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An analysis of Department of Energy residential appliance efficiency standards

Hartman, Raymond Steve
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1813160 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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45.98%

Mainstreaming Building Energy Efficiency Codes in Developing Countries : Global Experiences and Lessons from Early Adopters

Liu, Feng; Meyer, Anke S.; Hogan, John F.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
This report summarizes the findings of an extensive literature survey of the experiences of implementing BEECs in developed countries. It also includes case studies of four developing countries- China, Egypt, India, and Mexico and the state of California in the United States of America. It aims to inform both the World Bank Group and its client countries about global best practices and emerging lessons from developing countries in the design and implementation of BEECs. The report also serves as a primer on the basic features of BEECs and the commonly adopted compliance and enforcement approaches. The key challenges to improving compliance enforcement in developing countries include the level of government commitment to energy efficiency, the effectiveness of government oversight of the construction sector, the compliance capacity of domestic/local building supply chain, and the financing constraints. These challenges are surmountable in countries where economic growth is sustained and energy efficiency is pursued as a key element of national energy strategy.

Primer on Demand-Side Management : With an Emphasis on Price-Responsive Programs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.23%
The practice of Demand-Side Management (DSM) has evolved over the past three decades in response to lessons learned from implementation in different global settings, and also in response to the changing needs of restructured power markets. The most notable change that is occurring today is the inclusion of programs that emphasize price responsiveness in the DSM portfolio. Traditionally, DSM programs were confined to energy efficiency and conservation programs with reliability-driven load management programs being used occasionally to manage emergency situations. Electric prices were taken as a given when designing such programs, hampering the eventual success of all such efforts. This Primer has been written to introduce the new concepts of price-responsive DSM that are currently being investigated in a variety of different market settings. It highlights different criteria and taxonomies for classification and evaluation of DSM programs and recommends programs that will likely provide a better fit with the objectives, expected needs and outcomes of DSM initiatives in developing and transition countries. As defined in this primer, such initiatives include both load shifting programs (that either clip peak loads or shift energy used in the peak period to off-peak periods) and efficiency programs (that reduce the total amount of energy). The purpose of the primer is to provide successful examples of price-responsive DSM programs from the developed world and by discussing their workings...

Assessing the Investment Climate for Climate Investments : A Comparative Framework for Clean Energy Investments in South Asia in a Global Context

Mani, Muthukumara S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.15%
One of the strong messages that came out of the recent United Nations Climate Change conference in Durban was that the private sector has to play an important role if we are to globally move toward a low carbon, climate resilient -- or "climate compatible" -- future. However, private investment will only flow at the scale and pace necessary if it is supported by clear, credible, and long-term policy frameworks that shift the risk-reward balance in favor of less carbon-intensive investment. The private sector also needs information on where to invest in clean energy in emerging markets, and it needs policy support to lower investment risk. Barriers to low carbon investments often include unclear and inconsistent energy policies, monopoly structures for existing producers, stronger incentives for conventional energy than clean energy, and a domestic financial sector not experienced in new technologies. With the long-term goal of promoting and accelerating the implementation of climate mitigation technologies...

Energy Efficiency for Sustainable Development : Scale Up Strategy and Action Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.21%
This study describes the Energy Efficiency for Sustainable Development (EEfSD) action plan, to scale up energy efficiency operations in client countries. The EEfSD strategy comprises of interventions at three levels: policy and regulatory, sector and sub-sector, and at end-use equipment and appliances. It is structured along four tracks: integrating energy efficiency within economic and sector work; mainstreaming energy efficiency in investment operations; improving internal operational, learning and analytic capacity; and monitoring, evaluation, and outreach. Priority focus is on countries with highest energy intensities, where rapid growth of the energy sector is expected and where total energy use is greatest. Implementation of the action plan will be guided by the Energy, Transport and Water Department, and will require cooperation and collaboration across the Bank Group, in particular the regional operations units. This paper presents the estimated incremental costs for FY07-09 which have been committed from energy trust funds and Bank budget.

Scaling Up Demand-Side Energy Efficiency Improvements through Programmatic CDM

Figueres, Christiana; Philips, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.08%
Improving energy efficiency (EE) is one of the most promising approaches for achieving cost-effective global greenhouse gases (GHG) reductions. However, it is severely underrepresented in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) portfolio. Just 10 percent of the emission reduction credits traded in the carbon market is from EE projects. In particular, small, dispersed, end-use EE measures-which entail significant GHG mitigation potential, along with other clear, local, and direct sustainable development benefits-have been largely bypassed by the carbon market. The modalities of traditional CDM have been set for individual, stand-alone, emission reduction projects that are implemented at a single point in time. While CDM rules allow "bundling" of several of these projects together for registration purposes, the specific sites where they will occur must be known ex-ante and they must all occur at the same point in time. These conditions generally cannot be met by most dispersed demand-side EE programs, whose emission reductions occur over a period of time and in numerous locations (households/industries/cities). In addition...

Institutional Review of Energy Efficiency in Turkey

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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36.2%
Energy efficiency (EE) is critical to help Turkey continue its trajectory of economic growth in a sustainable manner. The Government of Turkey recognizes this and has placed EE as a key component of its energy strategy and National Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan. Over the past 5-10 years, it has made considerable advances in establishing a strong policy and legal framework, creating a robust institutional set-up and developing programs to support EE implementation. Institutionally, the General Directorate of Electric Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EIE) had been mandated with EE policy making, implementation and promotion since 1981, and an Energy Efficiency Coordination Board (EECB) was established under the 2007 EE Law to coordinate various EE policies, programs and other efforts. In November 2011, EIE was converted into the General Directorate for Renewable Energy (GDRE) and absorbed within the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR). The World Bank conducted an EE institutional review in consultation with the Turkish Government with the objective to enhance their ability to more effectively manage EE policies and programs and thus contribute to helping meet its stated national EE targets. The review consisted of a detailed assessment of the current institutional set-up...

India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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26.16%
There has been a clear need for energy-efficient (EE) technologies that can be applicable in the municipal street lighting sector. The objective of this manual is to support the preparation and implementation of street lighting projects in India, using performance contracting and other public private partnership-based delivery approaches. This manual draws upon global best practices, including practices that have been tried and presented within India and South Asia; and draws from their failures and successes to document the major lessons learned. The manual provides a brief overall background of EE in India, the kind of barriers faced in the implementation of EE projects, and the kind of prevalent policy environment for EE in the country. The manual is divided into eight sections. Section one provides an overview of EE street lighting, its components, Indian standards for outdoor lighting, the key lamp technologies, and the potential for intelligent street lighting systems. Section two highlights the financial models for implementation of street lighting projects. Section three describes the essentials of undertaking a detailed energy audit to develop robust baselines. Section four focuses on procurement and contracting. Section five describes methodologies for developing monitoring and verification (M and V) protocols for EE Street lighting projects. Section six brings together the useful tools and matrices in implementation of street lighting projects. Section seven lists the key stakeholders involved in India in such projects and their potential role. Section eight provides details on international and Indian case studies on implementing EE in street lighting and key lessons from these case examples.

An analysis of the economic effects of U.S. energy efficiency standards.

Snellings, Patrick W.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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The purpose of this study is to analyze the economic effects of federally mandated energy efficiency standards on the market for appliances. The analytical focal point of this thesis centers on representative studies and Congressional testimony supplemented by current articles and data. The benefits and costs of energy efficiency standard implementation are examined. Economic assumptions and key determinant factors that drive results such as discount rate selection, provide the basis for objective comparison. The findings of this study support the need for Federal intervention in the home appliance market to alleviate economic market failures

Energy Efficiency : Lessons Learned from Success Stories

Stuggins, Gary; Sharabaroff, Alexander; Semikolenova, Yadviga
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.26%
This study is designed to analyze the energy efficiency policies in seven countries that were successful in achieving low energy intensities or in reducing their energy intensity considerably. The study analyzes the evolution of the energy intensity of these countries from 1990 to 2007, identifying points of inflection in the progress towards improvements. Changes to the policy agenda immediately upstream are explored in an effort to identify cause and affect relationships in energy efficiency improvements. Although direct relationships are difficult to isolate, cross country analyses that point to similar successes among a variety of countries give some confidence that these policies have contributed to reducing energy needs. The energy efficiency of new buildings is relatively easily and in expensively addressed by setting standards: making a new building energy efficient typically adds only 5 percent to the total cost. The purpose of this study is to determine what policy changes make a difference in countries' energy in tensity. The starting point for the analysis was the evolution of countries' energy intensity over time to identify inflection points when notable changes took place. Given that the inflection point could have been caused by external price shocks or structural changes...

Winds of Change : East Asia's Sustainable Energy Future

Wang, Xiaodong; Berrah, Noureddine; Mathur, Subodh; Vinuya, Ferdinand
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This report demonstrates that a "climate-smart" energy strategy is possible for countries in the East Asia region, with support from the international community. In the past three decades, the East Asia region has experienced the fastest economic growth in the world, accompanied by rapid urbanization. As a consequence, energy consumption has more than tripled and is expected to further double over the next two decades. This remarkable growth and rapid urbanization have led to twin energy challenges in the region: improving environmental sustainability and enhancing energy security. The region has many of the world's most polluted cities, resulting from fossil fuel combustion. The region also contains some of the largest greenhouse gas emitters in the world, although their per capita and historical emissions are much below the levels of industrialized countries. Concerns with energy security have grown because of increased risks of price volatility and possible disruptions in supplies for oil and gas. To move the region to a sustainable energy path...

Climate Change and the World Bank Group : Phase II - The Challenge of Low-Carbon Development

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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26.08%
The first volume of Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) series (IEG 2009) examined World Bank experience with the promotion of the most important win-win (no regrets) energy policies, policies that combine domestic gains with global greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. These included energy pricing reform and policies to promote energy efficiency. This second phase covers the entire World Bank Group (WBG), including the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). It assesses of interventions, from technical assistance to financing to regulatory reform. This project-eye view of activities pertains to all the action areas of the Strategic Framework on Development and Climate Change (SFDCC). The third phase will look at the challenge of adaptation to climate change. The WBG's resources, human and financial, are small compared to the task at hand. The International Energy Agency estimates that developing and transition countries need $16 trillion of energy sector investments over 2008-30 under 'business as usual' operations...

Tajikistan's Winter Energy Crisis : Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives

Fields, Daryl; Kochnakyan, Artur; Mukhamedova, Takhmina; Stuggins, Gary; Besant-Jones, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.22%
Tajikistan's electricity system is in a state of crisis. Approximately 70 percent of the Tajik people suffer from extensive shortages of electricity during the winter. These shortages, estimated at about 2,700 GWh, about a quarter of winter electricity demand, impose economic losses estimated at over United States (US) 200 million dollars per annum or 3 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The electricity shortages have not been addressed because investments have not been made in new electricity supply capacity and maintenance of existing assets has not improved. The financial incentive for electricity consumers to reduce their consumption is inadequate as electricity prices are among the lowest in the world. Without prompt action to remedy the causes of Tajikistan's electricity crisis and with growing demand, the shortages could increase to about 4,500 GWh by 2016 (over a third of winter electricity demand) or worse. The World Bank undertook this study to assist the Government of Tajikistan (GoT) in finding ways to overcome the current electricity shortages and establish a sound basis for meeting the growing electricity demand in Tajikistan. The study focuses on the investments and policy reforms needed between now and 2020 to strengthen the financial...

Tajikistan’s Winter Energy Crisis : Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives

Fields, Daryl; Kochnakyan, Artur; Stuggins, Gary; Besant-Jones, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
EN_US
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26.22%
Reliable power supply is critical for Tajikistan's economy and poverty reduction goals. Without reliable, affordable electricity throughout the year, Tajikistan's businesses cannot invest, operate and create jobs; hospitals and schools cannot function fully or safely with frequent power cuts during winter; citizens suffer indoor air pollution from burning wood for heating and cooking. Electricity also powers the country's two largest exports: aluminum and agricultural produce, which account for about 30 percent of Tajikistan's annual gross domestic product and almost 45 percent of export earnings. Currently, electricity is the cheapest available resource to heat homes so the residential and commercial sectors are highly dependent on electricity for heat as well as lighting and industrial processes. The Government is responsible for guiding programs that keep power supply apace with demand. The purpose of this study is to assist the Government in further defining ways to meet growing demand for electricity in Tajikistan, with a particular focus on the recurring winter shortages which amount to about 24 percent of winter demand. The study also examines the potential benefits of power exports, particularly during summers when hydropower plants spill energy. The study explores a range of alternatives to meet electricity demand as quickly as possible and develop a short term plan of action to alleviate the social and economic costs of winter shortages. The study focuses on multiple initiatives that can be started immediately and simultaneously...

Tapping a Hidden Resource : Energy Efficiency in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
EN_US
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46.21%
Energy efficiency can improve fiscal balances, stimulate growth and competitiveness, strengthen energy security, and reduce the energy burden of the poor. It also can enhance the quality of life by improving energy products and services, reducing pollution, and reallocating savings from energy to social services and other welfare enhancements. From a long-term perspective, energy efficiency preserves energy resources for future generations and mitigates climate change. Most governments in the region consider energy efficiency as a priority issue, although for different reasons. The key issue for many is the weight of energy subsidies in fiscal balances; for others, it is the vulnerability of the economy to swings in hydrocarbon prices and the risk of losing competitiveness; and for still others, it is concern about generating enough financing for energy investments and satisfying the energy demand of their fast-growing economies. These factors have prompted governments to renew their efforts to improve energy efficiency. This report explores opportunities to boost energy efficiency in the Middle East and North Africa and secure a sustainable energy future for the region. It explores governments' growing concern about the burden of energy subsidies and identifies opportunities to improve efficiency...

Climate Change and the World Bank Group : Phase One - An Evaluation of World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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26.09%
This evaluation is the first of a series that seeks lessons from the World Bank Group's experience on how to carve out a sustainable growth path. The World Bank Group has never had an explicit corporate strategy on climate change against which evaluative assessments could be made. However, a premise of this evaluation series is that many of the climate-oriented policies and investments under discussion have close analogues in the past, and thus can be assessed, whether or not they were explicitly oriented to climate change mitigation. Two sets of win-win policies are perennial topics of discussion in the energy sector: reduction in subsidies and energy-efficiency policies, particularly those relating to end- user efficiency. This report looks at these, and at another apparently win-win topic: gas flaring. Flaring is interesting because of its magnitude, the links to pricing policy and to carbon finance, and the existence of the World Bank-led initiative to reduce flaring.

Public Procurement of Energy Efficient Products Lessons from Around the World

Singh, Jas; Culver, Alicia; Bitlis, Melis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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26.07%
This report assesses global experiences with Energy Efficient Purchasing (EEP) as a tool to help governments improve the efficiency of their facilities and public services. In many developed countries, EEP is increasingly becoming subsumed within broader Green Public Procurement (GPP) or sustainable procurement policies, where EE is only one indicator among many others. Global energy needs are increasing at a steady pace. Rapid industrial development and growing populations have led to an exponential growth in worldwide energy consumption. According to the international energy agency, demand for energy is projected to grow steadily from 2010 to 2035, representing a 40 percent increase. About 90 percent of this increase will come from developing countries. As these countries continue to urbanize, develop their industrial infrastructure, and provide universal access to basic services, strains on the existing energy infrastructure and resources will intensify. This, coupled with a substantial rise in the middle class in many of the emerging economies...

Financing Energy Efficiency Measures for Residential Building Stock : Scaling Up Energy Efficiency in Buildings in the Western Balkans

Kalkum, Bernd
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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26.07%
Within the Western Balkans region, a secure energy supply is critical to sustaining economic growth. Currently, the region relies heavily on imported hydrocarbons and maintains high energy intensity relative to Gross Domestic Product, or GDP. This places a huge burden on companies, which require affordable and reliable infrastructure services to be competitive; the public sector, which spends significant budgetary resources on energy; and households, which have to pay a high portion of their income for energy services. As energy pricing is further rationalized, a higher burden will be placed on all sectors, especially poorer households. The residential sector is a significant energy consumer. Its share of total final energy consumption ranges from 28 percent to 32 percent (compared with the EU average of 27 percent). Fairly simple renovations such as insulation, heating system upgrades, and improvements to windows and lighting could reduce consumption in this sector by some 9 percent, with payback periods generally less than 8 years. Such improvements could help ease the impact of future tariff increases while helping reduce the region's projected energy supply and demand gap.

The Impact of Appliance Efficiency on Building Energy Performance -A Case Study for a Tianjin Eco-city in China

Fan, Hua
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 576675 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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Buildings consume approximately 40% of the total energy use in the world. A building is a complex system whose annual energy use consists of many factors. The top five end-uses of building energy are space heating, space cooling, water heating, lighting and electrical appliances. Over fifty countries have developed efficiency standards and energy labels for residential appliances and commercial equipment to reduce energy consumption of those end-users. However, studies rarely consider the appliance efficiency in a whole building system. For this project, I used a computer-based simulation program to evaluate the impact of appliance efficiency in buildings on the heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVAC). I studied the Chinese energy efficiency standards for refrigerators, washing machines, televisions, computers and rice cookers, and evaluated their impacts on two residential building prototypes being designed in an eco-city being planned and under construction in China. I found that improved efficiency of refrigerators and washing machines decreased peak load and the energy use for space cooling, but increased the energy use for space heating. The improved efficiency cut overall energy consumption and could lead to total annual energy savings of $1.2 million in Tianjin eco-city. Although several limitations exist in this project...

Measuring the Impacts of Australia’s Standards & Labeling Program from 1993-2009

Lowenthal-Savy, Danielle
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 26/04/2013 EN_US
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46.55%
As a part of larger efforts to address climate change and curb greenhouse gas emissions, Australia first put categorical energy efficiency labels on residential appliances in the mid-1980s. The first Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for refrigerators were later implemented in 1999 and updated in 2005 to align with U.S. levels in 2001, considered to be the world’s strictest domestic appliance standards at the time. Considered together, these actions set Australia apart as having one of the most aggressive appliance efficiency programs in the world. For these reasons, Australia is a potentially fruitful case study for understanding the dynamics of energy efficiency standards and labeling program impacts on appliance markets. Fortunately, in the Australian case, market data allows for empirical determination of these questions. This paper analyzes Australian refrigerator efficiency data covering the years 1993-2009. Sales data was obtained from GfK Group and includes data in each year for each product class and each efficiency rating category. Statistical regression analysis is used to model market introduction and adoption of high-efficiency refrigerators according to the logistic adoption model formalism, and parameterizes the way in which the Australian program accelerated the adoption of high-efficiency products and phased out others. The results indicate that the introduction of MEPS accelerated the penetration of high-efficiency appliances onto the market. The MEPS revision in 2005...