partes. Sin embargo, en este art??culo se defiende la exclusi??n de la tradicional funci??n restrictiva en virtud de la cual las normas imperativas de la lex causae solo deben ser aplicadas como leyes de polic??a en los mismos supuestos que las de los terceros Estados. Las razones para la aplicaci??n de las normas internacionalmente imperativas en el arbitraje comercial internacional atienden a tres cincunstancias: conexi??n estrecha de la situaci??n, previsibilidad y reconocimiento internacional del inter??s p??blico. Este estudio contiene asimismo una aproximaci??n cr??tica a la lex mercatoria en sentido amplio, m??s all?? de las pr??cticas comerciales. Se analiza la inconveniente identificaci??n de los Principios UNIDROIT con la lex mercatoria y la necesidad de aceptar su aplicaci??n ??nicamente en la medida en que se consideren un reflejo de normas y principios generalmente aceptados. Recientemente, la cuesti??n de la determinaci??n de la ley aplicable al fondo en el arbitraje comercial internacional se ha emancipado de las tradicionales soluciones del Derecho internacional privado aplicadas por las jurisdicciones nacionales. Sin embargo...

Common European Sales Law (CESL) and Private International Law: Some Critical Remarks

S??nchez Lorenzo, Sixto A.
Fonte: Hart Publishing Publicador: Hart Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
This article is an updated and revised version of the contribution published by the author in XI Anuario Espa??ol de Derecho Internacional Privado, 2011, 25-61, under the title: ???La Propuesta de Reglamento relativo a una normativa com??n de compraventa europea y el Derecho internacional privado???.; La Propuesta de Reglamento del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo relativo a una normativa com??n de compraventa europea de 11 de octubre de 2011 (PCESL) introduce una reglamentaci??n material para algunas compraventas transfronterizas que no desplaza la aplicaci??n de las normas de conflicto (en particular de las contenidas de los Reglamentos ???Roma I??? y ???Roma II???). Al contrario, el instrumento opcional contenido en la Propuesta de Reglamento (CESL) presupone la aplicaci??n de la ley de un Estado miembro, como lex contractus. Una vez escogida por las partes, la CESL desplaza a las normas internas cobre compraventa de la ley del Estado miembro. Esta opci??n del legislador comunitario plantea numerosos problemas e interrogantes acerca de las relaciones entre la CESL y las normas de Derecho internacional privado y en torno a su coexistencia con otros convenios internacionales y el propio acervo comunitario. El an??lisis de estas relaciones es el objeto del presente estudio...

Choice of Law and Overriding Mandatory Rules after Rome I

S??nchez Lorenzo, Sixto A.
Fonte: Sellier Publicador: Sellier
Tipo: Outros
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Estudio de la elecci??n de la ley aplicable a los contratos internacionales en relaci??n con las normas de orden p??blico internacional, incluyendo un tratamiento particular en el ??mbito de la Uni??n Europea.; Analysis of the choice of law in international contracts in relation with overriding mandatory rules, including a particular reference to this problem within the EU framework.

Los contratos internacionales de construcción "llave en mano".

Hernández Rodríguez, Aurora
Fonte: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
RESUMEN. Junto a la compraventa y el transporte, la construcción constituye una de las operaciones más importantes sobre las que se sustenta el comercio internacional. Este trabajo tiene por objeto analizar una categoría concreta de contratos: los contratos internacionales de construcción «llave en mano», cuyo uso se ha extendido en los últimos años. Se tratará por tanto de ofrecer una visión general de los mismos, teniendo en cuenta que esta modalidad contractual ha ido forjándose en el comercio internacional a través de los usos y prácticas de los agentes implicados en este sector, principalmente asociaciones de profesionales. Desde esta perspectiva, se prestará especial atención a cuestiones tan esen-ciales como: el concepto, las características, la naturaleza jurídica, el contenido del contrato, así como la resolución de con lictos y la determinación del Derecho aplicable.; ABSTRACT. With sale and transport, construction is one of the most important operations on which international trade is based. This work aims to analyze a particular category of contracts «turnkey » international construction contracts, whose use has spread in recent years. It will intend to provide an overview of them, considering that this type of contract has been forged in international trade through the customs and practices of those involved in this sector...

Law and Firms' Access to Finance

Beck, Thorsten; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Why does a country's legal origin influence its firms' access to finance? Using data from over 4,000 firms in 38 countries, the authors show that firms in countries with French legal origin face significantly higher obstacles in accessing external finance than firms in common law countries. Next, their results indicate that French legal origin countries tend to have (1) less adaptable legal systems, as defined by the degree to which case law and principles of equity rather than simply statutory law are accepted foundations of legal decisions, and (2) less politically independent judiciaries, as defined by the degree of tenure of supreme court judges and their jurisdiction over cases involving the government. Finally, the authors find that the adaptability of a country's legal system is more important for explaining the obstacles that firms face in contracting for external finance than the political independence of the judiciary. So, they distinguish among competing explanations of why law matters for financial development by empirically documenting the links running from international differences in legal origin to the operation of the financial system at the firm level.

Land Law Reform : Achieving Development Policy Objectives

Bruce, John W.; Giovarelli, Renée; Rolfes, Jr., Leonard; Bledsoe, David; Mitchell, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
This book examines issues at the forefront of the debate on land law reform, pays particular attention to how reform options affect the poor and disadvantaged, and recommends strategies for alleviating poverty more effectively through land law reform. It reviews the role of the World Bank in land law reform, examining issues of process as well as substance. It also identifies key challenges and directions, and stresses the need to design law reforms in ways that suit diverse economic, legal, and institutional environments. This book is a contribution to comparative thinking on reform of the law relating to land. It examines the implications for land law reform in the broadening of development goals beyond growth to include environmental protection, poverty eradication, and achievement of gender equity, and it reviews a broad range of experience in land law reform. After the introductory chapter, chapter 2 examines how land law reform is achieved through World Bank initiatives. It reviews steps the Bank has taken to achieve comprehensive reforms of land law in the context of natural resource management and land reform programs and land administration projects. It also analyzes lessons learned from various land law reform processes. Chapter 3 addresses reform of rules affecting women's access to and rights in land. The topic is one in which broad recommendations are not necessarily easy due to cultural and other norms governing women's rights and freedoms regarding land. Chapter 4 examines how to develop land markets while minimizing adverse effects and enhancing positive impacts on the poor. Chapter 5 discusses the importance of titling and registration of land rights...

BA'S : The practice and law of bankers' acceptance

Gozlan, Audi
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Au cours d'une transaction portant sur une acceptation bancaire (ci-après «BA» tel que dénommée dans le jargon juridique) différents types de relations peuvent s'établir entre les parties impliquées, certaines plus directes que d'autres. Dans une transaction donnée, à part le client et la banque, on peut trouver une ou plusieurs banques participantes et un ou plusieurs investisseurs, qui deviennent détenteurs de BA. La situation peut devenir complexe et les relations légales risquent de devenir assez compliquées. Cependant, il est important d'identifier si la relation s'est établie à travers l'instrument de BA, si elle existe par le biais d'une relation contractuelle ordinaire ou encore, si elle existe par le fait de la loi. Une bonne analyse des circonstances entourant la transaction, des facteurs connexes à la transaction et des droits et obligations qui existent entre les parties, sera nécessaire pour déterminer laquelle de la loi provinciale ou fédérale s'appliquera, et dans quelle mesure. Une fois accordée, la BA est gouvernée par la Loi sur les lettres de change. Toutes solutions apportées à un problème qui implique des BA, doivent, en principe, respecter la nature inhérente de la BA en tant qu'effet de commerce...

Directors' liability from the perspective of private international law

Zhang, Huang
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
La responsabilidad de los administradores es una buena herramienta que nos permite revelar las diversas teorías y ideologías en materia de gobierno corporativo. Se trata de un tema societario muy importante en el ámbito jurídico internacional. Esta tesis aborda el problema de la aplicación de las normas del Derecho internacional privado a la responsabilidad de los administradores. La primera parte de la tesis realiza un análisis profundo del ordenamiento sustantivo de Francia, Reino Unido, Alemania, España y China, partiendo de una perspectiva comparada. A través de una comparación entre los diferentes sistemas jurídicos se obtiene un panorama general de los ordenamientos sustantivos sobre la responsabilidad de administradores. También se estudian las medidas que se adoptan en los países al establecer sus propios sistemas con el objetivo de tener un buen gobierno corporativo. La segunda parte de la tesis se ocupa de los problemas de competencia judicial internacional en la materia de la responsabilidad de los administradores. Por un lado, se tienen en cuenta aspectos tales como el domicilio del demandado, competencia exclusiva, sumisión de las partes, y obligaciones contractuales y extra-contractuales. El examen se centra en la aplicabilidad del Reglamento Bruselas I en este sector. Por otro lado...

L’aplicabilitat dels convenis col·lectius en contractes laborals internacionals

Olives Lopez de Pablo, Anna
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Treball de recerca; info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 CAT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Actualment ens trobem en una societat en constant canvi, a on no és gens estrany que els treballadors hagin de creuar fronteres amb d’altres països per tal de desenvolupar una determinada activitat laboral. Aquests canvis del lloc de treball, acostumen a prendre forma de desplaçaments temporals quan hi ha voluntat de retorn al país d’origen o de trasllats, quan l’objectiu és introduir al treballador al mercat laboral de destí. L’objectiu principal del treball és esbrinar quin paper juguen en l’àmbit internacional els Convenis Col·lectius, tant en desplaçaments temporals com trasllats, i si el possible paper que hi juguen és conseqüència de la llei aplicable al contracte de treball, o bé pertany a l’autonomia de la voluntat de les parts.; Nowadays we are in a constant changing society where it is not strange that workers have to move from one country to another to develop their labor activity. These place changes take the form of a posting of workers when there is the will to come back to the origin country or to be movements when the objective is to introduce the worker in the destiny’s labor market. The main purpose of the project is to find out which role do Collective Agreements play in the international environment...

Principle of Autonomy of Will on the International Contracts – LICC X Inter-American Convention on the law Applicable to International Contracts (CIDIP V); O Princípio da Autonomia da Vontade nos Contratos Internacionais – LICC X Convenção do México de 1994 (CIDIP V)

Arriola Sperandio, Helena; UFPR
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/07/2006 POR
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36.34%
With the usual International Commerce practice, and the use of international contracts, the appliance of the principle of autonomy of will is needed when it comes to the choice of the law applicable to international contracts. The private international law rules on the Brazilian Law System (LICC) does not accept this principle. Although, the principle has already been Incorporated by the law of 1917, not in an expressively form, but it was a partie faculty the applicable law in the contracts. The discussion of the application of this principle is centralized in the public order, not being able to be violated under penalty of invalidity of the principle in the Brazilian Law System. In the same way, good will is the limit of the principle of autonomy of will. Brazilian Law, which is, the Arbitration´s Law, keep on your normative body the principle of autonomy of will, because allows the law´s choice by the parties. The principle of autonomy of will can appear in the Brazilian Law System since the Inter-American Convention on the Law applicable to International Contracts (CIDIP V) - witch happened in Mexico, in 1994 - being approved by the Congress. On these terms, the LICC would sufer changes, for the principle would have been incorporated in by the Brazilian Normative text.; Com a freqüente prática do Comércio Internacional...

The new substantive test in the EC Merger Regulation - bridging the gap between economics and law?

Monti, Giorgio
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2008 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
The 2004 EC Merger Regulation (ECMR) adopted the substantial impediment of effective competition test, and abandoned the earlier standard that required proof of dominance as a necessary element to intervene in a merger. It is said that this reform was necessary because the dominance test failed to catch unilateral effects absent dominance, so there was a 'gap' in the ECMR. This paper argues that the decision to amend the ECMR was unnecessary. From an economic perspective because the dominance standard was sufficiently flexible to address all anticompetitive mergers. Economists' concerns about merger control (in both the US and EC) was that authorities focused on a structural assessment premised upon market definition and market concentration and failed to give sufficient attention to other means to test for anticompetitive effects in a more direct manner. Economists' support for the new test is that it would place a focus on these other methods for identifying anticompetitive effects. From a legal perspective, it seems that the major motivation for reform was to divorce merger control from the abuse of dominance doctrine in Article 82, so that the two legal provisions would develop independently, the latter only applicable to manifestations of significant market power. Accordingly the view that there was a 'gap' in the dominance test is inaccurate...

When sexual infidelity triggers murder: examining the impact of homicide law reform on judicial attitudes in sentencing

Horder, Jeremy; Fitz-Gibbon, Kate
Fonte: Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge Publicador: Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
In October 2010, the UK Parliament brought into effect law that replaced the partial defence to murder of provocation with a new partial defence of “loss of control”, applicable to England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Although it retained some key features of its controversial predecessor, the new partial defence was in part designed better to address the gendered contexts within which a large number of homicides are committed. In examining the impact of the reforms, we will focus on long-held concerns about the treatment of sexual infidelity as a trigger for loss of control in murder cases. The article undertakes an analysis of English case law to evaluate the way in which sexual infidelity-related evidence has influenced perceptions of a homicide defendant's culpability, for the purposes of sentencing, both before and after the implementation of reform. The analysis reveals that, in sentencing offenders post reform, the higher courts have failed to follow the spirit of the reforms respecting the substantive law by effecting a corresponding change in sentencing practice.